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Family Cruciferae
Mustasa
Brassica juncea Hook. f. & Thoms.
MUSTARD
Jie cai

Scientific names  Common names
Brassica argyi H.Lév. Mustasa (Tag.)
Brassica besseriana Andrz. ex Trautv. Mustard (Engl.)
Brassica cernua (Thunb.) Matsum.  
Sinapsis integrifolia (H.West) Rupr.  
Brassica japonica (Thunb.) Siebold ex. Miq.  
Brassica juncea (L.) Czem  
Brassica lanceolata (DC..) Lange  
Brassica napiformis (Pailleux & Bois.) L.H.Bailey  
Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) Prain f. & Thoms.  
Crucifera juncea E.H.L.Krause  
Raphanus junceus (L.) Crantz  
Sinabraca juncea (L.) G.H.Loos  
Sinapsis abyssinica A. Braun  
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Jatilai.
BENGALI: Sarsapa.
BHUTAN: Spong-thogs-pa.
CHINESE: Gai cai, Tian jie cai, Jie cai.
DUTCH: Junceamosterd, Sareptamosterd.
CZECH: Brukev sítinovitá, Hořčice černá sitinovitá.
FINNISH: Mustasinappi.
FRENCH: Moutarde brune, Moutarde jonciforme, Chou des Indes.
GERMAN: Brauner Senf, Indischer Senf.
HEBREW: Kruv samrani .
HINDI: Sarson.
HUNGARIAN: Indiai mustár.
ITALIAN: Senape indiana, Senape bruna.
JAPANESE: Karashina, Seiyou karashina.
KANNADA: Saasive, Sarshspa.
KHMER: Khat naa.
LAOTIAN: Kaad khièw.
MALAY: Biji sawi , Sawi, Sawi pahit.
MALAYALAM: Sarshapam.
MARATHI: Mohari.
NEPALESE: Asal raaii, Laahaa.
POLISH: Kapusta sitowata.
PORTUGUESE: Mostarda indiana.
RUSSIAN: Gorchítsa, Gorchítsa sareptskaia.
SANSKRIT: Rajika, Sarshapa.
SPANISH: Mostaza.
TAMIL: Kadugu, Katuku.
TELUGU: Sarsapamu, Sasuvulu.
THAI: Phakkat khiao, Phakkat khieo, Phakkat khieo pli.
TURKISH: Yaprak hardal.

Botany
Mustasa is an erect, branched, smooth annual, 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are oblong-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, or in some cultivated forms much larger, thin, irregularly toothed or subentire, the lower ones sometimes lobed or pinnatifid. Flowers are yellow, 6 to 8 millimeters long. Pod is ascending, linear-lanceolate, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, and somewhat contracted between the seeds. Beak is seedless.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the settled areas, in towns and houses, planted and spontaneous.
- Introduced from Asia.
- Now, pantropic; also occurring in some temperate regions.

Constituents

• Seed contains an oily substance, "the essential oil of mustard, the active principle.
• Yields a crystallizable substance, sinnigrin, analogous to sinalbin.
• Nutrient analysis per 100 g yielded: (1) Principle: energy 508 Kcal, carbohydrate 28.09 g, protein 26.08 g, total fat 36.24 g, cholesterol 0, dietary fiber 12.2 g; (2) Vitamins: folates 162 µg, niacin 4.733 mg, pantothenic acid 0.810 mg, pyridoxine 0.397 mg, riboflavin 0.261 mg, thiamine 0.805 mg, vitamin A 31 IU, vitamin C 7.1 mg, vitamin E? 19.82 mg, vitamin K 5.4 µg; (3) Electrolytes: sodium13 mg, potassium 738 mg; (4) Minerals: calcium 266 mg, copper 0.645 mg, iron 9.21 mg, magnesium 370 mg, manganese 2.448 mg, selenium 208.1 µg, zinc 6.08 mg; and
(5) Phytonutrients: carotene-ß, crypto-xanthin-ß, lutein-zeaxanthine 508 µg. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
(15)

Properties
Pure mustard oil is pale yellow, faintly smelling of mustard with a shard and pungent taste.
• Counterirritant, emmenagogue, rubefacient.
• Considered analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, emetic, galatagogue, stimulant.

Parts utilized
· Seeds, leaves, oil.

Uses
Nutritional
- Leaves eaten as green leafy vegetable, fresh or pickled in brine.
- Excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B.

Folkloric
- Plaster applied to skin is a powerful irritant, rubefacient, and vesicant.
- Applied to unbroken skin, it acts as a counterirritant, producing a sensation of warmth followed by burning pain. Leaves applied externally for pleurodynia and pleuritis, neuralgia, lumbago.
- As a plaster, mustard soothes the pain in gastralgia, colic, neuralgia, lumbago. Also, applied over the epigastrium for hiccupping and vomiting. A plaster over the nape of the neck applied to relieve cerebral congestion.
- Hot-foot bath of mustard (seeds or leaves) for headaches, common cold, and fevers.
- Leaves applied to the forehead for headaches.
- Hip-bath of mustard used as emmenagogue.
- Poultice of mustard leaves or seeds used for neuralgic and rheumatic complaints.
- Pure fresh oil taken from seeds used as stimulant and external counterirritant; applied externally for sore throats, internal congestion, and chronic muscular rheumatism.
- Oil used as embrocation applied to skin in eruptions and ulcers.
- Seeds used as poultice in gout and inflammation.
- Combined oil of mustard and camphor used for muscle pains,
- As an emetic, 4-5 tsp in a cup of warm water.
- Taken internally as condiment, causes a sense of warmth in the stomach, stimulates gastric juice, sharpens the appetite and assists in digestion. In large doses, becomes a gastric irritant, and causes vomiting; as such, used as an emetic in narcotic poisoning.
- In Bhutan, aerial parts used as spasmolytic and for treatment of food poisoning, heart and blood disorders.
(23).
- In Nepal, seed oil rubbed for body aches.
- In Bangladesh, oil is rubbed on the throat and chest for treatment of common colds with mucus.
- In Java, used as antisyphilitic emmenagogue.
- In China, leaves in soup for bladder, inflammation and hemorrhage.
- In India, leaves used for diabetes. Plant used as anthelmintic, and in treament of alopecia, epilepsy, snakebites, hiccups, and toothache.

- In Maharashtra, India, a paste of alum (white mineral sal) and Brassica seeds eaten along with banana twice daily for the treatment of jaundice.



Studies
Juncin / Antifungal Protein / Anti-Tumor: Study isolated juncin from the seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica Juncea var. integrifolia). The protein exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma and breast cancer cells. (2)
Anti-Diabetes Benefit / Seeds: Study showed feeding of a fructose diet containing 10% Brassica juncea seeds significantly reduced fasting serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. Results suggest that B juncea can play a role in the management of pre-diabetic state of insulin resistance. (3) Study of an aqueous extract of seed showed potent hypoglycemic effect on STZ induced diabetic male albino rats. (17)
Hypoglycemic / Antihyperglycemic Effect: Study showed the B juncea diet showed significant antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan but not in STZ rats. (4)
Anti-Diabetic Oxidative Stress: Study of four fractions from mustard leaf (B juncea) showed the ethanolic fraction showed the strongest concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the formation of advanced glycation products and free radical-mediated protein damage in an in vitro system suggesting a potential protective role against diabetes and/or its complications. (5)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated leaf extracts for wound healing activity in excision wound model in albino rats. An aqueous extract showed 94.94% maximum percentage of healing compared to control. (7)
Phytoremediation / Copper Contaminated Soil: Study evaluated the efficacy of copper removal from the soil by Brassica juncea and Bidens alba. The copper removal efficiency of B. juncea (L.) Czern was 11 times greater than Bidens alba DC var radiata. (8)
Phytoremediation / Municipal Solid Waste: Study showed highly promising potential for removal of Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu by phytoextraction through Brassica juncea. B. juncea is a potential species for phytoremediation of MSW through management and regulation of leaching of toxic elements into soil and ground waters. The plant growth also stimulates the microbial community, degrading contaminants in the soil or making them available to rhizosphere. (9)
Anti-Hyperglycemic / Antinociceptive: Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in acetic-acid induced gastric pain writhing model in mice. In oral glucose tolerance tests, the extract also demonstrated significant and dose-dependent glucose lowering activity. (10)
Anthelmintic / Seeds: Comparative study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of seeds of B. juncea and flowers of B. oleracea against Pheretima posthuma, using Albendazole as standard. Results confirmed the anthelmintic activity of both plants, with Brassica juncea showing more efficient activity. (11)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium: Study showed the suitability of B. juncea for removing Cd from the soil. (13)
Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of PE and ethanolic extracts of B. juncea against carrageenan induced paw edema. Acute toxicity study up to 2 gm/kg p.o. did not show mortality or behavioral changes. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, with the ethanolic extract showing better activity than the petroleum ether extract. (14)
Antioxidant / Anti-Cancer / Seeds and Sprouts: Study evaluated extracts of Brassica juncea for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and in vitro cytotoxicity activity against rat cancer cell line and three different human cell lines. Results showed effective scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis. Seed extracts were more effective than sprout extracts. (16)
Hepatoprotective / Anti-Cancer / Seeds and Sprouts: Study evaluated the effects of Brassica juncea leaf extracts on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Among extracts tested, ethanolic and pet ether extracts showed maximum inhibition of necrosis and reduction of liver enzyme parameters with a significant p<0.0001. (18)
Genoprotective / Mercury-Induced Genotoxicity: Study evaluated the antigenotoxic effects of various concentrations of B. juncea chloroform seed extracts on mercury-induced genotoxic effects in root cells of Allium cepa. Results showed antigenotoxic potential in a dose dependent manner. (19)
Antinociceptive / Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Study evaluated the effect of B. juncea on peripheral neuropathic pain in diabetic rats. Results showed decreased pain threshold and also significant decrease in diabetic induced hyperglycemia. Results suggest a therapeutic option for treatment of hyperalgesia associated with diabetic neuropathy. (
20)
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant activity of methanol extract of B. juncea leaves in alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic rodents. Antidepressant and motor functioning depressing effects were observed. Compensations of monoaminergic deficits by the extracts in diabetic animals could be involved in the observed behavioral effects. (
21)
Mustard Allergy / Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Challenge: A double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated 30 patients presenting with positive prick tests to ground mustard seeds/ About 23% of sensitized subjects were allergic to routine dose of mustard. Positive prick tests and the presence of specific IgE were not predictive. Single-blind (SB) or double-blind (DB) placebo controlled food challenge (PCFC) trials is required before recommending avoidance diets. (22)
Antibacterial in Different Food Model Systems: Aqueous extracts of B. officinalis and B juncea showed various degrees of inhibitory activity especially towards staphylococci and enterobacteria; B. juncea showed higher inhibitory activity than B. officinalis. (24
)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Commercial cultivation.
Market produce.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update June 2013

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / LINE DRAWING / Brassica juncea / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 2: 193. / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Brassica Juncea / Brown Mustard: Plants For A Future /
(2)
Isolation and Characterization of Juncin, an Antifungal Protein from Seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia) / Xiujuan Ye and Tzi Bun Ng / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (10), pp 4366–4371
DOI: 10.1021/jf8035337
(3)
Brassica juncea (Rai) significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance in rats fed fructose-enriched diet / S P Yadav et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 93, Issue 1, July 2004, Pages 113-116 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.034
(4)
Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Brassica juncea diet and their effect on hepatic glycogen content and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism / Jagdish Kumari Grover et al / Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry • Volume 241, Numbers 1-2 / December, 2002 / DOI 10.1023/A:1020814709118
(5)
Protective Effects of Mustard Leaf (Brassica juncea) against Diabetic Oxidative Stress / Yokozawa T et al / Nutri Sci Vitaminol • VOL.49;NO.2;PAGE.87-93(2003)
(6)
Sorting Brassica names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(7)
Comparison of different extracts leaf of Brassica juncea Linn on wound healing activity / Rajat Malan, Anu Walia, Vipin Saini, Sumeet Gupta* / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1 (2):33-40
(8)
Phytoremediation of Copper Contaminated Soil by Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata / Naiyanan Ariyakanon* and Banchagan Winaipanich / J. Sci. Res. Chula. Univ., Vol. 31, No. 1 (2006) 49
(9)
PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF BRASSICA JUNCEA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLIDWASTE - A CASE STUDY / Srinivas Namuduri, Suresh Kolli Kumar, Nrusimhatharra Srksbl, V. Balaram and T. Shivaji Rao / Fourth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
(10)
A Study on Antinociceptive and Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Methanol Extract of Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. Leaves in Mice / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Taslima Ferdousi Shefa, Labiba Hasan, Md. Tozammal Hossain, Salman Ahmed, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Rasadul Islam, Shahnaz Rahman, Majeedul H. Chowdhury / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 221-225, 2010
(11)
In-vitro comparative study of anthelmintic activity of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea / Lavanya, Bhaduri; S., Ramya Krishna P.; Nagarjuna, S.; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha / Journal of Pharmacy Research; Sept 2011, Vol. 4 Issue 9, p 2907.
(12)
Brassica juncea / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
A Study on Cadmium Phytoremediation Potential of Indian Mustard, Brassica juncea. / Goswami S, Das S. / Int J Phytoremediation. 2015;17(1-6):583-8. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2014.935289.
(14)
Comparative Study of Anti-Inflammatory activity of Petroleum Ether and Ethanolic extracts of Brassica Juncea
/ K.Lakshmi Sindhoor*, Siva Kumar.Gurram, S.Nagarjuna, Y. Padmanabha Reddy / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.4, No.3, pp 1172-1176, July-Sept 2012
(15)
Mustard seeds nutrition facts / Nutrition and You
(16)
Antioxidant and in vitro Anti-cancer Activities of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. seeds and sprouts / Priyanka Bassan, Sonia Sharma, Saroj Arora and Adarsh Pal Vig* / International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5 (2013): 343-349
(17)
Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat /
T Thirumalai, S Viviyan Therasa, EK Elumalai, and E David* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011 Aug; 1(4): 323–325. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60052-X
(18)
Hepatoprotective effects from the leaf extracts of Brassica juncea in CCl4 induced rat model / Anu Walia, Rajat Malan, Satish Saini, Vipin Saini, Sumeet Gupta* / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (4): 274-285
(19)
Genoprotective potential of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. against mercury-induced genotoxicity in Allium cepa L. / Sonia SHARMA, Avinash NAGPAL, Adarsh Pal VIG / Turk J Biol 36 (2012) 622-629 / doi:10.3906/biy-1110-18
(20)
Antinociceptive effect of Brassica juncea on peripheral neuropathy induced by diabetes in rat / Ali Gomar, Abdolkarim Hosseini *, Naser Mirazi , Mojtaba Gomar / Arak Medical University Journal
(21)
Anti-depressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents / Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterhee and Vikas Kumar / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 32, June 2014, pp 613-622
(22)
Prospective study of mustard allergy: first study with double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge trials (24 cases) / M. Morisset, D.A. Moneret-Vautrin, F. Maadi, S. Frémont, L. Guénard, A. Croizier, G. Kanny / Allergy 2003: 58: 295–299
(23)
Bioactive alkaloids from medicinal plants of Bhutan / Phurpa Wangchuk / Thesis 2004 / University of Wollongong
(24)
Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used For Jaundice from Konkan Region, Maharashtra, India. / M.R.Meshram / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Volume 3 Issue 12, December 2014, PP.39-41

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