The genus Pteris has
about more than 650 species. A compilation lists pakong-parang with
Pteris mutilata. Quisumbing's compilation lists it under Pteris ensiformis,
pteris crenata. Although the botanical description shares significant
similariites, the folkloric uses differ.
Pakong-parang is a small terrestrial fern, with creeping rhizomes,
sparingly clothed with adpressed scales. Stipe (fern "stem") of fertile fronds are 5 to 10 centimeters
long; those of the sterile fronds longer, 10 to 30 centimeters long; pale, glabrous
and fascicled (growing in dense tufts). Fronds are thin and glabrous, 10
to 30 centimeters long, with very few pinnae; sterile fronds are shortest, 5 to 15
centimeters broad, with the lowest or all lateral pinnae pinnate, with few sharply
serrate, oblong lateral pinnules, 7 to 10 millimeters wide; the fertile fronds
with pinnae correspondingly forked instead of pinnate, the segments
longer, linear and 4 to 8 milimeters wide. Sori are on the lower surface of the leaflets, along the margins
in a dense uninterrupted row which does not extend to the apex. Sori
protected by a reflexed membranaceous projection of the margin.
- Common in open woods, at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Also reported in Sri Lanka, India, China, throughout Southeast Asia to Northern Australia and Polynesia.
- Study of ethyl acetate extract isolated three new compounds: 2R,3R-pterosin L 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), β-D- xylopyranosyl(1→2)-7-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 4-O-benzoyl-β-D-xylo- pyranosyl(1→2)-7-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with nine known compounds: 5-[2-hydroxyethylidene]-2(5H)-furanone (4), pterosin B (5), β-D-glucopyranosyl benzoic acid ester (6), benzoic acid (7), 5-O-coumaroylquinic acid (8), coumaric acid (9), cyclolaudenol (10), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (11), and β-D-sitosterol (12). (see study below) (9)
- Study of whole plants yielded two new pterosin sesquiterpenes, (2S)-13-hydroxypterosin A (1) and (2S,3S)-12-hydroxypterosin Q (2), together with six known compounds. (see study below) (13)
- In a study of heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Co in soil (S) and leaves (L) of some ferns, Pteris ensiformis yielded: Pb 20.635 ± 2.42 mg/kg (S) 30.370 ± 9.90 mg/kg (L); Ni 2.464 ± 1.65
mg/kg (S) 8.550 ± 1.86 mg/kg (L); Co 1.135 ± 0.44 mg/kg (S), not detected in leaves. (15)
- Antipyretic, antirheumatic, antidysenteric.
- Studies have shown immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiatherogenesis, cytotoxic, antitubercular properties.
· Young fronds are eaten steamed; used as flavoring.
· In Taiwan, an ingredient in most of the traditional beverage formulas.
· In Pahang, juice of young fronds used as astringent for cleansing unhealthy tongues of children.
· Root juice from the rhizome is applied to glandular swellings of the neck.
· Decoction of fresh fronds drunk by dysenteric patients.
· Used for bacillary dysentery,
enteritis, fever, malaria, swelling and painful throat: 30 to 60 gms
dried material in decoction.
· Used for urinary tract infection, leucorrhea: 30 to 60 gms dried material
· Used as poultice in mumps, measles, and eczema.
· Used to control menstruation in Bougainvelle.
· In New Guinea, fronds applied to
boils, ulcers and arrow wounds; also used to control menstruation.
· A decoction of Eclipta prostrata and Pteris ensiformis used
for hemorrhoidal bleeding, dysentery and enteritis.
· In Vanatu, for dysmenorrhea, a handful of leaf fronds are rubbed over the abdominal area.
Study showed sword brake fern attenuates inflammatory mediator synthesis of activated macrophages partially through a NF-kB-dependent pathway. (1)
• Phenolic Antioxidants:
Study showed SBF exhibited strong antioxidant activity, attributed to the phenolic compounds, especially derivatives of caffeic acid, hispidin and kaempferol. (2)
• Cytotoxicity / Pterosin Sesquiterpenes:
Study yielded 3 new compounds together with nine known compounds. Compound 1 (2R,3R-pterosin L 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and pterosin B (5) showed cytotoxicity against HL 60 cells (human leukemia) with IC50 values of 3.7 and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively. (3) Study yielded a new compound, 4-caffeoyl quinic acid 5-O-methyl ether with 12 known compounds. Three compounds exhibited selective to moderate cytotoxicity.
• Anti-Atherogenesis / Antiinflammatory / Antioxidant: Study
showed the hot water extract of SBF exhibited potential antiinflammatory
activities in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. also, SBF and its active component, a pterisodie, were scavengers of
DPPH, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide. Results also showed LDL oxidation
was suppressed by SBF and suggests further studies to define the exact
role of the natural components on atherogenesis. (7)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Atherosclerosis: Study of sword brake fern aqueous extract isolated 2 new compounds: 7-O-caffeoylhydroxymaltol 3-O-B-D- glucopyranoside and hispidin 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [6-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-2-pyrone] The aqueous extract and two compounds strongly inhibited Cu2+-mediated LDL oxidation. Results showed it may prevent atherosclerosis through inhibition of both LDL oxidation and ROS production. (9)
• New Pterosin Sesquiterpenes / Antitubercular: Study of whole plants yielded two new pterosin sesquiterpenes, (2S)-13-hydroxypterosin A (1) and (2S,3S)-12-hydroxypterosin Q (2), together with six known compounds. Compound 2 exhibited antitubercular activity (MIC 6.25 µg/ml) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv in vitro. (13)
• Element Concentration: In a study on element concentrations of 19 terrestrial fern species, pteris ensiformis showed the highest concentrations of Mg, Na, and Zn. (14)