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Family Clusiaceae
Palo maria
Calophyllum inophyllum

SWEET-SCENTED CALOPHYLLUM
Hong hou ke

Scientific names  Common names 
Balsamaria inophyllum Lour. Batarau (Neg.)
Calophyllum apetalum Blanco [Illegitimate] Bitaog (Ilk., Sbl., Pamp., Tag.) 
Calophyllum bingator Roxb. Bitok (Tag.) 
Calophyllum blumei Wight Bitaoi (Pang.) 
Calophyllum inophyllum L. Bitong (Tag.) 
Calophyllum ovatifolium Noronha [Invalid] Butalau (Tag., S.L. Bis., C. Bis., Mbo.) 
Calophyllum spurium Choisy Dagkalan (Tag.) 
Calophyllum wakamatsui Kaneh Dagkaan (Bag.) 
  Dangkalan (Tag., Bik., P. Bis., Mag.) 
  Dingkalan (Bik., Tag.) 
  Langkagan (Mag.) 
  Palo maria  (Tag., Sul., Span.) 
  Pamitaogen (Ilk.) 
  Vutalau (Iv.) 
  Alexandrian laurel (Engl.)  
  Beauty leaf (Engl.)
  Ball Nut Tree (Engl.)
  Indian laurel (Engl.)
  Laurelwood (Engl.)
  Poon (Engl.)
  Sweet-scented calophyllum (Engl.)
Calophyllum inophyllum L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Kath champa, Punnang, Sultana champa.
BURMESE: Ph'ông, Ponnyet.
CHINESE: Hong hou ke, Hai tang mu, Hang tai guo, Jun zi shu, Ya la pu, Hu tong, Qiong ya hai tang shu.
FIJAN: Dilo.
FRENCH: Arbre sacré des Polynésiens, Calophylle, Foraha, Huile de tamanu, Kamani (Tahiti), Laurier d'Alexandria, Tamanu (Tahiti).
GERMAN: Alexandrinischer Lorbeer, Tacama Hacharz.
HAWAIIAN: Kamanu.
HINDI: Sultanachampa, Sultan champa, Surpan, Surpunka, Undi.
INDIA: Polanga.
INDONESIAN: Nyamplung.
ITALIAN: Albero di Pannay.
KANNADA: Sura honne.
KONKANI: Undi, Unga.
LAOTIAN: Ka ting.
MALAY: Bentagor bunga, Bintangor, Pegana laut, Penaga pudek .
MALAYALAM: Punna.
MARATHI: Undi, Unda, Surangi punnag.
SAMOAN: Fetau.
SANSKRIT: Nagachampa, Punnaga, Punnage.
SINHALESE: Domba, Pûna.
SPANISH: Palo de Santa María, Palo María, Palo maria de la playa.
SWAHILI: Mtomondo, Mtondoo.
TAMIL: Pinnay, Punnagam, Punnai.
TELUGU: Punnagamu, Nameruvu, Ponna.
THAI: Ka ka thing, Ka kra thueng, Kra thing, Kra thueng, Nao wakan, Saraphi naen, Saraphi thale, Thing.
URDU: Surpun.

Botany
Palo-maria is a medium-sized or large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9 to 18 centimeters long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 to 2.5 centimeters diameter, borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 centimeters long. Fruit is round, yellow, smooth, pulpy, 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
-Throughout the Philippines, along the seashore, where it forms a characteristic strand.
- Cultivated for in Manila and large towns use as shade tree on lawns, avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.
- Also found in India to tropical East Africa and through Malaya to Polynesia.


Constituents
- Plant yields coumarins, xanthones, triterpenes, and steroids. Methanol extract of leaves yield flavanoidal glycosides and steroidal glycosides.
(13)
- Kernels reported to contain 70-75% bitaog oil.
- Oil is reported to contain a poisonous resin to which its color and odor are due.
- Bark yields 11.9 % tannin; exudes oleoresin when cut.
- Resin reported to contain benzoic acids.
- Seeds contain coumarins: calanolide A and B.
- Various heartwood extracts yielded constituents:
abietadiene, β- funebrene, coniferyl alcohol, agarospirol,
presilphiperfolan-8-ol, incensole acetate, hexenyl cinnamate, hydroxy citronellol, indipone, larixol, tetradectene, stilbene, isobornyl isobutanoate, occidenol, thujaplicinol, carvacrol, methyl ether, thymol,
rosifoliol, isoprenyl cinnamate-(E)-methyl, methyl p-tert butylphenyl acetate, hexadecanoic acid, thujic acid, allo-hedycaryol, isovalencenol<(E). (see study below) (18)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded nine different compounds: linoleic acid (32.25%), methyl oleate (32.25%), phytol (17.82%), methylisostearate (11.96%), diphenylmethane (8%), 2-phenazinamine (8%), adenanthin (1.47%), carbazole (1.45%), 5-aminomethyl- dibenzosuberane (0.28%). (20)
- Phytochemical analysis of various leaf extracts (methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform) yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenols, and tannins. (21)
- GC-MS analysis of ethanolic leaf extract yielded 11 bioacitve compounds: (1) caryophyllene,
(2) Z,Z,Z-1,4,6,9-nonadecatetraene, (3) 1,4-Methanoazalen-3-ol, decahydro-1, 5,5,8a-tetramethyl (15-(1a,3a,3aa,4a,8aa), (4) Z,E-2-Methyl-3, 13,Octadecadein-1-ol, (5) E,E,Z-1,3,12-Nonadecatriene-5,14-diol, (6) Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, (7) Phytol, (8) Dasycarpidan-1-methanol,acetate(ester), (9) Benzo(b,t)-1,2,4- triazolo(4,3,-d)=1,4-Oxazepine-6, 7-dicarbonitrile, 3-phenyl, (10) 2H-Benzo(cd)pyrene-2,6(1,H)-dione, 3,5,7,10-tetrahydroxy-1, and (11) n-Heptane, 1,1-bi(4,4-dimethylhexan-2,6-dione-1-yl). (see study below) (25)

Properties
- Considered anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-platelet aggregation, diuretic.
- Oil is considered vulnerary, cicatrizing, rubefacient and irritant.
- Resin considered sudorific.
- Fruit infusion is considered pectoral.
- Bark is considered astringent, emetic, purgative, demulcent.
- Milky juice is irritant and blinding to the eye.


Parts used
Kernels, bark, resin, oil, leaves.

Uses
Edibility
- Pulp of immature fruit reportedly edible; caution is advised because of toxic compounds that might be present in mature fruits. (17)
- Seed oil edible after being refined.
(17)
Folkloric
- For gas pains, indigestion, and colic, kernels are crushed and applied to abdomen.
- Infusion or decoction of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
- Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant.
- Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments.
- Gum resin from the bark applied to wounds and old sores.
- Gum is emetic and purgative.
- Oil used as external application for indigestion and colic.
- Oil used as topical application for healing burns and skin diseases.
(12)
- Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
- In Indo-China, pounded bark applied to orchitis.
- Infusion of leaves taken for heatstroke.
- Oil used externally as an anti-inflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
- Crushed kernels on affected joints in rheumatism.
- In Hawaii, bark resin used for ulcers.
- In the Netherland Indies, decoction of bark taken internally after childbirth.
- In Java, used for its diuretic properties.
- In Fiji, leaves used as lotion for sore eyes.
- In Indo-China, pounded bark used used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds.
- Astringent juice from the bark used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.
- In Samoa, leaves used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
- In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
- Tamanu oil used externally for acne, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis.
- Infusion of leaves in water yield a bluish color; applied to inflamed eyes.
- In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea.
- In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. source.
- In India, oil from seed applied to scabies and eczema. (26)
- In Fiji, tamanu oil used for relieving sciatica pain, shingles, neuralgia, rheumatism and leprous neuritis.
(11)
- In Cambodia, leaves used as inhalation for migraine and vertigo. Oil used for scabies.
(12)
Others
- Flowers: In the Philippines, fragrant flowers used for bouquets and wreaths. Also, used to decorate Filipino women's hair.
- The thin, rounded seed shells used as containers for "buri" sugar which are sold as confection.
- Illuminant: Oil used as illuminant; for making soap.
- Used as varnish. Also, used to finish wooden bowls.
- Wood: Used for making food platters and various handicrafts. Tree used for boat building. Bark used for making shingles. In Hawaii, traditionally used as food vessels; in Palau, for storyboards. (12)
- Tannery: Bark may be suitable for direct use in tannery.
- Cosmetics: Oil used in many cosmetic products. Oil also ideal for use in lotions, creams, and ointments.
(12)
- Fuel: Considered a biodiesel potential. (see study below)
(14)
- Arrow poison: In Samoa, the plant is used for production of arrow poison.

- Tamanu oil: Nut considered an oddity. When fruits are collected and cracked open, the blond kernel inside yields no apparent oil. However, after a month of rack drying, it turns into a deep, chocolate brown, with a sticky, rich, pleasant smelling oil, easily expressed into the dark green and luxurious tamanu oil. (11)
- Insect repellent: The mature fruit burned as mosquito repellent. (12)
- Agroforestry: Used as hedge plant or as wind breaker; sometimes used in reforestration schemes.   (17)

Studies
Anti-tumor / Chemopreventive:
Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum: A screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from C inophyllum showed some of them might have a potential for cancer chemoprevention. (1)
Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum: Study yielded a new prenylated xanthone, caloxanthone N, with two other known constituents. Study showed compounds with cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.
(2)
Inophylline A / Larvicidal: Study of roots yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A, with triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol and suggests a potential for a natural larvicide.
(4)
Antitumor: Study of ten 4-phenylcoumarins of Calophyllum inophyllum showed some of them with a potential as cancer chemoprotective agents.
(5)
Xanthones: Study of the leaves of C inophyllum isolated a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A and four known compounds: pancixanthone A, gerontoxanthone b, jacareubin and pyranojacareubin.
(6)
Flavonoids: Study of stems and leaves yielded nine compounds: 2-hydroxyxanthone, 4-hydroxyxanthone , 1, 5-dihydroxyxanthone, 1, 7-dihydroxyxanthone, 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 6-deoxyjacareubin, amentoflavone, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside.
(7)
Antimicrobial: Study of the antimicrobial activity of C. inophyllum the extracts showed both ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts were more active against both gram positive and negative bacterial and fungal organisms. Results suggest the extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties.
(8)
Biodiesel Potential: Study evaluated crude C. inophyllum oil and methyl ester for fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance and emissions. Overall, CI appears to be an acceptable feedstock for future biodiesel production.
(14)
• Wound Healing / Antibacterial / Oil from Seeds: Study evaluated seed oil from five sources for antibacterial, cytotoxic, and wound healing properties. All tested oils accelerated in vitro wound closure. The CIO also exhibited antibacterial effects by inhibition of mitotic growth in Gram-positive bacteria and increased release of ß-defensin 2 peptide by macrophages in Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of CI oil needed for therapeutic effects are lower than concentrations exhibiting cytotoxic effects in vitro. (16)
• Wound Healing / Bark: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of methanol extract of bark in different wound models. Treatment with 10% topical ointment exhibited significant (p<0.001) wound healing activity in excision and incision would models, whereas 400 mg/kbw extract exhibited significant (p<0.001) activity in dead space wound model. MECI extract stimulated wound contraction, decreased epithelization period, and increased tensile strength and hydroxyproline content. (22)
• Termiticidal: Study evaluated heartwood extractives for antitermitic activity. Strong antitermitic activity was extracted using MeOH followed by EtOH and lastly PETETHR. The antitermitic activity showed differences depending on solvents and level of concentration. The strong antitermitic activity by the MeOH solvent was attributed to the presence of hydroxy citronellol and stilbene which can't be extracted by other solvents. (see constituents above) (18)
• Calophyllide / Osteogenic Activity: Study of ethanol extract of fruit yielded a major compound, calophyllide. Calophyllolide dose-dependently enhanced alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, without significant cytotoxicity. Calophyllolide also increased the expression of osteoblastic genes, ALP, and osteocalcin. Calophyllolide induced osteoblasts differentiation as evidenced by increasing mineralization and ALP staining. (19)
• Anti-Inflammatory Effects on COX-2 and iNOS of RAW 264.7 Cells: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of an acetone extract of C. inophyllum leaves on liposaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results showed the CIL extract markedly suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, as well as expression of iNOS, COX-2 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) in a dose-dependent manner. (
23)
• Antiproliferative Activity / Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7 / Fruit: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of CI fruit extract against human breast cancer cells MCF-7. Results showed inhibition of proliferation by the fruit extract through induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. (24)
• Anticancer / Human Cancer Breast Line / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of CI ethanolic leaf extract against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Results showed concentration dependent cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value of 120 µg/ml. GC-MS analysis yielded 11 different bioactive compounds. (see constituents above) (25)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaves extract of C. inophyllum on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress complications in mice. The leaves extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidant levels. On DPPH assay, there was dose-dependent increase in antioxidant activity. Results showed antidiabetic activity and efficacy in curbing oxidative stress complications. (27)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Tamanu oil in the cybermarket.

Last Updated January 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: / Flowers / File:Starr 010309-0546 Calophyllum inophyllum.jpg / Calophyllum inophyllum (flowers). Location: Maui, Kalepolepo Kihei / Forest & Kim Starr / 9 March 2001 / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go to source page ./ Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Calophyllum inophyllum Blanco2.256.png/ Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Modificantions by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons (2) Public Domain / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 54 / Calophyllum inophyllum (Bitaong or Palo maria de la playa) / The source of bitaog oil / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 54 / Calophyllum inophyllum (Bitaong or Palo maria de la playa) / The source of bitaog oil / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum
Cancer Letters / 2001, vol. 169, pp. 15-19
(2)
Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 10, Issue 10 October 2008 , pages 993 - 997
(3)
Antibacterial principle of the root bark of Calophyllum inophyllum: isolation and antibacterial activity
(4)
Inophyllin A, a new pyranoxanthone from Calophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae) / Nat Prod Res / 2006-May; vol 20 (issue 5) : pp 485-91
(5)
Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum. / Itoigawa M; Ito C; Tan H T et al / Cancer letters 2001;169(1):15-9 /
(6)
Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. / Li Y, Li ZL, Liu MS et al /
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009 Feb;44(2):154-7.
(7)
Studies on flavonoids from stems and leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum / Li YZ, Li ZL, Hua HM, Li ZG, Liu MS / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Apr;32(8):692-4
(8)
Antimicrobial activity of various extracts from various parts of Calophyllum inophyllum L. / Saravanan R, Dhachinamoorthi et al / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (03); 2011: 102-106
(9)
Calophyllum inophyllum L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(10)
Sorting Inophyllum names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(11)
Oil of Tamanu/ Medicine Hunter
(12)
BIOLOGY, AGROFORESTRY AND MEDICINAL VALUE OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. (CLUSIACEA): A REVIEW / K Prabakaran and S John Britto /International Journal of Natural Products Research 2012; 1(2): 24-33

(13)
Phytochemical Investigation of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. / Praveena Ch*, Swaroopa Rani S and Veeresham C / Nat Prod Chem Res 2013, 1:4 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6836.1000119
(14)
Calophyllum inophyllum L. – A prospective non-edible biodieselfeedstock. Study of biodiesel production, properties, fatty acidcomposition, blending and engine performance / A.E. Atabani, Aldara da Silva César / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37 (2014) 644–655
(15)
Calophyllum inophyllum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds
/ Teddy Léguillier, Marylin Lecsö-Bornet, Christelle Lémus, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Nicolas Lebouvier, Edouard Hnawia, Mohammed Nour, William Aalbersberg, Kamelia Ghazi, Phila Raharivelomanana, and Patrice Rat, Christophe Egles / PLoS One. 2015; 10(9): e0138602. / doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0138602
(17)
Calophyllum inophyllum / Useful Tropical Plants
(18)
Chemical compositions and termiticidal activities of the heartwood from Calophyllum inophyllum L. / Roszaini Kadir, Khairul Awang, Zaitihaiza Khamaruddin, Zaini Soit / An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.87 no.2 Rio de Janeiro Apr./June 2015 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201520140041
(19)
Calophyllolide Content in Calophyllum inophyllum at Different Stages of Maturity and Its Osteogenic Activity / Wei-Hsien Liu, Yen-Wenn Liu 2, Zih-Fong Chen, Wen-Fei Chiou, Ying-Chieh Tsai,* and Chien-Chih Chen* / Molecules 2015, 20, 12314-12327 / doi:10.3390/molecules200712314
(20)
Phytochemical Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Calophyllum inophyllum L., Leaf Extract Using GC-MS Analysis. / Saravanan. P*, Jaikumar. K, Sheik Noor Mohamed. M, Anand. D / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2015; 7(5); 956-959
(21)
Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum L. And Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.F. & Thomson / Isaivani Indrakumar, V Selvi, R Gomathi, S Karpagam / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 2 (Sep-Oct. 2012), PP 35-37
(22)
Wound Healing Potential of Methanolic Extract of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Bark / Talha Jawaid*, Mehnaz Kamal, Tabish Mallik / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5 [4] March 2016: 27-32
(23)
Anti-inflammatory effects of Calophyllum inophyllum L. in RAW264.7 cells / Shih-Chang Tsai, Yu-Hsin Liang, Jo-Hua Chiang, Fon-Chang Liu, Wen-Hsin Lin, Shu-Jen Chang, Wei-Yu Lin, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Jing-Ru Weng / Oncology Reports / DOI: 10.3892/or.2012.1873
(24)
Effects of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract on the proliferation and morphological characteristics of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 / Shanmugapriya, Yeng Chen, Jagat Rakesh Kanwar, Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2016; 6(4): 291-297 291 / doi: 10.1016/S2222-1808(15)61033-7
(25)
ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L., ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT IN MCF HUMAN BREAST CELL LINES / Jaikumar, Sheik Noor Mohamed M., Anand D and P. Saravanan * /
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH, IJPSR (2015)
(26)
Folk Knowledge on Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Bhadrak District of Odisha, India / Panda T*, Mishra N, and BK Pradhan / Med Aromat Plants 5:262. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000262
(27)
EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM LEAVES ON OXIDATIVE STRESS COMPLICATIONS IN MOUSE MODEL / VARSHA G, UMA MAHESWARI B, RAMASAMY M, KARUNANITHI M / Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Issue 3, 2016, 250-252

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