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Family Leguminosae
Mani
Arachis hypogaea Linn.
PEANUT

Hua sheng

Scientific names Common names
Arachis hypogaea Linn. Batung-china (Sul.)
Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne Peanut (Engl.)
Lathyrus esquirolii H, Lév. Earth nut (Engl.)
  Goober (Engl.)
  Ground nut (Engl.)
  Monkey nut (Engl.)
Arachis hypogaea L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Apeneutjie, Grondboontjie.
ARABIC: Fûl sûdânî, Fûl sûdânî.
BENGALI: Mata kalai.
BURMESE: Mye pai.
CHINESE: Di duo, Chang sheng guo, Hua sheng.
CZECH: Bursky orisek, Podzemnice olejná.
DANISH: Jordnød, Jordnødder, Jordnoedder.
DUTCH: Aardnoot, Grondnoot, Pindaplant
ESTONIAN: Maapähkel.
FINNISH: Maapähkinä.
FRENCH: Arachide, Cacahuète, Pistache de terre, Pistachier de terre.
GERMAN: Erdnuß, Echte Erdnuss, Erdmandel.
GREEK: Arahida, Arahidi, Arapico fistiki.
HINDI: Cini badama, Moong phali, Mosambi cana, Mumg phali, Muungaphalii.
ITALIAN: Arachide, Mandorla di terra, Nocciolina, Pistacchio di terra.
JAPANESE: Nankinmame, Piinatsu, Rakkasei.
KHMER: Sandaek dei.
KOREAN: Ttang kong.
MALAYALAM: Nellakkadalai, Nilakkatala.
MARATHI: Bhui muga.
NEPALESE: Mungphalii.
POLISH: Orzech ziemny, Orzacha podziemna.
PORTUGUESE: Amendoim verdadeiro, Aráquida, Jinguba, Mancarra, Mendoim, Mendubi, Mondubim.
RUSSIAN: Arakhis
SANSKRIT: Bhu canaka, Mandapi.
SPANISH: Alcagüeses, Aráquido, Avellana americana, Cacahuate, Maní.
THAI: Thùa lísong.
URDU: Mugphalii
VIETNAMESE: Dau phong.

Botany
Mani is an annual, spreading, hairy, branched herb, with stems 30 to 80 centimeters long. Leaves are pinnate, 8 to 12 centimeters long, with a clasping petiole base and the sheath produced in 2 linear-lanceolate stipules. Leaflets are in two pairs, oblong to obovate, 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are axillary, few, fascicled, yellow, about 8 millimeters long. Pods ripen underground and are oblong, leathery, reticulate, 1 to 5 centimeters long, containing 1 to 3 seeds that are oval and smooth.

Distribution
Cultivated in the many parts of the Philippines for its edible seeds.

Constituents
- Has a high protein and fat content, with considerable carbohydrates and a fair source of calcium and iron.
- The seeds yield arachis oil, colorless and with a pleasant taste.
- The fixed oil is 43 to 45 percent.
- Peanut oil contains glycerides of palmitic, oleic, stearic, lignoceric, linolic, and arachidic acids.
- Three alkaloids have been isolated: betaine, choline, and arachine which may be a cause of poisoning in animals.
- Phytochemical study yielded isoflavonoid, 1-pentene-3-ol, geraniol.
- Study yielded a new 3,9-dihydroxy-4, 8-dimethoxycoumestan.
(4)
- Study of various peel extracts yielded bioactive compounds such as tannins, saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, beta cyanin, coumarins, quinones, and steroids. (see study below) (20)
- Study of oil from seeds of six varieties yielded varying compositions of fatty acids viz. capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric. The major fatty acids were oleic (41.67-44.20%) and linoleic (19.58-20.89%). (21)

Properties
- Oil is considered aperient, demulcent, emollient and pectoral.
- Considered aphrodisiac, decoagulant, anti-inflammatory, peptic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, sedating properties.

Nutritional composition
- Seed In grams (g) or milligrams (mg) per 100 g of food.
- 500 calories per 100 g
- Protein, 29g; fat, 45 g; carbohydrate, 15 g; fiber 2.7 g.
- Minerals: calcium 49 mg; phosphorus 409 mg, iron 3.8.
- Vitamins: A, 15mg, B1, 0.79 mg; B2, 0.14 mg; niacin, 15.5 mg, vit C, 1 mg.

Parts used
Seeds, oil.

Uses
Nutrition
- Seeds are edible.
- Kernel of the peanut used for oil extraction; an ingredient in many food products: peanut butter, candies and desserts.
- Peanut oil used for salads; an inexpensive substitute for olive oil.
- Peanuts also contain resveratrol, touted for its varied health benefits.
Folkloric
- Teaspoon of oil in milk used for gonorrhea.
- Oil used for bladder conditions.
- In China, used for gonorrhea and rheumatism; also used for insomnia.
- In Zimbabwe, used for plantar warts.
Others
- Oil used in liniments and ointments.
- Lower grades of oil used for making soap and illumination.
- Peanut cake makes excellent cattle feed.
- The leafage makes good fodder and hay for livestock.
- Some portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers.
- Peanut shells are used in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives and fuel. Also, used to make cellulose (for use in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).


Studies
Diabetes and HDL-C:
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Consumption Improves Glutathione and HDL-Cholesterol Levels in Experimental Diabetes: Peanut consumption may improve oxidant-antioxidant status without increasing blood lipids. Increased HDL-C may have cardioprotective benefits in diabetics. (1)
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic: Aqueous extract study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats caused a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar, decrease in TC, triglycerides, LDL and HDL-C. (2)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Biosynthesis Enhancement and Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Arachidin-1, Arachidin-3, and Isopentadienyl resveratrol: Peanuts yield bioactive stilbenoids, which except for resveratrol have not been investigated The study showed all the test stilbenoids to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. (3)
Antioxidant / Luteolin: Methanolic extracts of peanut hulls (Spanish variety) exhibited strong antioxidative activity; further study showed luteolin as the active antioxidative flavonoid present in the peanut hulls.
(5)
Immunochemical Studies: Study yielded 14 antigenic constituents in A. hypogea seeds. Arachin contains 4 antigens and conarachin contains 2. (7)
Decrease Fat Absorption / Decreased lipolytic Activity: Study of peanut shell extracts showed inhibitory effect on lipid metabolic enzymes and also increased fecal fat suggesting use in reducing dietary fat absorption. The reduction of intracellular lipolytic activity may reduce circulating levels of free fatty acids. (8)
Sedative / Sleep Effects: Study on peanut leaf aqueous extracts (PLAE) showed a mild hypnotic effect on sleep ameliorations. As a mild tranquilizer, the PLAE significantly elevated GABA-mediated neurotransmission and reduced Glu/GABA in target brain region, suggest some efficacy on spontaneous sleep improvement. (10)
SIRT1 Gene / Resveratrol: SIRT1 is a gene found in humans and mammals, a principal regulator of lifespan, involved in repairing damage from free radicals and boosting mitochondrial energy production. It is activated by caloric restriction or by resveratrol. Resveratrol is believed to modulate the growth of cancer cells. Resveratrol is naturally found in grapes (providing the anti-aging attribute to red wine), some green teas, and even peanuts. Study is being designed to determine if A. hypogaea extract can be a source of resveratrol. (12)
Peanut Phytoalexins / Stilbenoids / Sleep Effects: Study evaluated peanut phytoalexins, together with related natural and synthetic stilbenoids. Results suggest peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives exhibit a wide range of biologic activities. (14)
Effect on Metabolism of Osteoblastic Cells: Study evaluated the effects of A. hypogaea extracts on metabolism of osteoblastic cells. A hydroalcoholic extract stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of ROS cells and differentiation of without effect on osteoblastic cells. The action was attributed to phyto-estrogens, notably isoflavones and/or to non-estrogenic substances. (15)
Lectin / Anti-Cancer: The D-galactose binding lectin PNA (Pea Nut Agglutination) was successfully isolated and purified from the seed of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The isolated PNA showed marked cytotoxicity towards human cancer cell lines viz. HeLa and Hep-2 in a dose-dependent manner. The isolated lectin was found to induce DNA fragmentation in treated HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. (17)
Biosorbent / Cr VI / Peanut Hulls: Study reports on the effectiveness peanut hulls as low-cost biosorbent for Cr (VI) biosorption from aqueous solution. Thermodynamic study showed the biosorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and suggests potential for the use of peanut hulls for industrial wastewater treatment. (18)
Anti-Diabetic Effect / High MUFA: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of peanut in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. Results showed an anti-diabetic effect by reducing fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels. The anti-diabetic effect may be due to high MUFA (mono-unsaturated fatty acid) content and the free radical scavenging activity of peanut. (19)
Larvicidal Against Chikungunya and Malarial Vectors / Peels: Study evaluated various peel extracts of Arachis hypogaea for larvicidal activity against mosquito vectors. A crude extract showed potent larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. stephensi. Results showed the presence of effective constituents that can be a potent source for the production of natural larvicides. The large biomass of agricultural waste can be exploited for integrated mosquite control programs. (see study above) (20)
Effect on Dyslipidemia in Young Adults: Study the effects of 4-8 weeks of peanut supplementation on 30 dyslipidemic young adults of both sexes, aged 30-40. Results showed the mean serum TAG, LDL-C and TC were significantly decreased, with increase in serum HDL-C level after 8 weeks of supplementation. The lipid lowering effects of peanut may be due to high Mg+2 content and other active components. (22)

Allergy & toxicity
Allergy: Peanut allergy is common and can be severe, occurring with a prevalence rate of 0.5% in the general population, accounting for 10-47% of food-induced anaphylactic reactions. Symptoms vary from mild urticaria to severe systemic reactions that can be fatal. Hypersensitivity starts in childhood and usually lasts the lifetime. For many, the history is obvious, commonly occurring in atopic individuals with other food allergies; laboratory will reveal a peanut-specific IgE antibody. Although immunotherapy is promising, present treatment consists of strict avoidance and self-injection of epinephrine. (Allergen Data Collections) (6)
Toxicity / Aflatoxins: A concern is the possible contamination of damaged or spoiled seeds with teratogenic, carcinogenic aflatoxins – the principal toxins aflatoxin B and G, and the less toxic dihydro-derivatives, aflatoxins B2 and G2, formed by aflatoxin producing molds (Aspergillus flavus, etc). Arachin, with 4 antigens and conarachin with 2 antigens are also reported. source

Availability
Wildcrafted.

Last Update June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Painting / Peanut; Arachis hypogaea L. / Unknown artist / ca 1760-1825 (painted) / Origin: China / Public Domain / V&A Collections
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Leguminosae - Arachis hypogaea. From: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Planches … Botanique classée d’après la méthode naturelle de M. Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu by Pierre Jean François Turpin / Paris & Strasbourg, F.G. Levrault, 1816-1829, volume 5, plate 254 + 255. 2 hand-coloured engravings after Turpin (sheet 120 x 213 mm). / Meemelink

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Consumption Improves Glutathione and HDL-Cholesterol Levels in Experimental Diabetes / EMEKLI-ALTURFAN Ebru et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 2008, vol. 22, no2, pp. 180-184
(2)
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of in normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats / L.S. Bilbis et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 553-555 / doi:10.1078/09447110260573191
(3)
Biosynthesis Enhancement and Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Arachidin-1, Arachidin-3, and Isopentadienylresveratrol / Ju-Chun Chang et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54 (26), pp 10281–10287 DOI: 10.1021/jf0620766
(4)
A New Coumestan from Arachis hypogaea L. / Hong Wei FU et al / Chinese Chemical Letters Vol. 16, No. 7, pp 918-920, 2005 / http://www.imm.ac.cn/journal/ccl.html
(5)
Natural antioxidants: chemistry, health effects, and applications / Fereidoon Shahidi
(6)
Allergen Data Collection: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) / Gary Bannon, M Besler, S Hefle, J OB Hourihane, S Sicherer /
(7)
Immunochemical Studies on Arachis hypogaea Proteins With Particular Reference to the Reserve Proteins. I. Characterization, Distribution, and Properties of α-Arachin and α-Conarachin / J Daussant et al / Plant Physiol. 1969 April; 44(4): 471–479.
(8)
Effects of Arachis hypogaea nutshell extract on lipid metabolic enzymes and obesity parameters
/ Diego Moreno et al / Life Sciences • Volume 78, Issue 24, 8 May 2006, Pages 2797-2803 / doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.11.012
(9)
Arachis hypogaea - L. / Peanut / Plants For A Future
(10)
Sedative effects of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) leaf aqueous extracts on brain ATP, AMP, Adenosine and Glutamate/GABA of rats / Xiao-Yan Zu et al / Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) / doi: 10.4236/jbise.2010.33036 / Published OnLine Mar 2010 / The Free Library
(11)
Peanut history and it's phytochemicals / MDidea

(12)
Utilizing Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Extract as a Potential Source of Resveratrol in Activating SIRT1 Gene
/
(13)
Arachis hypogaea L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(14)
Biological activity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) phytoalexins and selected natural and synthetic stilbenoids
/ Sobolev, Victor, Khan, Shabana, Tabanca, Nurhayat, Wedge, David et al / Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:1673-1682.
(15)
Stimulatory Effects of the Extract of Arachis Hypogaea (Fabaceae) on the Proliferation of Osteoblastic Cells in Vitro / Koffi Kouakou, Dominique Egrise, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Seraphin Kati-Coulibaly /
J. Phys. Pharm. Adv.. 2013; 3(5): 139-147doi: 10.5455/jppa.20130504070917
(16)
Arachis hypogaea / Synonyms / The Plant List
(17)
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea) LECTIN AND STUDY OF ITS ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES
/ Md Khurshidul Hassan / Thesis
(18)
Studies on CR (VI) Biosorption using cost effective Biosorbent: Peanut hulls (Arachis Hypogaea Linn.) / Amit S. Sharma, Sandip D. Maind and Satish A. Bhalerao / Asian Journal of Science and Technology
(19)
Effect of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) On Fasting Blood Glucose And Hba1c in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Male Rats / Fatema Akter, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana / Bangladesh Soc Physiol. 2014, December; 9(2): 48-53
(20)
Phytochemical screening and larvicidal activity of peel extracts of Arachis hypogaea against chikungunya and malarial vectors / K. Velu, D. Elumalai, P. Hemalatha, M. Babu, A. Janaki, P. K. Kaleena / International Journal of Mosquito Research (2015); 2(1): 01-08
(21)
Chemical Analyses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil / G.N. Anyasor, K.O. Ogunwenmo, O.A. Oyelana, D. Ajayi and J. Dangana / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (3): 269-272, 2009
(22)
Effect of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) on Dyslipidemia in Young Adult. / Akter, Hasina; Jahan, Nasim; Sultana, Nayma / Journal of Bangladesh Society of Physiologists. 2015 June; 10(1):11-16.

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