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Family Convolvulacea

Morning glory
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet
MILE A MINUTE VINE

Wu zhu yu

Scientific names Common names
Batatas cavenillesii (Roem.& Schult) G. Don Coast morning glory (Engl.)
Batatas senegalensis G, Don Five-fingered morning glory (Engl.)
Convolvulus caricus L. Ivy-leaved morning glory (Engl.)
Convolvulus cavenillesii (Roem.& Schult) Spreng. Mile-a-minute vine (Engl.)
Convolvulus limphaticus Vell. Morning glory (Engl.)
Convolvulus tuberculatus Desr. Railroad creeper (Engl.)
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet.  
Ipomoea cavenillesii Roem.& Schult  
Ipomoea funaria Larrañaga  
Ipomoea heptaphylla Griseb.  
Ipomoea palmata Forssk.  
Ipomoea pentaphylla Cav.  
Ipomoea senegalensi Lam.  
Ipomoea stipulacea Jacq.  
Ipomoea tuberculata (Desr.) Roem. & Schult.  
Ipomoea vesiculosa P.Beauv.  
Mile-a-minute vine is a common name shared by (1) Kangitngit, Persicaria perfoliata, devil's tail, and (2) Morning glory, Ipomoea cairica
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Wu zhu yu, Wu zhao jin long, MRuon an mia (Maoan).
HAWAIIAN: Koali ai, Koali, Kowali.
HINDI: Neeli bel.
KANNADA: Bekkina hejje balli.
MALAYALAM: Kolambipoo.
MANIPURI: Singa.
MAORI: Powhiwhi.
MARATHI: Bhaura, Bhovara, Garvel (?)

General Info
- Convolvulaceae comprise nearly 1650 predominantly tropical species. The genus Ipomoea has approximately 500 to 600 species, the largest in the family of Convolvulaceae.

Botany
Ipomoea cairica is a vining perennial, twining and herbaceous, up to 4 meters long, smooth or muricate. Leaf blades are 3 to 10 centimeters long, palmately divided in 5 to 7 lobes. Flowers are showy, white to lavender, peduncles 5 to 80 millimryrtd long. Corolla is purple, bluish purple or white with a purple center, funnelform, 4.5 to 6 centimters long.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines.

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis of methanol extracts of leaves and flowers yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, proteins and amino acids, terpenoids, sterols, and saponins. (see study below) (7)
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts of flowers and leaves yielded the presence of alkaloids, sterols, flavonoids, reducing sugaars, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, glycosides, and phenols. (17)G
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts (petroleum ether, CHCl2, Ch3OH) of leaves and flowers yielded alkaloids, sterols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, antrhaquinones, glycosides, and phenols. (9)
- An ethanolic extract yielded compounds, 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid.(10)
- Study of aerial parts isolated six pentasaccharide resin glycosides, four new acylated ptentasaccharide resin glycosides, namely cairicoside I-IV and two known compounds, cairicoside A and cairicoside C, (see study below)
(12)
- Study of aerial parts isolated the coumarins umbelliferone and scopoletin, and the dibenzyl-γ-butyrolactone lignans arctigenin, matairesinol and trachelogenin, along with β-sitoterol and fatty acids. (13)
- Study of methanol extract yielded 14 compounds viz., (+)-(8R,8′S)-thujaplicatin methyl ether (1), arctigenin (2), matairesinol (3), trans-2,3-dibenzylbutyrolactone (4), vanillic acid (5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), methoxybenzoic acid (7), methylparaben (8), stearic acid (9), palmitic acid (10), olenic acid (11), friedelinol (12), and a mixture of β-sitosterol (13) and stigmasterol (14). (see study below) (15)
- Study of aerial parts yielded six pentasaccharide resin glycosides: four new acylated pentasaccharide resin glycosides, cairicoside I-IV (1-4), along with two known compounds, cairicoside A (5) and cairicoside B (6). (see study below) (18)

Properties
- Studies suggest antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, mosquito larvicidal, a-glucosidase inhibitory properties.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In Brazilian folk medicine, used for rheumatism and inflammation.

Studies
Larvicidal / Essential Oil: A study of the essential oil for its larvicidal effect against four vector species of mosquitoes showed remarkable larvicidal properties, inducing 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, A aegypti, A stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. (2)
Antinociceptive / Essential Oil: Study yielded 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid which have been reported to have analgesic and antioxidative effects. The results show antinociceptive effects probably through release of pro-nociceptive mediators. The isolated caffeoylquinic acids can partly explain the antinociceptive effect of Ipomoea cairica polar extract. (3)
Residual Bio-Efficacy Against Culex quinquefasciatus: Study evaluated crude acethonilic extract of Ipomoea cairica leaves for residual and persistence effects against Culex quinquiefasciatus larvae. Results showed a short period of residual effectiveness of crude acethonilic extract of leaves with high percentage of larval mortality on the first few days that endorses less concerns of excess environmental residues, insecticide resistance and environmental pollution. (5)
Biolarvicidal Against Key Dengue Vectors: Study evaluated the efficacy of I. cairica extract against two different mosquito larvae: Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Results showed remarkable larvicidal properties and suggests exploration of alternatives to chemical larvicides such as Abate, Temephos for mosquito control program. (6)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers: Study investigated methanol extracts of leaves and flowers of I. cairica for antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. Results showed very good activity against all bacterial and fungal strains tested. The extract also showed remarkable antioxidant activity, with DPPH scavenging activities correlating with its reductive potential. (7)
Antinociceptive / Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers: Study of Ipomoea cairica extract showed dose dependent reduction of rewsponse in the formalin test inflammatory phase in mice. A possible explanation for the antinociceptive activity is the release of pro-nociceptive mediators unrelated to carrageenan-induced edema. The isolated caffeoylquinic acids could explain, in part, the antinociceptive effect. (8)
Oviposition Deterring and Oviciding Potential Against Dengue Vectors: Study of Ipomoea cairica demonstrated oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials against dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Results suggest a potential alternative source for the development of novel plant based insecticides. (11)
Pentasaccharide Resin Glycosides / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Anti-Diabetic: Study of aerial parts yielded six pentasacchride resin glycosides. Compounds 1-4, four new acylated resin glycosides, cairicoside 1-IV, all showed anti-diabetes or inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. (see constituents above) (12)
Mosquito-Larvicidal / Dibutyl Phthalate / Stems: Study for larvicidal activities of I. cairica stem extracts, fractions isolated a secondary metabolite,dibutyl phthalate. Findings demonstrated that the crude extracts and pure compound of stem showed potent larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti.Results suggest an ecofriendly and cost-effective larvicide for mosquito control. (14)
• Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines: Study isolated 14 compounds from a methanolic extract. Compounds 2 (arctigenin) and 4 (trans-2,3-dibenzylbutyrolactone) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against LNCaP cell line. Compound 4 also showed significant activity against A549 cell line. (see constituents above) (15)
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Pentasaccharide Resin Glycosides: Study of aerial parts of Ipomoea cairica yielded four new acylated pentasaccharide resin glycosides. Compounds 1-4 (cairicoside I-IV) showed strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. (see constituents above) (18)
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Cairicoside A and B: Study isolated two new compounds from Ipomoea cairica. Evaluation for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity showed an IC50 of 25.3 ± 1.6 and 28.5 ± 3.3 µmol-L, respectively. (19)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers: Study evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extrats of leaves and flowers by DPPH radical inhibition. The methanolic extract of I. cairica leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity (83.52%) while the methanolic extract of flowers showed maximum antioxidant activity at 81.85% at 500 µg/ml concentrations. (20)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update December 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Seeds / Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet - mile a minute vine / /Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ipomoea cairica / (L.) Sweet, Convolvulaceae / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
(2)
Mosquito Larvicidal Properties of Essential Oil of an Indigenous Plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn / Thekkevilayil et al / Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 57, 176-177, 2004
(3)
Antinociceptive effect from Ipomoea cairica extract / A A Ferreira, F A Amaral et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 105, Issues 1-2, 21 April 2006, Pages 148-153 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.012
(4)
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet / Synonyms / The Plant List
(5)
Assessment of residual bio-efficacy and persistence of Ipomoea cairica plant extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito / Thiagaletchumi M, Zuharah WF, Ahbi Rami R, Fadzly N, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, AbuBakar S / Trop Biomed. 2014 Sep;31(3):466-76 / Trop Biomed. 2014 Sep;31(3):466-76.
(6)
Biolarvacidal Potential of Ipomoea Cairica Extracts Against Key Dengue Vectors / Ahmad Razali Ishak, Nazri Che Dom, Hazilia Hussain, Nur Husna Sabri / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 153   (2014 ) 180 – 188
(7)
PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF IPOMOEA CAIRICA / SHEFALI ARORA, DEEPAK KUMAR AND SHIBA / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Issue 1, 2013
(8)
Antinociceptive effect from Ipomoea cairica extract / Flavio Amaral et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 05/2006; 105(1-2):148-53. / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.012
(9)
Evaluation of phytochemical contents of Ipomoea cairica (L) Sweet – a qualitative approach / Vanlalhruaii Ralte / Science Vision 14(3), 145-151
(10)
Constituents of Ipomoea cairica Ethanolic Extract / Ferreira, A. A.; Silveira, D.; Alves, R. B.; de Oliveira, P. M.; Raslan, D. S. / Chemistry of Natural Compounds; Jul 2005, Vol. 41 Issue 4, p465
(11)
Oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica L. leaf extract against dengue vectors. /
Rattanam Ahbirami, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Zary Shariman Yahaya, Hamady Dieng, Maniam Thiagaletchumi, Nik Fadzly, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Sazaly Abu Bakar /Trop Biomed 2014 Sep;31(3):456-65
(12)
Four New Pentasaccharide Resin Glycosides from Ipomoea cairica with Strong α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Jie-Tao Pan, Bang-Wei Yu, Yong-Qin Yin*, Jie-Hong Li, Li Wang, Li-Bing Guo and Zhi-Bin Shen / Molecules 2015, 20, 6601-6610; doi:10.3390/molecules20046601
(13)
Dibenzylbutyrolactone Lignans and Coumarins from Ipomoea cairica* / Olga O. de A. Lima and Raimundo Braz-Filho / J. Braz. Chem. Soc., Vol. 8, No. 3, 235-238, 1997.
(14)
Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea carnea stem extracts and its active ingredient dibutyl phthalate against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Elija Khatiwora*, Vaishali B. Adsula, Pushpa Pawarb, Mary Josephb, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar / Der Pharma Chemica, 2014, 6(1):155-161
(15)
Cytotoxic activity of Ipomoea cairica / Rong-Jyh Lin , Chung-Yi Chen & Wen-Li Lo / Natural Product Research, Formerly Natural Product Letters, Volume 22, 2008, Issue 9
(16)
Ipomoea cairica / Indian common names / eFlora of India
(17)
Evaluation of phytochemical contents of Ipomoea cairica (L) Sweet – a qualitative approach / Vanlalhruaii Ralte / Science Vision 14(3), 145-151
(18)
Four New Pentasaccharide Resin Glycosides from Ipomoea cairica with Strong α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Jie-Tao Pan, Bang-Wei Yu, Yong-Qin Yin, Jie-Hong Li, Li Wang, Li-Bing Guo and Zhi-Bin Shen / Molecules 2015, 20, 6601-6610; doi:10.3390/molecules20046601
(19)
Two novel resin glycosides isolated from Ipomoea cairica with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity
/ LI Jie-Hong, PAN Jie-Tao, YIN Yong-Qin* / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 2016, 14(3): 02270231 Medicines
(20)
Antioxidant potential of medicinal plant ipomoea Cairica (L) sweet
/ Deepa Srivastava and Shukla, K. / Internation Journal of Development Research

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