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Pakiling
Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr.

Scientific names Common names
Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. Isis (Tag.)
Ficus arenata Elmer (Illegitimate) Pakiling (Tag.)

Botany
Pakiling is a small tree reaching a height of nine meters, with young hispidous, greeninsh branchlets. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong or broadly ovtae and rounded, 16 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 centimeters wide, acuminate at the apex, cordately inequilateral, margins toothed, lateral veins 6 to 8 pairs, prominent underneath, base penta- to octa-veined, venation semicraspedodromous. Young branches are greenish, pubescent, petiole 1.0 to 1.2 centimeters long. (4)

Distribution
- Endemic in the Philippines.
- Widely cultivated in Tayabas, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, and Laguna in Luzon.

Constituents
- Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded l -sitosteryl-3ß-glucopyranoside-6'- O-palmitate ( 1), squalene (2), lutein ( 3), α-amyrin acetate ( 4), lupeol acetate ( 5), and ß-carotene ( 6). (See study below) (2)
- Phytochemical screening yielded terpenes, glycosides, and phenolic acids. Crude extract yielded low gallic acide and quercetin equivalence.(3)

Properties
- Dried leaves are fragrant.

Uses

Folkloric
- Used in the treatment of allergy, asthma, diarrhea, diabetes, tumor and cancer. (4)

Studies
Cytotoxicity / Human Stomach Adenocarcinoma Cell Line:
Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded 6 compounds. Compound 1 (l -sitosteryl3ß-glucopyranoside-6'- O-palmitate) showed cytotoxicity against human stomach adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with 60.28% growth inhibition. (See constituents above) (2)
Teratogenicity: Study of investigated leaf extracts of Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. and Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill) for teratogenic/antiteratogenic potential in inbred strain of ICR mice. Results showed a strong potential for F. odorata, with a high frequency of congenital abnormalities in the fetuses of mice treated with crude leaf extracts. Both plants did not show antiteratogenic activity. (3)
Pro-Oxidant Activity: Study evaluated F. odorata for potential medical application for its pro-oxidant activity. Pro-oxidant activity was evident in the crude ethanolic leaf extract. Results suggest F. odorata can be tapped as functional food and nutraceutical and drug development. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

August 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Moraceae : Ficus odorata det. D.N. Tandang & W.F. Vendivil / Leaf / Copyright © 2011 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL37567] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. / The Plant List
(2)
Chemical constituents of Ficus odorata / Tsai, P.-W.; Castro-Cruz, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiou, C.-T.; Ragasa, C. / Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal;Jul2012, Vol. 46 Issue 4, p225
(3)
Teratogenic Activity of Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. and Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill.) Müll. in Mice Embryos
/ Annabelle A. Herrera, Jobylyn B. Ramos, Lerrie Ann DG Ipulan / The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, Vol 93, No 3, 2010.
(4)
Prooxidant Effect of the Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. in vitro: It's Medical Significance / Librado A. Santiago, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology / International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering Vol:8 No:1, 2014

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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