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Family Compositae

Milfoil
Achillea millefolium Linn.
YARROW

Shi cao

Scientific names Common names
Achillea albida Willd. Carpenter's weed (Engl.)
Achillea ambigua Boiss. Milfoil (Engl.)
Achillea ambigua Pollini Thousand leaf (Engl.)
Achillea anethifolia Fisch. ex Herder Thousand-seal (Engl.)
Achillea angustissima Rydb. Yarrow (Engl.)
Achillea arenicola A.Heller Yarroway (Engl.)
Achillea bicolor Wender.  
Achillea borealis Bong.  
Achillea californica Pollard  
Achillea ceretanica Sennen  
Achillea compacta Lam.  
Achillea coronopifolia Willd.  
Achillea crassifolia Colla  
Achillea cristata Hort. ex DC.  
Achillea dentifera Rchb.  
Achillea eradiata Piper  
Achillea fusca Rydb.  
Achillea gigantea Pollard  
Achillea gracilis Raf.  
Achillea haenkeana Tausch  
Achillea intermedia Schleich.  
Achillea lanata Lam.  
Achillea lanulosa Nutt.  
Achillea laxiflora A.Nelson  
Achillea laxiflora Pollard & Cockerell  
Achillea magna L.  
Achillea marginata Turcz. ex Ledeb.  
Achillea megacephala Raup.  
Achillea millefolium Linn.  
Achillea nabelekii Heimerl  
Achillea occidentalis (DC.) Raf.ex Rydb.  
Achillea ochroleuca Eichw.  
Achillea ossica K.Koch.  
Achillea pacifica Rydb.  
Achillea palmeri Rydb.  
Achillea pecten-veneris Pollard  
Achillea pratensis Saukel & R.Langer  
Achillea pseudo-tanacetifolia Wierzb. ex Rchb.  
Achillea puberula Rydb.  
Achillea pumila Schur  
Achillea rosea Desf.  
Achillea setacea Schwein.  
Achillea sordida (W.D.J.Koch) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.  
Achillea subalpinia Greene  
Achillea submillefolium Klokov & Krytzka  
Achillea sylvatica Becker  
Achillea taabacetifolia Mill.  
Achillea tenuis Schur  
Achillea virgata Hort. ex DC.  
Alitubus millefoliatus St.-Lag.  
Alitubus millefolium (L.) Dulac  
Alitubus tomentosus Dulac  
Chamaemelum millefolium (L.) E.H.L.Krause  
Chamaemelum tanacetifolium (All.) E.H.L.Krause  
Achillea millefolium L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Om alf waraka.
CHINESE: Ou shi, Qian ye shi, Ju cao, Shi cao.
CROATIAN: Armanj, Jezičec, Jutrocel, Kačak, Paprac, Rebrac, Reza, Rman
DANISH: Duizendblad.
FINNISH: Aivastusjuuri, Akantupakki, Siank
FRENCH: Millefeuille, Herbe aux coupures, Herbe aux militaires, Herbe de St. Jean.
GERMAN: Gemeine schafgarbe, Tausendblatt, Wiesen-Schafgarb.
ITALIAN: Millefoglie, Milefoglio.
JAPANESE: Seiyou no kogirisou, Yaroo.
NORWEGIAN: Ryllik, Vanlig ryllik.
POLISH: Krwawnik pospolity.
PORTUGESE: Espuma-do-mar, Mil-em-rama, Mil-folhas.
RUSSIAN: Tysjačelistnik obyknovennyj.
SERBIAN: Ajdučica, Ajdučka trava, Aspra, Jalovi mesecnjak, Kunji rep, Krokoted.
SLOVENIAN: Arman, Grenki man, Erman, Zavrelec, Mezinec, Rmanc, Runica.
SPANISH: Alcanfor, Ciento en rama, Mil hojas, Milefolio , Milenrama, Milhojas.


Gen info
- Yarrow (Achilles millefolium) was named after Achilles, the Greek mythical hero who used it to stop the bleeding wounds of his soldiers. (1) The "Achilles Heel" is from the mythological narrative of his mother, the Goddess Thetis, who was afraid to let go of her infant Achilles completely while he was being dipped into the river Styx to make him invincible, held on to her son's ankles rendering it vulnerable.

Botany
Milfoil is an erect perennial herb growing to a height of 50 to 90 centimeters. Leaves are without stalks, 1- to 2-pinnately parted into linear-toothed segments. Heads occur in flat-topped corymbs. Flowers are white, red, or purplish, with five rays.

Distribution
- Occurs in Baguio and the Mountain Province as an ornamental, cultivated for its flowers and foliage.
- Also found in the Western Himalayas, extending to Northern Asia, Europe and America.

Constituents
• Contains a bitter glucoside – achilleine, tannin, bluish volatile oil, aconitic acid, resin, nitrate, inuline, asparagin.
• Contains a volatile oil rich in sesquiterpene lactones and alkamides.
• Volatile oil is the best source of the blue hydrocarbon, azulene, with a great percentage of borneol and thujone.
• Roots contain volatile oil, 0.032%.
• Yields three alkaloids: achilleine, achilletine and moscatine.
• Oil has yielded eucalyptol, camphor, alpha-terpineol, beta-pinene and borneol as principal components.
• Analysis of essential oil identified 33 peaks, representing 81.4 % of the oil. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole (22%), camphor (21%), borneol (7.6%) and b-pinene (5.3%).
• Study of oil yielded: methyl alcohol, formaldehyde, probably formic acid, ethyl alcohol, acetone, furfurol, valeric acid, eugenol, pinene, nopinene, cineol, thujone, borneol, camphor, caryophyllen, and azulen.
• The volatile oil is considered a good source of blue hydrocarbon, azulene, and contains a good percentage of borneol and thujone.

Properties
• Flowering plant and flowers considered stimulant, aromatic, sudorific, tonic, astringent, diuretic, vulnerary.
• Considered anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
• Used for colds, fevers, obstructed perspiration.
• Use to open the pores in obstructed perspiration and as blood purifier.
• Used for hysteria, flatulence, heartburn, colic and epilepsy.
• In England, used as vulnerary, taken internally to suppress hemorrhages and profuse mucoid discharges.
• Used for intermittent fevers and as antispasmodic in flatulent colic and nervous affections.
• In France, hot infusion used as emmenagogue and for suppression of lochia; sometimes used in low exanthematous fevers with obstinate eruptions.
• Ointment of the fresh plant used by the Scottish Highlanders for hemorrhoids.
• Decoction of whole herb used for bleeding hemorrhoids and kidney disorders.
• Used as hair wash for prevention of baldness.
• An whole plant tincture made with wine, in diluted strength, used in small doses for arresting bleeding in the lungs, kidneys and nose.
• Leaves believed to encourage clotting; used fresh for nosebleeds. Also, a strong decoction of leaves used as injection into the nostrils to stop bleeding.
• Fresh juice of the plant used to improve appetite.
• Fresh juice used as astringent for piles, varicose ulcers and sore nipples.
• Fresh bruised herb used as vulnerary and styptic.
• In Norway, used for rheumatism; leaves chewed for toothaches.
• In Scotland, fresh leaves used for colds and various childhood ailments.
• In France, powdered leaves used as sternutatory; rolled leaf applied to nostrils to induce bleeding and relieve headaches.
• In California, leaves steeped in hot water are applied to cuts and bruises; also used for poulticing skin rashes.
• Essential oil from the flowers used to stimulate the appetite.
• Leaves chewed for toothaches; infusion used as drops to fill ear canals for earaches.
Others
• In Sweden and some parts of Africa, plant has been used in making beer; Linnaeus considered milfoil brewed beer to more intoxicating than hops-beer.
• In the middle ages, yarrow was an ingredient of the herbal mixture called grut, used in the flavoring of beer prior to the use of hops.

Studies
Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the antiulcer potential of the aerial parts of Achillea millefolium, with no signs of toxicity even at chronic exposure.
(1)
Antimicrobial: Study has shown the oil to have antimicrobial activity against S pneumoniae, C perfringens, C albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida krusei.
Essential Oils / Chamazulene: Essential oils isolated from 20 different plants of A millefolium were: chamazulene, germacrene, ß-thujone, a-thujone, sabinene, ß-pinene among others. The plants of A millefolium which produced the highest content of chamazulene was propagated by rhizome for further production of oils rich in blue pigment. (2)
Antitumor: Study has yielded three sesquiterpenoids, achimillic acids A, B and C which showed antitumor activities. Compounds were active against P-388 leukemia cells in vivo.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment: Study results suggest that Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris and propolis extracts are effective in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniansis in mice, alone or in combination. (3)
Choleretic Effects: In the study, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids and luteolin-7-O-[beta]-D-glucoronide prepared from methanolic extract of yarrow was investigated for its choleretic effect. Results showed a dose-dependent increase in bile flow in the isolated perfused rat liver. (4)
Antimotility Effect: Study showed A millefolium extract inhibited electrical-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum when tested in vitro in a dose-dependent and reversible effect. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study confirms the antiphlogistic activity of A. millefolium aqueous extract. The anti-inflammatory effects were partially mediated by the suppression of the activation of transcription factor NF0kB and p38 MAPK signaling cascade. It also showed good free radical scavenging activity and an ability to decrease the levels of intracellular ROS. (8)
Antimicrobial: Study showed the alcoholic extract of yarrow has considerable antimicrobial effect on control and wound pathogen microorganisms. The antibacterial effect was lesser than Ampicillin and greater or similar to other penicillin derivatives.
(9)
Anti-Trypanocidal: A study evaluated the anti-epimastigote activity of varied fractions of four medicinal plants, including A millefolium, against the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent causing Chagas disease. Results revealed that Achillea and Satureja species could be a source of active trypanocidal compounds. (10)
Antinociceptive Effect / Anti-Inflammatory / Antispasmodic / Rutin: A study of the hydroalcoholic extracts of A. millefolium and A vulgaris confirmed their folkloric use as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agents. Both showed rutin as the principal flavonoid glycoside constituent. (11)
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Study showed extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis are effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Randomized clinical trials are suggested in humans. (14)
Antimutagenic: Study evaluated the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of A. millefolium and Bauhinia forficata. The extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential, reducing the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by cyclophosphamide. (16)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of A. millefolium herb using various assays. Results showed significant antioxidant activity on on-line HPLC-DPPH assay attributed to the presence of active components amongst phenolic compounds. Fluorimetric measurements demonstrated that YE at concentrations that had no effect on the State 3 respiration rate significantly decreased H2O2 production in mitochondria. (17)
Wound Healing / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil of Achilles millefolium on wound healing in male chickens. Results showed higher concentrations have significant healing properties on chicken's wound. Results suggest a potential source for natural alternative components for wound healing. (18)
Melanogenesis Alteration Effects / Hyperpigmentation Treatment Potential / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil of A. millefolium on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) treated melanoma cells. Results showed AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. Results suggest a potential for EO to treat hyperpigmentation in the future.(19)
Fumigant / Essential Oil: Study showed essential oils of A. millefolium, A. dracunculus and H. persicum have potential as fumigants for controlling P. interpunctella, and an alternative to conventional synthetic insecticides. (20)
Hepatoprotection / Hepatic Fibrosis: Study evaluated the anti-hepatofibrotic effect of Achilles millefolium extract on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its partial mechanism. Results showed hepatoprotection and prevention of progression of hepatic fibrosis in rats. (21)
Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Reproductive Toxicity: Study showed A. millefolium inflorescences aqueous extract may be partially protective against reproductive toxicity during CP treatment in a rat model. (22)
Analgesic: Study of an aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium assessed in rat's formalin assay showed analgesic effects provably resulting from its central action. (23)
Inhibition of Ileum Contractions: Study showed Achillea millefolium extract inhibits ileum contractions. Results suggest it might be used in patients to reduce ileum spasms. (24)
Inhibition of Ileum Contractions: Study of Achillea millefolium plant extract for showed a mild stimulatory effect on ß-adrenoceptor of tracheal smooth muscle. (25)
• Drug Interactions / Anticoagulant Concerns: Caution on major interactions with medications that slow blood clotting such as anticoagulants and antiplatelets (heparin, enoxaparin, warfarin, clopidogrel), together with NSAIDs, aspirin, and others. (27)
• Effect on Plasma Nitrate Levels in Chronic Kidney Diseases: Randomized controlled study evaluated the possible effect of Achillea millefolium on plasma nitric oxide concentration in 31 patients with chronic kidney disease. Although not statistically significant, plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations decreased after 2 months administration of A. millefolium. Countercurrent to the placebo group, plasma nitric oxide metabolites were marginally decreased. Author posits higher doses or longer duration of plant administration may make the changes more significant. (29)
• Anti-Fibrogenic / Inhibition of Bleomycin Induced Lung Fibrosis: Study evaluated the effect of yarrow extract on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed yarrow extract may be able to impair the rate of fibroblast/myofibrolast proliferation and collagen deposition in lung tissue due to bleomycin. Effect may be due to plant ingredients with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. (30)
• Report on Anticholinergic Effect Due to Yarrow: Study reports on a 43-year old female patient presenting to the ER with blurred vision, dryness of the mouth, facial flushing, and palpitations. The report attributes the symptomatology to the use of yarrow tea (five cups daily for one week) that the patient has been using for the treatment of menometrorrhagia. Although considered safe, the author cautions on possible pharmacological effects of Achilles species. (31)
• Antifungal / Antioxidant / Essential Oil: Extracts obtained from shade dried plant in 1:1 water:ethanol mixture and essential oil were evaluated for antioxidant and antifungal effects. Study yielded 41 components in the extract and 82 components in the essential oil. Both showed good antioxidant effect on DPPH assay and in vitro antifungal activity against two relevant fungal strains Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum. Results suggest potential for applications in herbal product formulations for both human consumption and control of mycotoxigenic fungi. (32)
• Orexigenic Effect / Effect on Appetite Hormone in Rats: Study evaluated the possible orexigenic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium in 30 male Wistar rats by measuring plasma ghrelin level. Results showed positive dose-related effects evidenced by increased appetite in rats. The orexigenic activity of the extract was not related to changes in plasma ghrelin levels. (34)
• Shortening of Gastroenteritis Recovery Time: Studies have suggested A. millefolium extract can affect intestinal movements in rats. Randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of AM on recovery of 44 human subjects from gastroenteritis who received 0.5 ml/kg of distillate every 8 hours. Results showed adding AM distillate to the usual treatment for simple gastroenteritis was effective in shortening the recovery time. (35)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated June 2017 / December 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / File:Budding yarrow.jpg / Calibas / 4.09.06 / GNU Free Documentation License / WIKIPEDIA / Click on graphic to see original image

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Safety and antiulcer efficacy studies of Achillea millefolium L. after chronic treatment in Wistar rats / Ana Maria Cavalcanti et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 107, Issue 2, 19 September 2006, Pages 277-284/ doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.011
(2)
VARIABILITY OF CHAMAZULENE WITHIN ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM / A Belanger and L Dextreaze / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 330: WOCMAP I - Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference: part 4 of 4
(3)
Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice / M A Niforoushzadeh et al / J Vector Borne Dis 45, December 2008, pp. 301–306
(4)
Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver / Benedek, B et al / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology | November 1, 2006 |
(5)
YARROW HEALTH BENEFITS AND SIDE EFFECTS / Zhion

(6)
Antimotility Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) on the Guinea-Pig Ileum / Medhi Babaei et al / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 3673-3677. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.3673.3677
(7)
Secondary Metabolites in Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium (L.) Growing Wild in East Part of Kosova / Arben Haziri, Nevzat Aliaga et al / American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 6 (1): 32-34, 2010
(8)
Aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) inflorescences suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages / David Burke, Zbigniew Cichacz and Sasha Daskalova / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(3), pp. 225-234, 4 February, 2010
(9)
In vitro Assessment of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Alcoholic Extract of Achillea Millefolium in Comparison with Penicillin Derivatives / Hossien Tajik, Farnood Shokouhi et al / J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7: 508-511. / DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2008.508.511
(10)
In vitro Anti-epimastigote Activity of some Iranian Medicinal Plants / Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Gohari et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2005) 2: 101-103

(11)
Antinociceptive peripheral effect of Achillea millefolium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.: both plants known popularly by brand names of analgesic drugs / Julia Movilla Pires, Fulvio Mendes et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 23 Issue 2, Pages 212 - 219 / Publ OnLine 10 Oct 2008
(12)

Sorting Achilea names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(13)
Achillea millefolium L. / Catalogue of Life, China
(14)
Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice / M.A. Nilforoushzadeha, L. Shirani-Bidabadia, A. Zolfaghari-Baghbaderania, S. Saberia, A.H. Siadata & M. Mahmoudi / J Vector Borne Dis 45, December 2008, pp. 301–306
(15)
Yarrow / Universitry of Maryland Medical Center

(16)
Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo / Elisângela Düsman, Igor Vivian de Almeida, Ana Carolina Coelho, Thiago José Balbi, Lilian Tatiani Düsman Tonin, and Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/893050

(17
)
Achillea millefolium L. s.l. herb extract: Antioxidant activity and effect on the rat heart mitochondrial functions / Sonata Trumbeckaite, Raimondas Benetis, Deividas Burdulis, Valdimaras Janulis, Adolfas Toleikis, Pranas Viškelis, Valdas Jakštas, Lina Raudone / Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.33). 04/2011; 127:1540 - 1548. / DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.014
(18)
An invivo Survey on Effect of Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium on Wound Healing in Chicken (Geometrical Study) /
Amir Dehghani Samani, Samin Madreseh Ghahfarokhi, Azam Dehghani Samani / Journal of Natural Remedies, Vol 14, Issue 1, January 2014
(19)
The Melanogenesis Alteration Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil and Linalyl Acetate: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and the JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cells / Hsin-Yi Peng, Chih-Chien Lin, Hsun-Yen Wang, Ying Shih mail, Su-Tze Chou / PLoS ONE 9(4): e95186. / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095186
(20)
Toxicity of Essential Oils Isolated from Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia dracunculus L. and Heracleum persicum Desf. Against Adults of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Islamic Republic of Iran
/ Asgar Ebadollahi, Shabnam Ashouri /
ECOLOGIA BALKANICA, 2011, Vol 3, Issue 2, Pp 41-48
(21)
Experimental Study of Achillea Millefolium L. Extract on Hepatic Injury and Chronic Hepatic Fibrosis
/ HONG Zhen-feng, CHEN Yan-hua, ZHOU Jian-heng, LI Tian-jiao / Carcinogenesis, Teratogenesis & Mutagenesis, 2007, 19(1): 16-018.
(22)
Beneficial effects of Achillea millefolium aqueos extract against cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity / Ali Shalizar Jalali, Shapour Hasanzadeh, Hassan Malekinejad / J Exp Integr Med. 2013; 3(2): 113-119 / doi: 10.5455/jeim.110313.or.061
(23)
Analgesic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Achillea Millefolium
L. on Rat's Formalin Test / Mahdi Noureddini, Vahid-reza Rasta / Pharmacologyonline 3: 659-664 (2008)
(24)
Reversal effect of Achillea millefolium extract on ileum contractions / Mehrnoosh Sedighi, Hamid Nasri, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei*, Seifollah Mortazaei / J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2013; 2(1): 5–8.
(25)
The effect of hydroethanol extract of Achillea millefolium on β-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle / H Koushyar, MM Koushyar, G Byrami, A Feizpour, Z Golamnezhad, MH Boskabady / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013, Vol 75, Issue 4, pp 400-405

(26)
Achillea millefolium / Synonyms / The Plant List

(27)
Yarrow Interactions / WebM
D
(28)
Yarrow / The Sacred Earth / Ethnobotany & Ecotravel
(29)
Effect of Herbal Medicine Achillea Millefolium on Plasma Nitrite and Nitrate Levels in Patients With Chronic Kidney Diseas: A Preliminary Study / Sepideh Vahid, Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Farrokhlegha Ahmadi, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad Hosein Salehi Surmaghi /
IJKD 2012;6:350-4
(30)
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract impairs the fibrogenic effect of bleomycin in rat lung
/ A. A. Hemmati, A. Arzi, A. Adinehvand, N. E. Mostofi, A. R. Mozaffari and A. Jalali* / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(10), pp. 1843-1849, 18 May, 2011
(31)
An Unexpected Anticholinergic E ect due to Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) / Civan Perçemine (Achillea Millefolium) / Bağlı Beklenmeyen Antikolinerjik Etki Nurettin Özgür Doğan, Yunsur Çevik, Gül Pamukçu Günaydın / JAEMCR 2013; 4: 89-91 / doi: 10.5505/jaemcr.2013.55477
(32)
In Vitro Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties of Achillea millefolium L. / IRINA FIERASCU, CAMELIA UNGUREANU, SORIN MARIUS AVRAMESCU, RADU CLAUDIU FIERASCU*, ALINA ORTAN, LILIANA CRISTINA SOARE, ALINA PAUNESCU / Romanian Biotechnological Letters Vol. 20, No. 4, 2015

(33)
Evaluating the Efficacy of Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris Extracts Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Ovo / Seyedeh Elham Rezatofighi, * Akram Seydabadi; and Seyyed Mansour Seyyed Nejad / Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 2014 February; 7(2): e9016 , DOI: 10.5812/jjm.9016
(34)
The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats / Mohsen Nematy, Mohsen Mazidi, Atefeh Jafari, Sara Baghban, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Abdolreza Norouzy, Habibollah Esmaily, Leila Etemad, Michael Patterson, and Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour / Avicenna J Phytomed. 2017 Jan-Feb; 7(1): 10–15.
(35)
Effect of Achillea millefolium Distillate on Recovery Time in Patients with Gastroenteritis / Masoumeh Abdi, Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery,* and Mohammad Reza Sharif / Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2016 December; 5(4):e37268. / doi: 10.17795/nmsjournal37268.

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