Manga is a large tree, with
a dense and spreading crown. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate,
10 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow, small, 3 to 4 millimeters long, borne
on erect and hairy panicles, which as as often as long as the leaves. The fruit
is a drupe, of varying shades of yellow, fleshy, oblong-ovoid,10 to 15 centimeters long, and slightly compressed, the skin is thin, and in the center is a large flattened, fibrous seed, and when ripe, surrounded by an edible yellow pulp.
It is a widely cultivated tree
for its fruit. It has several varieties in cultivation, the most popular
are the "carabao" and "piko," and the former used to be the
preferred export variety. The Guimaras mango is now considered the sweetest of mango varieties produced in the Philippines.
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Certainly introduced.
- In cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region.
- Now planted in all tropical countries.
- Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow
dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%.
- The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon.
- Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin, starch, gallic acid, and tannin.
- The bark exudate yields a resin, gum, ash, and tannin.
- Study of fruit exudation, "chep" resin, isolated three products: a resin, mangiferene; a resinous acid, mangiferic acid; and a resinol (phenol), mangiferol
- Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have
been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential
oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol. (Source)
• Root, diuretic;
bark, astringent; seeds, astringent and vermifuge; leaves, pectoral.
• Considered antiseptic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, diaphoretic,
stomachic, vermifuge, cardiotonic and laxative.
• Seed kernel considered antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antiviral against uropathogens.
• Ripe fruit considered invigorating, refreshing, fattening, slightly laxative, and diuretic.
• Rind, fiber, and unripe fruit considered astringent and acid. The pickled unripe fruit is considered stomachic and appetizing.
Parts used and preparation
Leaves, kernel, bark and
Edibility / Nutritional
- Good source of iron (deficient in calcium); excellent source of vitamins
A, B, and C.
Fruit contains citric, tartaric and mallic acids.
- Food: As fruit or mango-ade. Makes a delicious ice cream. Slice and served with cream and sugar, taste has slightly similarity to peaches. Mangoes are canned with syrup, dried and candied, jammed. Unripe mangoes are chutneyed, or pickled in brine.
- Young, fresh leaves are used in native dishes like "kasui." Also, prepared as tea.
- In the Philippines, decoction of root is considered
- Bark and seeds are astringent. In Cambodia, used in hot lotions for rheumatism and leucorrhea.
- In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
- Resin is used for aphthous stomatitis.
- Cough: Drink infusion of young leaves as needed.
- Diarrhea: Take decoction of bark or kernel as tea.
- Fluid extract, or infusion, used in menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and hemorrhage from the lungs, nasal catarrh, and for lumbrici.
- Gum resin from the bark and fruit is used as sudorific; also as antisyphilitic.
- Root bark is a bitter aromatic, and in Sind, used for diarrhea and leucorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves with a little honey used for loss of voice.
- Gum resin from bark, mixed with coconut oil, used for scabies and other
parasitic skin diseases.
- Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
- Tea of leaves with a little honey used for hoarseness and aphonia, 4
- Powdered dried leaves, 1 tbsp to a cup of warm water, 4 times daily,
used for diabetes.
- Ashes of burned leaves used for scalds and burns.
- Infusion of young leaves used in asthma and cough.
- Tea of powdered dried flowers, 4 times daily for diarrhea, urethritis.
- Juice of peel of unripe mangoes used for skin diseases.
- Seed is vermifuge and astringent.
- Seed is considered astringent, vermifuge; given in obstinate diarrhea and for bleeding piles.
- Kernel or stone from the green mango considered an anthelmintic.
- For asthma, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery, hematemesis, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and round worms, powdered seed is given, with or without honey.
- In Indian traditional medicine, seeds used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted and firm.
- Dye: Yellow coloring produced from the leaves, bark, and fruit, called "peori dye" in India.
• Review: Review article updating info on phytochemical and pharmacological activities indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other studies suggest other effects: antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, anti-bone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective.
• Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study
showed Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study
showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity
against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its
medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars.
• Hematologic benefits: Effects of
Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological
Parameters of Normal Albino Rats: Stem bark extracts of MI showed
positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats.
• Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and
Hypoglycemic: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic
effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous
extract: Results of the study support the folkloric use of
the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as
well as T2DM.
• Anti-Clostridium tetany activity:
Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity.
• Anti-asthmatic: Mangifera indica
stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and
histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic
receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment
• Immunostimulant: Immunomodulatory
activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study
showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity
in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties.
• Antihyperglycemic: Antihyperglycaemic
effect of Mangifera indica in rat: Study showed leaf extract of
MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal
absorption of glucose.
• Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced.
• Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.
• Anti-diarrheal Activity: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit.
• Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study showed all extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.
• Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant.
• Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pretreatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastroprotective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves.
• Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colon and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance.
• Antibacterial: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants.
• Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitoty Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy.
• Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.
Small and large-scale
planting for fruit production.