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Family Cyperaceae
Mutha
BOTO-BOTONES
Cyperus rotundus Linn.
NUT GRASS
Xiang tou cao

Scientific names Common names
Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla Balisanga (Ilk.) 
Chlorocyperus salaamensis Palla Barsanga (Ilk.)
Cyperus agrestis Willd. ex Spreng. & Link Boto-botones (Bik.) 
Cyperus arabicus Ehrenb. ex Boeckeler Galonalpas (Pamp.)
Cyperus bicolor Vahl Kusung (Pamp.) 
Cyperus bifax C.B.Clarke Mala-apulid (Pamp.)
Cyperus bulbosostoloniferus Miq. Mota (Pamp.) 
Cyperus comosus Sm. Mutha (Tag.) 
Cyperus disruptus C.B.Clarke Omadiung (Pamp.)
Cyperus elongatus Sieber ex Kunth Onoran (Pamp.) 
Cyperus herbicavus Meliss Sur-sur (Pamp.) 
Cyperus hexastachyos Rottb. Tarugug (Bik.)
Cyperus hildra Poir. Nut grass (Engl.)
Cyperus hydra Michx. Coco grass (Engl.)
Cyperus laevissimus Steud. Nutsedge (Engl.)
Cyperus leptostachyus Griff. Purple nutsedge (Engl.)
Cyperus longus Boeckeler Red nut sedge (Engl.)
Cyperus merkeri C.B.Clarke  
Cyperus micreilema Steud.  
Cyperus nubicus C.B.Clarke  
Cyperus ochreoides Steud.  
Cyperus oliganthus Gand.  
Cyperus olivaris O.Targ.Tozz.  
Cyperus platystachys Cherm.  
Cyperus procerulus Nees  
Cyperus pseudovariegatus Boeckeler  
Cyperus purpureovariegatus Boeckeler  
Cyperus radicosus Sm.  
Cyperus rotundus Linn.  
Cyperus rudioi Boeckeler  
Cyperus taylorii C.B.Clarke  
Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf.  
Cyperus tuberosus Roxb.  
Cyperus weinlandii Kuk.  
Cyperus yoshinagae Ohwi  
Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek  
Schoenus tuberosus Burm.f.  
Boto-botonesan or phonetic variations are shared by three plants of different species: (1) Mutha (Cyperus rotundus) Boto-botones (2) Gatas-gatas (Euphorbia hirta) botobotonis, botbotonis, botonis (3) Botoncillo (Gomphrena globosa) botbotonis, botones-botonesan.
Mutha is a common name shared by both Cyperus rotundus (botobotones) and Kyllinga monocephala (anuang, borobotones). They have similar characteristics, and K. monocephala has been questioned on its use as a substitute. Rhizomes have similar appearances, and as crude drugs are hard to differentiate.
Cyperus rotundus L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Soad, Soadekufi.
BENGALI: Nagarmotha.
BURMESE: Vomonniu.
CHINESE: Suo cao, Hsiang-fu, Xiang tou cao, Xiang fu zi.
FRENCH: Herbe-à-oignon, Souchet à tubercules, Souchet rond.
GERMAN: Rundes Zypergras.
GUJARATI: Nagarmothaya.
HAWAIIAN: Kili'o'opu, Pakopako
HINDI: Nagarmotha.
ITALIAN: Zigolo infestante.
JAPANESE: Hamasuge
MALAY: Mushkezamin.
NEPALESE: Mothe.
PORTUGUESE: Junça, Alho-Bravo, Capim-Alho, Capim-Dandá, Tiririca, Tiririca-Vermelha.
SANSKRIT: Chakranksha, Charukesara.
SPANISH: Castañuela, Coquito, Juncia.
THAI: Ya haeo mu (Central Thailand), Ya khon mu.
URDU: Saad kufi.


Botany
Cyperus rotundus is a slender, erect, glabrous, perennial grasslike plant, 10 to 40 centimeters high. Rhizomes or underground stems are wiry, bearing black, hard, ovoid tubers which are about 1 centimeter in diameter. Ground stems are usually solitary, distinctly 3-angled above. Leaves are 5 to 15 centimeters long, sometimes as long as the stems, about 3 millimeters wide, and narrowly linear. Umbel is simple or compound, 2 to 6 centimeters long, with 2 to 8 unequal primary rays. Spikes are dense or rather lax. Spikelets are 3 to 8, 10 to 25 millimeters long, brown, slender, with 10 to 25 florets in each spikelet, linear, and slightly compressed. Rachilla of the spikelet distinctly winged. Glumes are 2.5 to 3 millimeters long, closely or loosely imbricate. Glumes of the floret distichously arranged, the first 2 empty, the third one bisexual. Fruit is an achene, obovoid or oblong, black or granulate, 3-angled, one-seeded, covered with a scurfy bloom.

Distribution
- Found throughout the Philippines in open areas at low and medium altitudes.
- A common and invasive weed in gardens, lawns and wastelands.
- Pantropic in distribution.

Constituents
• Plant yielded Norcyperone, a novel norsesquiterpene.

• Rhizome yields an essential oil.
• Tubers yield fat, sugar, gum, carbohydrates, albuminous matter, starch, fiber, ash, and traces of alkaloid.
• Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and alkaloids, with an absence of protein and sterols.
• Study of essential oil yielded more than 33 compounds were identified. Principal compounds were cyperene, alpha-cyperone, isolongifolen-5-one, rotundene, and cyperorotundene were the principal compounds comprising 62% of the oil. (see study below) (24)
Study of minor constituents of essential oil yielded three new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (−)-isorotundene, (−)-cypera-2,4(15)-diene, (−)-norrotundene and the ketone (+)-cyperadione. (26)
Ethanol extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, glycosides, and phytosterols. (27)
• Major chemical components are essential oils, flavonoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes. Other constituents are cyprotene, acopaene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, dcadinene, gcallacorene, cadalene, cypertundone, amuurolene, gmuurolene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone, 4,11-selinnadien-3-one, and 1,8-cineole. (26)
• Study of rhizome extracts yielded known compounds i.e., 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (1), methyl ferulate (MF) (2), (E)-ferulaldehyde (3), and N-trans- feruloyltyramine (4). Compound 4 was isolated from C. rotundus rhizomes for the first time. (see study below) (43)
• Study of rhizomes isolated three novel sesquiterpene alkaloids with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, Rotundines A, B, and C. (50)
• An ethanol extract yielded alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates and flavonoids. (see study below) (51)

Properties
• Considered as the world's worst invasive weed through tubers, sometimes dominating natural habitats by its ability to prevent herbivory, kill and suppress other plants in its vicinity. (45)
• Fragrant, slightly bitter tasting rhizome.
• Fragrance resembles lemon and cardamom.
• Considered analgesic, alternative, astringent, antispasmodic, antibacterial, carminative, contraceptive, demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient, febrifuge, immunostimulant, laxative, stimulative, tonic, vermifuge.

Part utilized
· Rhizome.
· Harvest from December to January.
· Wash and sun-dry or heat-dry in a clean frying pan.
· Scrape off the fibrous roots.

Uses
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, used for dysentery.
- For indigestion and constipation, 2 to 6 gms of dried material in a standard cup of water, boil to concentration and drink.
- For skin diseases, wash the diseased portion with a warm decoction.
- For chest pains caused by deterred blood flow of blood and energy circulation: boil to decoction 4 to 9 gms of dried drug preparation together with 4 gms of Citrus (dalanghita, kahel, suha, kalamansi, etc.) and drink.
- Neurogenic gastralgia, abdominal distention, heaviness at the chest, acidic vomiting: 3 to 9 gms dried material in decoction.
- Irregular menstruation, painful menstruation: 3 to 9 gms dried material in decoction.
- Sprains and bruises, furuncle infections: Use pounded fresh material as poultice or cook the pulverized drug material in vinegar and apply as hot poultice.
- In various oriental traditional systems, rhizomes used for stomach and bowel disorders.
- In Ayurveda, used for leprosy, fever, dysentery, itching, and as anthelmintic. Also for memory loss, depression and epilepsy.
- In India, used for wound healing. Roots used medicinally as a diaphoretic, astringent, stimulant, tonic, diuretic and demulcent. Also used as vermifuge and emmenagogue.
- In China, tubers used as tonic, stimulant, and stomachic.
- Fresh tubers applied to breast as paste or warm plaster as a galactagogue.
- Dried tubers used for spreading ulcers.
- In Indo-China, used for women in childbirth and to infants for indigestion.
- In Cambodia, tubers used for liver complaints with icterus, for malaria, and headaches.
- In Java, used for urinary problems.
- In Unani, used for ulcers and sores, fevers, dyspepsia.
- Decoction of rhizome with stem bits of Tinospora cardifolia and dried ginger is used to treat malarial fever. Rhizome juice used to treat constipation. Fresh tubers applied to breast as galactagogue. (3
7)
- In traditional Iranian medicine, used to treat memory and cognition disorders. (
40)
Others
• Crafts: Elsewhere, leaves used in the weaving of baskets and hats.
• Repellent / Scent: In Asia, tubers are used as perfume for clothing and as insect repellent.
• Oil: Essential oil from the tuber used in perfumery, soap making and insect repellent cream.


Studies
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Results showed CR significantly lowered the blood glucose levels and showed antioxidant activity and radical scavenging in vitro. (1)
Cytoprotective: Cytoprotective effects of Study of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rats showed cytoprotective action attributed to inhibition of gastric motility and endogenous prostaglandins.
(2)
Wound healing / Tubers: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of tuber parts for wound healing potential in ointment form in excision, incision, and dead-space wound models on rats. Results showed considerable difference in response in all three models in wound healing parameters i.e., contracting ability, wound closure time and tensile strength, comparable to standard drug nitrofurazone ointment.
(3)
Stress-Reducing Effects: Physiological effects of herbal mixture with Cyperus rotundus L. on blood pressure, norepinephrine, cortisol and psychological variables in healthy medical students under examination: Herbal mixture that included CR seems to help reduce stress-related physiological and psychological symptoms.

Anti-Hypertensive: Aqueous extract of C rotundus showed a hypotensive effect in rats probably acting both centrally and peripherally altering the peripheral resistance and cardiac mechanics. Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and the absence of alkaloids, proteins and sterols.   (4)
Antimicrobial Activity: Study showed antimicrobial activity against K pneumonia, A niger and S aureus.
Mosquito Repellent / Root Tuber: C rotundus extract was screened for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies, A stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. Study showed the tuber extracts to be more effective for repellency of all the mosquito vectors even at low dose. The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites. (8)
Polyphenols / Antioxidant: Study on the rhizome extract of Cyperus rotundus exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging effect on superoxide anion radicals, OH radicals, NO radicals, H2O2, metal chelating and reducing power. Results suggest CR rhizome extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidant. (9)
Anti-Obesity Effect: Study of C rotundus tubers hexane extract for 60 days induced a significant reduction in weight gain without affecting food consumption or inducing toxicity. In vitro, the extract was able to stimulate lipolysis. The effect in weight gain may be partially mediated through activation of ß3-AR. Results suggest CR tuber extract has a potential as a herbal supplement for controlling body weight. (10)
Anti-Candida Activity: Study of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants in Brazil were screened for anti-candidal activity. The essential oils of 13 plants, including Cyperus rotundus, showed anti-Candida activity. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed the methanol extract of rhizomes of CR showed inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner from the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Results suggest a potential for the methanol extract to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent for diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2. (13).
Gastroprotective: Study results indicate that CR extracts have gastroprotective effect against acute mucosal lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion. (14)
Antimutagenicity / Essential Oil: Study shows the oil of CR does not seem genotoxic. The oil exhibited effects against both direct and indirect mutagens.
(15)
Infectious Diarrhea / Tubers: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of C. rotundus tubers decoction. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. However, the decoction does not have marked antibacterial activity and its antidiarrheal action was attributed to mechanisms other than direct killing of pathogen. (19)
Antimicrobial / Rhizomes: Various rhizomes extracts were evaluated against six important pathogenic microbes (S. epidermis, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, A. niger, and C. albicans). An ethanolic extract showed the highest antibacterial activity . All extracts were ineffective against fungal strains tested. (20)
Antiplatelet Effects / Nootkatone: Study of an EtOH extract showed significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on collagen-, thrombin-, and/or AA-induced platelet aggregation. Of the eight components, (+)-nootkatone had the most potent inhibitory effect. (21)
Anticonvulsant: Study showed pretreatment of mice with ethanolic extract of C. rotundus provided significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions in mice. Effect was attributed possibly to flavonoids. (22)
Analgesic / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study of crude extract showed analgesic effect by the tail-flick method, antimicrobial activity, and non-toxicity at different concentrations in the brine shrimp bioassay. (23)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Essential Oil: Essential oil showed antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic properties. On on-vitro cytotoxicity assay, essential oil showed to be very effective against L1210 leukemia cell lines. Results correlate with significantly increased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Oxidative effects were evaluated using DPPH, xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, and scavenging of superoxide radicals.
(see constituents above) (24)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Ethanolic extract of leaves were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, A. niger and C. albicans. Results showed significant activity against both bacterial and fungal pathogens. (see constituents above) (26)
Decreasing Hair Growth / Role in Androgenic Hair / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Egyptian C. rotundus essential oil in decreasing androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair) in 91 female patients. Results showed topical application of essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair., without affecting serum testosterone. (27)
Lipid Lowering / Rhizomes: Study of alcoholic extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus demonstrated statistically significant reduction of serum lipid profile. (28)
Pesticidal / Tubers: Study of C. rotundus for pesticidal activity showed the tuber can me made into an effective pesticide, more effective than Carbamate, with almost the same efficacy as that of Organophosphate. (29)
Bioethanol Production: Study evaluated C. rotundus for the production of bioethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of CR biomass slurry.
Findings showed 40% of simpler monomeric carbohydrate was converted into bioethanol. Results showed weed plants like C. rotundus can be a good alternative sources for ethanol production. (30)
Effect on Learning and Memory in an Animal Model of Alzheimer / Tubers: Study suggests C. rotundus tubers ethanol extract has some repairing effects on the memory and behavioral disorders produced by lesioning of the NBM (nucleus basalis of Meynert) in rats. (31)
Neuroprotective: Study investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of an EE of CR on a model of transient global ischemia in rat. Results showed the EECR cannot reduce ischemia-induced, cognitive impairments after transient global cerebral ischemia but can prevent pyramidal cell loss in CA1 region of the hippocampus. (32)
Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Tonsillitis: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of C. rotundus for tonsillitis. Results showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes responsible for throat infection. (33)
Analgesic / Antioxidant / Modulation of Splenocyte Function: Study evaluated various extracts of C. rotundus showed peripheral analgesic activity with reduction of number of abdominal contractions caused by acetic acid in mice. There was no toxicity in mice up to dose of 300 mg/kbw. The extracts also showed significant enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation at 1 mg/ml. The extracts yielded potent components such as flavonoids which may be potentially useful in the modulation of immune cell functions, provoking analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxdant effects. (35)
Ovicidal / Larvicidal / Essential Oil from Tubers: Study evaluated essential oils extracted from tubers on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus. Results showed remarkable ovicidal and larvicidal activities indicated by EC50 values of <5 ppm and LC50 and LC90 values of <20 ppm. Results suggested the essential oil as a potential source of natural mosquitocidal agents. (36)
Antimalarial / Tubers: Study of C. rotundus tubers isolated patchoulenone, caryophyllene or-oxide, 10,12-peroxycalamenene and 4,7--dimethyl-l-tetralone. The antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of ECso 10-4-10-6 M. A novel sesquiterpene, 10,12-peroxycalamenene, exhibited the strongest effect at ECso 2.33 × 106 M. (36)
Biosorption of Crystal Violet: Study evaluated the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrillus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. Results showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg/g for CV biosorption by C. lanatus rind and C. rotundus, respectively. (37)
Antiamoebic / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the in-vitro antiamoebic activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) of an ethanol extract of C. rotundus whole plant. In an in-vitro study against E. histolytica trophozoites, the extract showed 100% mortality at concentration of 500 ppm. In cytotoxicity study, the MTT assay verified the safety of the extract with an IC50 of less than 100 µg/ml. (38)
Antimicrobial / MDR P. aeruginosa Strains: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of C. rotundus tubers for antimicrobial effect of multiple drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Extract concentrations greater than 01 mg/ml suppressed growth of all antibiotic sensitive and resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Results antimicrobial properties that can be used in treating MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced wounds and infections. (39)
No Effect on Scopolamine Induced Learning Deficit in Mice: Study evaluated various extracts and essential oil of C. rotundus on scopolamine induced memory deficit in mice. Results showed none of the tested doses of extract or essential oil changed the memory status of animals, indicating either lack of effective ingredient or unsuitable method of evaluation. (40)
• Anti-Emetic: An ethanolic extract of C. rotundus at dose of 128.1 ± 11.6 mg/kg showed anti-emetic activity in 50% of dogs against apomorphine induced vomiting. (A pharmacological study of Cyperus rotundus / Singh N, Kulshrestha VK, Gupta MB and Bhargava K P,.Indian J Med, Res, 1970; 58(80): pp 103-109) (41)
• Toxicological Studies: Acute toxicity study using OECS guidelines showed an extract of rhizomes was safe up to 2000 mg/kg. On subchronic toxicity study, food, water consumption and body weight of animals didn't vary significantly. Hematological parameters showed an increase in WBC and Hb levels. Renal and hepatic functions showed no changes even after prolonged exposure. (41)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Rhizomes: Study evaluated methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. rotundus rhizomes for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All extracts exhibited significant dose dependent analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot plate pain models, with the ethyl acetate extract showing most significant activity similar to standard drugs. Carrageenan-induced paw volume was significantly reduced by the EA extract similar to diclofenac sodium. (see constituents above) (43)
• Antioxidant / DNA Damage Protective / Cytotoxic / Antibacterial Against Foodborne Pathogens / Rhizomes Essential Oil: Study of rhizomes essential oil yielded α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) as major components. The EO exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on human neuroblastoma SH-Sy5Y cells, and antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens, with greater activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. The biologic activities were dose-dependent. Results showed potential applications of the EO in food and pharmaceutical industries. (44)
• Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity / Tubers: The study investigated whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants. A methanol extract of tubers strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat, and tomato. Results suggest the inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass might act as a protective agent of the plant's war against herbivore animals and competition with other plants trying to grown in the same habitat. (45)
• Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the anticancer effects of C. rotundus rhizomes extracts on experimentally induced Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Results showed increase life span by 36% and 20% at 250 mg/kbw and 500 mg/kbw doses, respectively. Hematological parameters were restored to normal levels, along with an increase in antioxidant enzymes. (46)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Ulcer / Neuropharmacological Effects / Pilot Study: A crude extract showed significant anti-inflammatory effect in a carrageenan induced model in rats. The antiulcer activity was 41.2% at dosage of 500 mg/kg. On neuropharmacological testing using open field, head dip, rearing traction and forced swimming test, results showed mild decrease in all tests with a slight muscle relaxant effect. (47)
• Inhibition of Axillary Hair Growth / Comparable to Laser Photo-Epilation / Topical C. rotundus Oil: Topical CR oil is effective and safe for use in decreasing hair growth. This open-label pilot study evaluated the efficacy of CR essential oil for reducing unwanted axillary hair. Results showed the EO is as effective as Alexandrite laser photo-epilation for decreasing the growth of axillary hair (both dark and white). (48)
• Protective Effect on Amyloid ß-Peptide Induced Memory Impairment: Study evaluated the protective effects of CR as antioxidant on amyloid ß (Aß)-induced memory impairment in Wistar male rats using Morris water-maze (MWM). Results showed CR could improved learning impairment following Aß treatment, and suggest potential for treatment of AD (Alzheimer Disease)-induced cognitive dysfunction. (49)
• Anti-Angiogenic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of CR for anti-angiogenic activity. Results showed significant dose-dependent blood vessels inhibition using an ex vivo rat aorta ring assay. The extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay. The anti-angiogenic activity was attributed to the presence of antioxidant compounds. (see constituents above) (51)
• Antigiardial / Cytotoxicity / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the in-vitro antigiardial activities (Giardia lamblia) and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) of ethanol extract of whole plant of CR. Results showed potent activities against Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. MTT assay verified the safety of the examined extract. (52)
• Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of a methanolic extract of C. rotundus against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant activity at higher concentrations when compared to standard Albendazole group. (53)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of CR extract in a Wistar rat model of depression using tail suspension test or forced swimming test. Results showed significant antidepressant effect in rats. The effect of 800 mg/kg was more potent (MAO B inhibitory activity of p<0.01) than the positive drug fluoxetine. (54)
• Anticonvulsant / Antioxidant / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant and antioxidant effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of CR rhizomes on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling model in male mice. Results showed decreased intensity and duration of seizure, along with an increase in level of SOD and NO and decreased MDA level in mice brain. The antiepileptic effect was attributed to its antioxidant properties. (55)
• Antispasmodic / Antidiarrheal / Tubers: Study evaluated a CR extract of tubers for antidiarrheal effect in castor oil induced diarrhea and antispasmodic effect in a charcoal meal test models in mice. Results showed antidiarrheal effect through decrease in intestinal secretions and antispasmodic effect via inhibition of intestinal motilitsy. (56)
• Ferulic Acid Content / Rhizomes: Ferulic acid is one of the main active constituents of C. rotundus with effects of antioxidation, pain relief, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Study reports on a simple, rapid, and accurate HPLC method of determining ferulic acid in C. rotundus rhizomes. The ferulic acid content of CR collected from twelve sources in China varied from 0.027-0.0462%. (57)
• Antidiabetic / Rhizomes: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of CR rhizomes for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic Swiss mice. At dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kbw, the extract exhibited significant antidiabetic activity, improved body weight, and reduction in elevated biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (58)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Extracts, oil and tinctures in the cybermarket.


Updated October 2018 / November 2016

IMAGE SOURCES: CYPERUS ROTUNDUS (1) kili'o'opu - Scientific name: Cyperus rotundus / Habit at Paia, Maui - Credit: Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing and adaptation with attribution. / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: CYPERUS ROTUNDUS kili'o'opu - Scientific name: Cyperus rotundus / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 304./ alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: CYPERUS ROTUNDUS kili'o'opu - Scientific name: Cyperus rotundus / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 304./ alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats / ScienceDirect
(2)
Cytoprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rats / Zhu M et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research • 1997, vol. 11, no5, pp. 392-394
(3)
Wound healing activity of cyperus rotundus linn / Puratchikody A, Nithya Devi, and Nagalakshmi G / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jan 2006; 68(1): pp 97-101 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.22976
(4)
Effects of herbal mixture with Cyperus rotundus L. on blood pressure, norepinephrine, cortisol and psychological variables in healthy medical students under examination
(5)

Composition of eleven herbals for treating cancer

(6)
Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus / Mesmin Mekem Sonwa and Wilfried A Konig /Phytochemistry • Volume 58, Issue 5, November 2001, Pages 799-810 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00301-6
(7)
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS) USED IN PAKISTAN / Bin Rehman / PhD Thesis / Asif (2008) /
(8)
Evaluation of Hexane Extract of Tuber of Root of Cyperus rotundus Linn (Cyperaceae) for Repellency against Mosquito Vectors / S P Singh et al / Journal of Parasitology Research • Volume 2009 (2009) / doi:10.1155/2009/908085

(9)
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Polyphenolic Content of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes
/ K R Nagulendran et al / E-Journal of Chemistry • Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 440-449, July 2007
(10)
Administration of Cyperus rotundus tubers extract prevents weight gain in obese Zucker rats / Bernard Lemaure et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 21 Issue 8, Pages 724 - 730
/ DOI 10.1002/ptr.2147
(11)
TIRIRICA (Cyperus rotundus) / Tropical Plant Database / Raintree Nutrition
(12)
Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants / Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Glyn Mara Figueria et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 97, Issue 2, 28 February 2005, Pages 305-311 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.016 |
(13)
Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells / Won-Gil Seo, Hyun-Ock Pae et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 76, Issue 1, June 2001, Pages 59-64 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00221-5 |
(14)
Gastroprotective Effect Of Cyperus rotundus Extract against Gastric Mucosal Injury Induced by Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats / Muhammet E Guldur, A Ozgonul et al / J. Pharmacol., 6: 104-110, 2010
(15)
Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Activities of Essential Oil from (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus / Kilani, Soumaya; Abdelwahed Afef et al / Technology Publications
(16)
Cyperus rotundus L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(17)
Sorting Cyperus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(18)
Cyperus rotundus (Chaguan Humatag) / Common names / Zipcodezoo
(19)
Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea / Poonam G. Daswani, S. Brijesh, Pundarikakshudu Tetali, and Tannaz J. Birdi / Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 May-Jun; 43(3): 340–344 /
doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81502
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Antimicrobial investigations on rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. / Surendra Kumar Sharma* and Ajay Pal Singh / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011, 3(3):427-431
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Antiplatelet effects of Cyperus rotundus and its component (+)-nootkatone / Eun Ji Seo, Dong-Ung Lee, Jong Hwan Kwak, Sun-Mee Lee, Yeong Shik Kim, Yi-Sook Jung / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135 (2011) 48–54
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Phyto-pharmacotherapeutics of Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Motha): An overview / N Singh, B R Pandey, P Verma, M Bhalla and M Gilca / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Vol 3(4), December 2012, pp 467-476.
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ANALGESIC, ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS ETHANOL EXTRACT / MANSOOR AHMAD, MAHAYROOKH, MEHJABEEN, ASIF BIN REHMAN AND NOOR JAHAN Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology Vol.29, No.2, July 2012, pp.7-13
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Comparative study of Cyperus rotundus essential oil by a modified GC/MS analysis method. Evaluation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects. / Kilani S, Ledauphin J, Bouhlel I, Ben Sghaier M, Boubaker J, Skandrani I, Mosrati R, Ghedira K, Barillier D, Chekir-Ghedira L. / Chem Biodivers. 2008 May;5(5):729-42. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.200890069.
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Physiochemical and toxicological studies of the medicinal plant Cyperus rotundus L (Cyperaceae) / Jebasingh D; Jackson DD; Venkataraman S; Emerald BS* / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 5 (4), pp. 1-8.
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Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus / Mesmin Mekem Sonwa, Wilfried A König / Phytochemistry, Volume 58, Issue 5, November 2001, Pages 799–810
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Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth / Ghada Farouk Abd El-kaream Mohammed / J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 111-118 / doi: 10.5455/jice.20120626100304
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LIPID LOWERING ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS
/ R. S. Chandratre*, S. Chandarana and S. A. Mengi / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY, 2011, 1(4)
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Phytochemical and Pesticidal Properties of Barsanga (Cyperus rotundus Linn.)
/ Solita Evangeline S. Bañez, Liza Castor / IAMUEW - International Journal of Science and Clinical Laboratory, Vol 1, No 1, 2012 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ijscl.v1i1.382
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Bioethanol production from weed plant (Cyperus rotundus) by enzymatic hydrolysis / Nitesh Kumar, Jai Prakash Singh, Ravi Ranjan, Subathra Devi C. and Mohana Srinivasan V. / Advances in Applied Science Research, 2013, 4(4):299-302
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Effect of Cyperus rotundus tubers ethanolic extract on learning and memory in animal model of Alzheimer

/ Zahra Rabiei, Mohammadreza Hojjati⁎, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaeia, Zahra Alibabaei / Biomedicine and Aging Pathology, Volume 3, No 4, pp 185-191, Octobre 2013 / Doi : 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.08.006
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Effect of Cyperus rotundus on ischemia-induced brain damage and memory dysfunction in rats
/ Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian; Mehrdad Hashemi; Maliheh Entezari; Shabnam Movassaghi; Seyed Ashrafadin Goushegir; Samaneh Kalantari; Abolfazl Movafagh; Zahra Nadia Sharifi / Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 18, Issue 2, February 2015, Page 199-204
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Investigation of the Anti-Microbial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Cyperus Rotundus on Tonsillities
/ Megha Mehta, Asmita Bharmuche and Abhijit Bhatkal / Article published in the Proceedings of National Conference on 'Women in Science & Engineering' (NCWSE 2013), SDMCET Dharwad
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Cyperus rotundus / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Pharmacological, antioxidant, genotoxic studies and modulation of rat splenocyte functions by Cyperus rotundus extracts / Kilani-Jaziri Soumaya, Mhalla Dhekra, Châbane Fadwa, Ghedira Zied, Limem Ilef, Ghedira Kamel and Chekir-Ghedira Leila / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 2013, 13:28 /
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-28
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The incredible benefits of Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus) / Hashmat Imam, Zarnigar, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Aziz Seikh, Azad Lone / International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, 2014; 4(1): pp 23-27 / DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.124611
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Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus / Kandaswamy Suyamboo Bharathi, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga Ramesh / Applied Water Science, December 2013, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 673–687
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Antiamoebic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus L. / Ahmed S. Kabbashi, El-badri E. Osman*, Amel M. Abdrabo, Nadir Abuzeid, Mohammed I. Garbi, Waleed S. Koko and Mahmoud M. Dahab / Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research, Vol. 3(4), pp. 155-161, November 2015
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Antimicrobial Effect of Cyperus rotundus on Multiple Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains / Mohammad Dadook, Sedigheh Mehrabian, Saeed Irian* / J Med Bacteriol. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2 (2016): pp.15-20
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Evaluation of the effect of Cyperus rotundus L. in scopolamine-induced learning deficit in mice / Mohammed Rabbani, Alireza Ghannadi, Nahid Malekian / Adv Biomed Res 2014, 3:217
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Medicinal uses and Pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn – A Review / Sri Ranjani Sivapalan / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, May 2013; 3(5)
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Medicinal chemistry and biological potential of Cyperus rotundusLinn.: An overview to discover elite chemotype(s) for industrial use / Priyanka Dhar, Debasmita Ghosh Dhar, A K S Rawat, Sharad Srivastava / Industrial Crops and Products, Dec 2017; Vol 108: pp 232-247 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.05.053
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Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts from Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizomes / Manivannan Rajamanickam, Aeganathan Rajamanickam / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, Sept 2016; 6(9): pp. 197-203 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2016.60929
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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens / Qing-Ping Hu, Xin-Ming Cao, Dong-Lin Hao, and Liang-Liang Zhang / Scientific Reports, 2017; Vol 7, Article No: 45231
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Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato / Rashmi Sharma, Rajendra Gupta / Life Sciences, 2007; 80: 2389–2392 / doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2007.01.060
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CYPERUS ROTUNDUS EXTRACT EXERTS ANTICANCER ACTIVITY ON EHRLICH ASCITES CARCINOMA / Hema Nidugala, Ramakrishna Avadhani, Ashwini Prabhu and Ravishankar B / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH, 2017; 4(8): pp 297-304
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Assessment of anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and neuro- pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn. / Mansoor Ahmad, MahayRookh, Asif Bin Rehman, Noor Muhammad, Amber, Muhammad Younus and Asma Wazir / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Conference Issue, November 2014; 27(6): pp 2241-2246
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Topical Cyperus rotundus Oil: A New Therapeutic Modality With Comparable Efficacy to Alexandrite Laser Photo-Epilation / Ghada Farouk Abd El-Kaream Mohammed, MD / Aesthetic Surgery Journal, Feb 2014; 34(2): pp 298–305 /  https://doi.org/10.1177/1090820X13518801
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Short Communication: Protective Effects of Cyperus Rotundus Extract on Amyloid β-Peptide (1-40)-Induced Memory CrossMark Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study
/ Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian, Asie Shojaee, Nima Molavi, Zahra Taslimi, Ronak Shabani, Sara Soleimani Asl / Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, May-June 2017; 8(3): pp 249-254 / https://doi.org/10.18869/nirp.bcn.8.3.249
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Rotundines A−C, Three Novel Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Cyperus rotundus / Sei-Joon Jeong, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Masanori Inagaki, Youn-Chul Kim, and Ryuichi Higuchi / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (5), pp 673–675 / DOI: 10.1021/np990588r
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Anti-angiogenic and Antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Cyperus rotundus Ethanol Extract / Amjed Haseeb Khamees, Ali Jabbar Abdulhussein, Hayder Bahaa Sahib, and Hayder Adnan Fawzi / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2018; 14(4): pp 546-552 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2018.546.552
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Antigiardial and Cytotoxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Cyperus rotundus L / Ahmed S Kabbashi, Aisha Z Almagbout, Waleed S Koko, Mohammed O Noor, Nadir M Abuzeid, Mohammed I Garbi, El-badri E Osman, Mahmoud M Dahab / Medicine and Medical Sciences (LRJMSS), Jan 2016; 3(1): pp 12-18
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Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Cyperus rotundus (L) / Suresh Kasala, Ramanjaneyulu K, Himabindhu J, Ramesh Alluri and Reddy Raghunath Babu / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2016; 5(5): pp 407-409
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Determination of antidepressant activity of Cyperus rotundus L extract in rats / Gui-feng Hao, Mao-qin Tang, Yan-jin Wei, Feng-yuan Che and Li-ju Qian / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, April 2017; 16 (4): pp 867-871 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v16i4.17
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Anticonvulsant and antioxidant effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome on pentylentetrazole-induced kindling model in male mice / Mohsen Khalili, Zahra Kiasalari, Mehrdad Roghani and Yaser Azizi / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, April 2011; 5(7): pp 1140-1146 / Article No - 7809AB615841
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Antispasmodic effect of Cyperus Rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) in diarrhoea / Prashant B. Shamkuwar, Avinash H. Hoshamani, Indrajeet D. Gonjari / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012; 4(2): pp 522-524
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Determination of ferulic acid content in Cyperus rotundus by HPLC / Yingxia Li / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 6(3): pp 1496-1500
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Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice / Pradeep Singh, Ratan L Khosa, Garima Mishra, Keshir K Jha / Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 2015; 7(4): pp 289-292 / DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.168028

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