Matang-hipon is an erect, monoecious, slender, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 4 meters high. Bark is yellowish grey. Leaves are distichous, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are very small, greenish or pink, axillary, and about 3 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is pink, purple or dull red, somewhat fleshy, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter.
- Throughout the Philippines In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters.
- Also occurs in India and Sri Lanka to China and Malaya.
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins.
- Study yielded a new megastigmane glucoside, canangaionoside.
- Aerial parts yielded a new sulfur-containing spiroketal glycoside, breynin, and a new terpenic glycoside, breyniaionoside E, together with 10 known compounds.
- Study of ethyl acetate leaf extract yielded two pure compounds: 6-O-benzoylarbutin (1) and breynioside B (2).
A third compound, 6-O-benzoyl-a-D-glucose (3) was isolated from n-butanol extracts. (see study below) (18)
- Bark is astringent.
- Antioxidant, larvicidal, adaptogenic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, radical scavenging, anti-cancer, larvicidal, adaptogenic, antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, tyrosinase inhibiting properties.
Bark, leaves, roots.
- In the Philippines, bark is astringent and used to prevent hemorrhages.
- In Siquijor, infusion of leaves in warm water drunk 3-4 times daily for fever. (23)
- In Behar, dried leaves are smoked, like tobacco, for tonsillitis.
- In Chinese traditional medicine, used for treatment of chronic bronchitis and wounds.
- In Ayurveda, used for leucorrhea, edema, menorrhagia, diabetes, dental caries.
- In India, root decoction used as mouthwash. (4)
- Leaf juice given to mothers after childbirth.
Tamil ethnic communities use the mature stem as a herbal toothstick. (6)
- In Tamil Nadu, juice prepared from ten grams of fresh leaves taken with water twice daily for ten days to treat jaundice.
- In Coastal Karnataka, leaves used in the treatment of herpes. (9)
- In Andhra Pradesh, leaves are warmed along with leaves of Dodonaea viscosa and Dalbergia paniculata and applied to treat swelling of the legs and testis. (21)
The rural women in Chikkanayakanahalli Taluk, Tumkur district, Karnataka use a cup of crushed leaves ground with few pepper seeds and garlic and taken with milk to treat uterine fibroids. Leaves used as poultice to hasten suppuration. (22)
• Glycosides: Study of leaves of Breynia officinalis isolated six terpenic glucosides and six phenolic glycosides. Two terpenic glucosides were identified as tupinionoside B and betulabuside A. The six phenolic glycosides were found to be arbutin and its derivatives. (1)
• Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial parts of Breynia vitis-idaea for antioxidant activities. All three extracts showed significant dose dependent radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant property was attributed to phenolic/flavonoid contents. (4)
• Larvicidal Against Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the mosquito larvicidal activity of various solvent extracts of leaves of B. vitis-idaea. The leaf extracts showed larvicidal properties against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi. Results suggest a potential source of natural products for mosquito control. (8)
• Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized From Stem: Study describes a simple, green method for the synthesis of gold *Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles from the stem extract of Breynia rhamnoides. Efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of AuNOs and NaBH4 was observed and found to depend on nanoparticle size or stem extract concentration. (10)
• Adaptogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated the adaptogenic activity of various extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves using in-vivo Swim Endurance testing. All the extracts showed significant increase in swimming time. The adaptogenic property may be attributed to extract constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (11)
• Anti-Cancer / HepG2 Cell Line / Leaves: Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Breynia vitis-idaea showed anti-cancer activity in HEPG2 cell lines against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in the cell line. The extracts were found nontoxic. The activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins. (13) Study evaluated active compounds from Phyllanthus madrespatensis and Breynia vitis-idaea for anti-cancer activity against human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines MTT assay. Results showed in vitro cytotoxicity against human liver cancer cell lines. The ME of P. madrapatensis showed highest activity. (19)
• Adaptogenic / Anti-Stressing Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the adaptogenic activity of ethanol, aqueous, and ethyl acetate extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea using in-vivo Swim Endurance test and compared the results with standard fluoxetine. All the extracts showed significant increase in swimming time. The adaptogenic activity may be attributed to constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (14)
• Ovicidal and Pupicidal Activity Against Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the ovicidal and pupicidal activity of B. vitis-idaea leaf extracts against three mosquito species. An ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest percentage of ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi,and Cx. quinquefasciatus The EA extract also exhibited maximum pupicial activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results suggest a potential for an ecofriendly alternative for mosquito management and control. (15)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of alcohol and aqueous leaf extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea in albino Wistar rats with intraperitoneally induced STZ diabetes. Both extracts significantly (p<0.001 reduced fasting glucose of STA-diabetic rats in a dose-related manner. There was also improvement in hyperlipidemia and reduction in complications associated with experimental diabetes. (17)
• Antioxidant / Tyrosinase Inhibition / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves extracts using in vitro assays. All extracts showed significant radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Ethyl acetate extracts and isolated compounds showed highest free biocapacities. (see constituents above) (18)
• Hepatoprotective / Chang Liver Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity potential of ethanol, aqueous, and ethyl acetate extracts of B. vitis-idaea leaves using Chang liver cell line. All extracts showed significant increase in the % cell viability. Hepatoprotective activity was attributed to phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (20)