Mondo grass, dwarf lily turf, ophiopogon japonicus : Philippine Medicinal Herbs / StuartXchange
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Family Liliaceae
Mondo grass
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl.

Mai men dong

Scientific names Common names
Convallaria graminifolia Salisb. Dwarf lily turf (Engl.)
Convallaria japonica Thunb. Mondo grass (Engl.)
Convallaria japonica L.f. Monkey grass (Engl.)
Flueggea anceps Raf. Snake's beard (Engl.)
Flueggea japonica (Thunb.) Rich.  
Liriope gracilis (Kunth) Nakai  
Mondo gracile (Kunth) Koidz.  
Mondo japonicum (Thunb.) Farw.  
Ophiopogon argyi HLév.  
Ophiopogon chekiangensis Koiti Kumura & Migo  
Ophiopogon gracilis (Thunb.)  
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl.  
Ophiopogon merrillii Masam.  
Ophiopogon ohwii Okuyama  
Ophiopogon stolonifer H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Polygonastrum compressum Moench  
Slateria coerulea Siebold ex Miq.  
Slateria japonica (Thunb.) Desv.  
Tricoryne acaulis D.Dietr.  
Tricoryne caulescens D.Dietr.  
Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mai men dong.
FINNISH: Mukulakäärmeenparta.
JAPANESE: Ja-no-hige, Rui-no-hige.
KOREAN: jobnipmaekmundongajaebi.
RUSSIAN: ofiopogon japonskij.

Mondo grass is a low, stemless, glamorous, grass-like, perennial herb with large stolons with tuberous roots. Leaves are leathery, narrow-linear, 20 to 30 centimeters long, gracefully arching and dark green. Flowers are small, drooping, violet-purple to lilac or white, borne on erect racemes up to 8 centimeters long. Fruit is a blue berry, 5 millimeters in diameter.

- Recently introduced in the Philippines.
- Used as ground cover.

- Native to China, India, Japan, and Vietnam.

Study yielded five new homoisoflavonoids from the extract of tuber of O. japonicus - ophiopogonanone C, ophiopogonanone D, ophiopogonone C, ophiopogonanone E, and ophiopogonanone F, plus six other compounds.
Study isolated a new phenolic glycoside, ophiopojaponin D, with two other known compounds, from the tuber.

• Study of flowers yielded eleven compounds viz., beta-sitosterol (1), diosgenin (2), daucosterol (3), ophiopogonin C' (4), dioscin (5), 7-dihy-droxy-6-methyl-3-(4'-hydroxybenzyl) chroman-4-one(6), luteolin (7), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides (8), kaempferol-3-O-(6"-tigloyl) -beta-D-glucopyranosides (9), kaempferol-3-O-(6"-acetyl) -beta-D-glucopyranosides (10), glucose (11). (16)
• Study isolated two new and six known steroidal glucosides from the tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus viz. (20R,25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,26-dihydroxycholest-5-en-16,22-dioxo-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β,14α,17α,22α,26-pentaol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3). (17)
- Nutritional analysis showed tubers are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and amino acids. (see study below) (19)
- Study of tubers for liposoluble components isolated 16 compounds consisting of 7 homoisoflavones, 2 anthraquinones, 3 phenolic acids, 2 terpenes and 2 fatty acids. Structures were identified as methyl-ophiogonanone A (1), methylophiopogonanone B (2), methylophiopogonone A (3),
methylophiopogonone B (4), 2'hydroxy methylophiopogonone A (5), 6-aldehydoisophiopogonanone A (6), 5, 7 dihydroxy 8 methoxy 6 methyl 3 (2′ hydroxy 4′ methoxybenzyl)chroman 4 one (7), chrysophenol (8), emodin (9), vanillic acid (10), P hydroxy benzaldenhyde (11), P trans coumarinic acid (12), l borneol β D glucopyranoside (13), oleanolia acid (14), azelaic acid (15) and n tricosanoic acid (16). (25)
- Study isolated a new steroidal glycoside, named ophiopojaponin C (1), along with two known ones. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence showed the structures to be ophiopogenin 3‐O‐[α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl(1→4)‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (1), diosgenin 3‐O‐[2‐O‐acetyl‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl(1->3)‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (2), and ruscogenin 1‐O‐[2‐O‐acetyl‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl (1->2)]‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1->3)‐β‐D‐fucopyranoside (3). (28)
- GC-MS analysis for essential oil yielded 0.085%, containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as main constituents. Major constituents were Longi-folene (18.5%), ß-patchoulene (9.6%), guaia (5.2%), cyperene (2.6%), α-patchoulene (1.8%), humulene (1.8%) among others. (35)

Considered tonic and tranquilizing.
- Main components which include steroidal saponins, homoisoflavonoids and polysaccharides have exhibited pharmacological activities viz., cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-oxidation, immunomodulation, cough relief, antimicrobial and antidiabetes. (
- Studies have suggested anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antiangiogenesis, radical scavenging, hypolipidemic properties.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, leaves and roots.

- Mucilaginous roots report to be edible. While some report it as sweet and aromatic, it has been reported as bitter. (23)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In China, traditionally used as anti-inflammatory. Also, as tonic and tranquilizer, treatment of cough, insomnia, diabetes, constipation, and diphtheria.
- Also, used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat sicca-associated disorders and cardiovascular disease. Used to nourish yin, promote production of body fluids, moisten the lungs, ease the mind, and clear away heart fire. (
22) Essential oil used for treatment of sore throat, cough, and heart disease. (35)
- Used as antiseptic for healing of mouth sores.
- Used for cough suppression.
- Used to stimulate milk in nursing mothers.
Six Juice Drinks: A Chinese concoction called "six juice drinks" for diabetes, has O. japonicus as a herbal constituent.
• Agroforestry:
Considered a good ground cover or carpeting plant, and for preventing soil erosion. (

Study of the ethanol extract of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus showed in-vivo inhibitory effects on venous thrombosis probably from its endothelial cell-protective and anti-adhesive activities, supporting the therapeutic use of the plant for thrombotic diseases. (1) Study evaluated the antithrombotic and thrombolytic activity of a fermented extract of O. japonicus in thrombosis-induced rats. Results showed clotting time, bleeding time, PT and APTT were prolonged in the middle-dose group more than the control and thrombosis groups, thereby, suggesting antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects. (30)
Anti-thrombotic / Ruscogenin / Ophiopogonin D: Study showed the aqueous extract of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus exerted significant anti-thrombotic activity and ruscogenin and ophiopogonin D are the two active components.
Study of the Radix O. japonicus extract yielded two active components, ruscogenin and ophiopogonin D, and showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity supporting its traditional use in inflammatory diseases. (
A Chinese study on the root tubers of O japonicus significantly lowered blood sugar of normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. In combination with Ginseng, there was blood sugar reduction in alloxan-induced diabetes but no significant effect in normal mice. (
Sjogren's Syndrome:
SS is an autoimmune disorder with lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Th1/Th2 imbalance has been shown to have a role in its pathogenesis. In an autoallergic mouse model for SS, results provided a basis for the use of Ophiopogon japonicus for Sjogren's syndrome. (
Homoisoflavonoids / Radical Scavenging Effects:
Study yielded 10 homoisoflavonoids from O japonicus extracts with the majority showing radical scavenging effects.(
Anti-Myocardial Ischemia:
O japonicus polysaccharide from Radix ophiogonis has shown antimyocardial activity. This study on a series of sulfated FOJ-5 (FOJ-5-S) showed that when the degree of substitution was in a certain range, the FOJ-5-S had excellent anti-myocardial ischemic activity. (
Cardiovascular Benefit / Anti-Ischemic / Angiogenesis:
Study showed a water soluble b-D-fructan (MDG) from OJ had remarkable anti-ischemic activity and protects cardiomyocyte and HMEC-1 cells from ischemic-induced cell damage through cytoprotective and proangiogenic effects via the S1P/bFGF/Akt/ERK/eNOS signaling pathway. (10)
Shengmai San / Hypolipidemic / Anti-lipid Peroxidation:
SMS is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Panax ginseng, Schisandra chinensis and Ophiopogon japonicus used for treating coronary heart disease. Study showed that SMS may reduce hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats.
Anti-Inflammatory Homoflavonoids / Roots:
Tuberous roots yielded two new homoisoflavonoids, named ophiopogonone E and ophiopogonanone H, together with 13 known ones. Compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11 showed potent inhibitory effects on NO production. (14)
MDG-1 / Anti-Diabetic Mechanisms:
MDG-1, a water-soluble ß-D-fructan polysaccharide from O. japonicus, has been used in the treatment of experimental T2DM. Fecal metabonomic study investigated the mechanism of MDG-1 in a spontaneous diabetic model. Findings suggest MDG-1 actions against diabetes may be through absorbable monosugars and butanedioic acid via suppression of intestinal glucose absorption, enhancement of liver glycogenesis, inhibition of glycogenolysis and promotion of GLP-1 secretion. It can also alleviate diabetes and diabetic nephropathy by reducing 7H-purine and 2'-deoxyinosine. (18)
MDG-1 / Anti-Diabetic Mechanisms/ α-glucosidase inhibitory:
Study analyzed the nutritional composition of OJ tubers, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The n-butanol fraction and chloroform/methanol extract of tubers showed high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibition (higher than acarbose) and antioxidant activities. (19)
Antioxidant / Antifatigue: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antifatigue potential of Ophiopogon japonicus extracts in exercised Sprague Dawley rats. The extract contained polyphenols, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. OJE was able to significantly scavenge DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also significantly extended endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion, decreased lactate and serum urea nitrogen contents, together with amelioration of biochemical parameters related to fatigue in the exercise rat model. (
MDG-1 / Hypoglycemic / PI3K/Akt Pathway: Study evaluated the effects of a water-soluble-ß-D-fructan (MDG-1) from O. japonicus on T2DM through the PI3K/akt pathway in a diabetic KKAy mouse model. Results showed MDG-1 reduced the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia in the KKAy mice.
It showed remarkable anti-diabetic activity through the InsR/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3/Glut=4 signaling pathway. (21)
Effect on Chemotherapy Induced Bone Marrow Depression / P. ginseng and O. japonicus: Study evaluated the effects of combination of Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus (PG-OJ) herbs at different ratios on myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy in mice. Myelosuppression was induced by IP injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Measured parameters were numbers of bone marrow nucleated cells and peripheral blood cells, along with thymus and spleen indices. The PG-OJ herb pair with a ration of 2:3 showed excellent synergistic effect on myelosuppression induced by CTX. Study suggests that rare ginsenosides and ophiopogonin D may be the main constituents involved in the treatment of bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy. (24)
Steroidal Saponin / Protective Effect Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Cell Toxicity / Tubers: Study of tubers isolated a new furostanol saponin, ophiopogonin T. The compound was evaluated for cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines and protective effect against anticancer drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Results showed treatment with ophiopogonin T significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in porcine kidney. (26)
Amelioration of Oxidative Stress / Age-Delaying Effect / Herbal Tea: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and longevity-promoting potential of O. japonicus herbl tea using Caenorhabditis elegans model. By DPPH scavenging assay, OJT showed scavenging of free radicals. OJT increased the survival rate of nematodes and reduced the endogenous levels of ROS under oxidative stress induced by paraquat. Results showed antioxidant activity and age-delaying effect of OJT, which may provide insights into the potential of O. japonicus for health promotion. (27)
Oligofructans / Reduction of Atopic Dermatitis Flare-Ups / Clinical Trial: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease affecting 15-2-% of children and 2-10% of adults worldwide. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted in a cohort of 90 Caucasian childrena and 144 adults with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. A natural ingredients from O. japonicus improved patient's quality of life and significantly reduced the number of relapses in patients compared to placebo.. Results suggest the treatment could be effective in controlling mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis between flare-ups. (29)
Homoisoflavonoids / Antioxidant / Roots: Study of root extract identified 17 different homoisoflavonoid compounds with two major compounds identified as methylophiopogonanone A and methylophiopogonanone B.  methylophiopogonanone B exhibited highest antioxidant ability by various in-vitro assays. Among the extracts, the chloroform/methanol extract which contained high amounts of homoisoflavonoids showed strongest antioxidant activity. Results suggest O. japonicus can be a potential source of homoisoflavonoids and natural antioxidant. (31)
Release-Controlling Enteral Absorption Enhancement / Sodium Caprate: Study evaluated how to improve the intestinal absorption of O. japonicus polysaccharide by incorporating it together with sodium caprate into erodible matrices, designed to release OJP and SC at various rates over different periods of time. (32)
Steroidal Saponin / Cardioprotective / Amelioration of Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of steroidal saponins extract from OJ roots against doxorubicin-induced chronic heart failure in Sprague-Dawley rat model of CHF. Results showed a cardioprotective effect against DOX-induced CHF through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. (33)
Exopolysaccharides / Inhibition of Proliferation and Migration in MC-4 Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Study investigated the antitumor activity of exopolysacchardies (EPSs) extracted from endophytes in O. japonicus. The endophyte bacterium MD4 was isolated from O. japonicus. MD4 was identified as a Staphylococcus sp. with 99% similarity. The MD4 endophyte acted as natural antitumor agents to inhibit the migration of gastric cancer cells. (34)

- Cultivated.
- Teas and root powder extracts in the cybermarket.

Updated November 2019 / July 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Inhibitory effects of ethanol extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus on venous thrombosis linked with its endothelium-protective and anti-adhesive activities / Vascular Pharmacology / Volume 43, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 157-163 / doi:10.1016/j.vph.2005.06.004
Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Two Constituents / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin / Vol. 28 (2005) , No. 7 1234
Review: Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92 (2004) 1–21
Preventive effect of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharides on an autoallergic mouse model for Sjogren's syndrome by regulating the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance / Yue Wang et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 2007, vol. 114, no2, pp. 246-253
Homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Oxygen Free Radicals (OFRs) Scavenging Effects / Yi-Feng Zhou et al / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, May 2008; Vol 6, Issue 3: pp 201-204 / doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(09)60017-0
Influence of sulfation on anti-myocardial ischemic activity of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide / Qin Zheng et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 4 April 2009 , pages 306 - 321 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020902727363
Five New Homoisoflavonoids from the Tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus / Jin-Ming Chang, Chien-Chang Shen et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (11): pp 1731–1733 / DOI: 10.1021/np020204o
Ophiopojaponin D, a new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Ophiopogon Japonicus Ker-Gawl / Hao Fu Dai and Wen Li Mei / Archives of Pharmacal Research, Nov 2005; 28(11): pp 1236-1238 / DOI 10.1007/BF02978205
Antithrombotic Activities of Aqueous Extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Two Constituents / Kou Junping, Tian Youqing et al / Biol Pharm Bull, VOL.29;NO.6;PAGE.1267-1270
A polysaccharide, MDG-1, induces S1P1 and bFGF expression and augments survival and angiogenesis in the ischemic heart / Shuo Wang, Zhang Zhang et al / Glycobiology 2010 20(4):473-484; doi:10.1093/glycob/cwp199
Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet / Hsien-Tsung Yao, Yi-Wei Chang et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 116, Issue 1, 28 February 2008, Pages 49-57 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.043

Ophiopogon japonicus—Dwarf Lilyturf / Common names / EOL Encyclopedia of Life
Analysis of homoisoflavonoids in Ophiopogon japonicus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS / Min Ye, Dean Guo, Guan Ye, Chenggang Huang / Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Volume 16, Issue 2, February 2005, Pages 234–243
Anti-inflammatory homoisoflavonoids from the tuberous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus. / Ning Li, Jia-Yu Zhang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Liang Zhang, Ya-Yun Che, and Peng-Fei Tu / Fitoterapia, 05/2012; 83(6):1042-5. / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.05.011
Ophiopogon japonicus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Studies on the chemical constituents from the flowers of Ophiopogon japonicus / Zhu YH, Zhao M, Ren L, Tian D, Dou F, Wang JX. /Zhong Yao Cai. 2011 May;34(5):720-3.
Studies on chemical constituents of Ophiopogon japonicus / Yue Liu, Ling-Zhi Meng, Sheng-Xu Xie, Tun-Hai Xu*, Lian-kun Sun, Tong-Hua Liu, Ya-Juan Xu* & Dong-Ming Xu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 16, Issue 10, 2014 / DOI:10.1080/10286020.2014.935348
Fecal metabonomic study of a polysaccharide, MDG-1 from Ophiopogon japonicus on diabetic mice based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC TOF/MS). / Zhu Y, Cong W, Shen L, Wei H, Wang Y, Wang L, Ruan K, Wu F, Feng Y. / Mol Biosyst. 2014 Feb;10(2):304-12. /
doi: 10.1039/c3mb70392d.
Nutritional Composition, -Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Tubers / Yancui Wang, Feng Liu, and Zongsuo Liang / Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2015 (2015) /
Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Extracts in Exercised Rats / Chi-Ting Horng, Hui-Yun Wang, Yu-Syuan Huang, Jai-Sing Yang and Fu-An Chen / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Oct-Dec 2014; 3(4): pp 858-870
MDG-1, a polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus exerts hypoglycemic effects through the PI3K/Akt pathway in a diabetic KKAy mouse model / Ling-Yi Wang, Yuan Wang, De-Sheng Xu, Ke-Feng Ruan, Yi Feng, Shuo Wang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 143, Issue 1, 30 August 2012, pp 347–354 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.050
Ophiopogon japonicus--A phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological review. / Chen MH,Chen XJ, Wang M, Lin LG, and Wang YT / J Ethnopharmacol., April 2016; 181: pp 193-213 / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.037.
Ophiopogon japonicus / Useful Tropical Plants
Comparative analysis of active ingredients and effects of the combination of Panax ginsengand  Ophiopogon japonicus at different proportions on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression mouse / Shengbo Zhang, Hengyu Sun, Chunyun Wang, Xiaoman Zheng, Xiaohuan Jia, Enbo Cai, and Yan Zhao / Journal of Food & Function, 2019; 10(3): pp 1563-1570 / DOI 10.1039/C8FO02354A
Studies on the liposoluble components from tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus / CHENG Zhi hong, WU Tao, LI Lin zhou, LIU Nan, YU Bo yang, XU Luo shan / Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 2005-05
A New Steroidal Saponin from the Tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Protective Effect Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Cell Toxicity / Seoung Rak Lee, Ju-Yeon Han, Hee Rae Kang, Hye Lim Lee, Hyung-Jun Noh, Jae-Soon Cha, Ki Sung Kang, Chan-Jung Lee, Ki Hyun Kim / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.27 no.4 São Paulo Apr. 2016 /
Ophiopogon japonicus herbal tea ameliorates oxidative stress and extends lifespan in caenorhabditis elegans / Xuesong Yu, Dake Gao, Bing QI, Xiaochun Xiao, Xufeng Zhai, Chung Wah Ma, Qianggiang Wang, Zebo Huang / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2018; 14(58): pp 617-623 / DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_313_18
A New Steroidal Glycoside from Ophiopogon japonicus(Thunb.) Ker‐Gawl. / Hao-Fu Dai, Shi-Ming Deng, Ning-Hua Tan, Jun Zhou / Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Sept 2005; 47(9): pp 1148-1152 /
Clinical Efficacy of Oligofructans from Ophiopogon japonicus in Reducing Atopic Dermatitis Flare-ups in Caucasian Patients / Carine Mainzer, Maud Le Guillou, Raoul Vyumvuhore, Bernard Chadoutaud, Sylvie Bordes and Brigitte Closs / ActaDV: ActaDermatoVenereologica, 2019; 99(10)
Antithrombotic Effect of Fermented Ophiopogon japonicus in Thrombosis-Induced Rat Models / Yi-Lin Zhang, Mei-Zhu Xi, Young-Bin Choi, and Bog-Hieu Lee / Journal of Medicinal Food, 20(7) /
Homoisoflavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of Ophiopogon japonicus Root. / Wang Y, Liu F, Liang Z, Peng L, Wang B, Yu J, Su Y, Ma C / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2017; 16(1): pp 357-365 / PMCID:pmc5423261 / PMCID:PMC5423261
Release-Controlling Absorption Enhancement of Enterally Administered Ophiopogon JaponicusPolysaccharide by Sodium Caprate in Rats / Xiao Lin, De-sheng Xu, Yi Feng, Song-Ming, Zhi-Ling Lu, Lan Shen / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nov 206; 95(11): pp 2534-2542 / DOI:
Effects of steroidal saponins extract from Ophiopogon japonicus root ameliorates doxorubicin-induced chronic heart failure by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response / Zhongwei Wu, Hong-Tao Wang / Pharmaceutical Biology, Dec 2019 / PMID: 30860934 / DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2019.1577467
Exopolysaccharides from an Ophiopogon japonicus endophyte inhibit proliferation and migration in MC-4 human gastric cancer cells / Wenjun Xu, Yongle Yang, Youguang Yang, Zhongxia Lu, Qunying Lu, Yitao Chen / TCR: Translational Cancer Research, Dec 2018; 7(6) / doi: 10.21037/tcr.2018.11.28
Studies on ChemicaI Constituents of Essential Oil of Ophiopogon japonious / Zhn Yong Xin, Lie Lie-Zhe, Wang Wei, Ling Da-kal, Sun Zeng-pei / Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Jan 1991; 11(1): pp 21-22


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Abuse and Plagiarism of the Compilation on Philippine Medicinal Plants Under the Guise of Fair Use

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