Mañgoñgot is an erect or somewhat struggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate or elliptic ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shining, smooth, entire and pointed at the tip. Inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers, borne in the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. Corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes about 7 millimeters long. Stamens are long-exserted, and purple. Fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. Calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.
- Along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines.
- Occasional cultivation as hedge plant or ornamental.
- Widely distributed throughout India, South and Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.
- Phytochemical studies reveal the presence of flavanoids, sterols, flavones, triterpenes, diterpenes, quinone and neolignans.
Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
- Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
- Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.
- Aerial parts yielded a new clerodane diterpenoid, cleroindermin, and a known flavonoid, apigenin.
- Leaves are mucilaginous, fragrant, resolvent.
- Considered alterative, analgesic, antimalarial, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, antifungal, resolvent.
- Roots considered febrifuge and alterative.
- In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
- Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
- Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
- In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
- Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
- Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
- Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
- Used for elephantiasis, asthma, topical burns.
- Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
- Leaf baths recommended for mania and for itches.
- At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
- Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
- In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
- In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
- In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rashes, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.
- In Ayurveda, plant used as sources of Patha, used in the treatment of urinary and heart related disorders.
- In India, powdered leaves mixed with camphor, garlic, or pepper and used for edema, muscular and rheumatic pains. Roots used for venereal diseases.
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds.
• Hepatoprotective: (1) Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level. (2) Rats treated with an ethanolic extract of C. inerme showed a significant decrease in the level of markers. Results indicated C. inerme protects against the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. (3) Study of an ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in paracetamol-induced liver damage in Swiss albino mice showed significant protective effect with no mortality up to 2000 g/kbw.
• Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributed to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect.
• Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.
• Anti-Carcinogenesis: (1) Study investigated the protective effect of C. inerme on cellular integrity in DBMA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral administration of an aqueous leaf extract C. significantly prevented tumor formation and histopathological abnormalities. (2) Study investigated the modifying effects of an ethanol extract of C. inerme leaves on membrane integrity on DBMA-induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed a protective effect on red blood cell membrane integrity.
• Acute Toxicity Studies / Diuretic: Study investigated the diuretic activity of ethanolic and chloroform extracts. Results showed dose-dependent diuretic activity, with increased urinary excretion of Na+ and K+.
• Chemopreventive / Antilipidperoxidative Effects: Study demonstrated the chemopreventive and anti-lipidperoxidative efficacy of an ethanol extract in DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis.