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Family Meliaceae
Malasaging
Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall.
Ma shen guo

Scientific names Common names
Aglaia acida Koord. & Valeton Kamata-mata (Sorsogon)
Aglaia barberi Gamble Malabayabas (
Aglaia cambodiana Pierre Mata-mata (Sorsogon)
Aglaia curranii Merr. Malasaging (Tag.)
Aglaia diffusa Merr.  
Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall.  
Aglaia indica (Hook.f.) Jarms  
Aglaia khasiana Hiern.  
Aglaia latifolia Miq.  
Aglaia magnifoliola C.DC.  
Aglaia minahassae Koord.  
Aglaia montrouzieri Pierre  
Aglaia motleyana Stapf. ex Ridl.  
Aglaia mucronulata C.DC.  
Aglaia oblonga Pierre  
Aglaia pirifera Hance  
Aglaia rugosa Pierre  
Aglaia samarensis Merr.  
Aglaia sulingi Blume  
Aglaia testiicularis C.Y.Wu  
Aglaia undulata Miq.  
Aglaia verrucosa C.DC.  
Beddomea indica Jook.f.  
Milnea cambodiana Pierre  
Milnea edulis Roxb.  
Nyalelia racemosa Dennst.  
Aglaia diffusa Merr. is a synonyms of Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall . The Plant List
Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall. is an accepted name. The Plant List
Souce of Philippine local names: Aglaia diffusa: Food and fruit-bearing forest species (Examples from Southeaster Asia: Malasaging (Tagalog), Kamata-mata, Mata-mata (Sorsogon), Malabayabas (Burias Isl._, Alikayon (Mindoro), Papatkon (Palawan), Maligang (Zamboanga), Agulasi (Isabela), balambangan, purao, daueng, oksa, palatangan,eng, tal-lau, tibungan, agulasi (Cagayan), amamian, arangen, kalapini, kamandausen, salngen, saralo (Ilocos Norte), kaniuwe (Rizal), parusapil (Nueva Ecija bayanti, bugalbol, salakin pula, malasaging (Laguna), Kapuri (Tayabas), ;ibungan, sandana (Negros).),

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Mumai-leteku.
CHINESE: Ma shen guo.
COUNTRY: Name
INDONESIAN: Langsat-lotung.
KHMER: Bang'kew, Bangko:ng, -Mchu:l, Bangkuv.
MALAYALAM: Malkaraikil.
THAI: Khangkhao, Kholaen, Tokbrai.
VUETNAMESE: Goi diu, Ngau diu.

Gen info
The genus Aglaia currently consists of about 105 species,

Botany
Aglaia edulis is a small tree growing to a height 8-15 meters and 42 cm in diameter; bole buttressed; outer bark reddish-brown or grayish-green; inner bark pink or brown; exudation white; young parts covered with reddish-brown stellate hairs and scales. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, estipulate, rachis10-12.5 cm long, slender, swollen at the base, covered with hairs or reddish-brown lepidote scales; leaflets 5-13, opposite or subopposite, estipellate; petiolule 5-18 mm long, grooved above; lamina 4.5-23 X 2-8 cm, elliptic, elliptic-oblanceolate, elliptic-obovate, or ovate, base oblique-cuneate, acute or attenuate, apex acuminate or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, membranous to coriaceous, glabrous, papillate above; lateral nerves 7-16 pairs, slender, pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform. Flowers polygamodioecious, yellow or orange, axillary inflorescence; male inflorescence up yo 38 cm long, covered with brown stellate hairs; calyx cup-shaped; lobes 4-6, covered with scales; petals 4-6; staminal tube cup-shaped, thick, crenulate at the mouth, anthers 5-6; female inflorescence 5 cm long, peduncle 2.5 cm, calyx lobes 5, ovate, covered with hairs, petals 5, ovary superior, up to 1mm long, covered with scales, 3-celled, 1-2 ovules in each locule. Fruit is a capsule, 3.2 X 3.8 cm, subglobose, brown, containing 1-3 seeds. (Dr. N N Sasidharan, Kerala Forest Research Institute). (3)

Distribution.
- Widely distributed from Luzon to Mindanao, in dipterocarp forest and lower elevations at low and medium altitudes.

- Distributed from southern India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indo-China, Thailand, Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra, northern Australia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Samoa. (2)
- IUCN status: NearThreatened.

Constituents
- Studies have isolated alkaloids piriferine, aglaedithioduline, and aglaiduline.
- Study of leaves isolated a new bisamide, aglaiduline, along with two new sulfur-containing bisamides, aglaithiodulie and aglaidithioduline (see study below) (4)
- Nutrition analysis of fruit showed % moisture 8.43, % ash 5.51, % crude fiber 24.79, % calcium 9.40, % phosphorus 4.24, % potassium 1.30. (Catibog, 1978) (5)
- Study of bark isolated two new cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, aglaroxin A 1-O-acetate (2) and 3'- methoxyaglaroxin A 1-O-acetate (3), a new benzo[b]oxepine, 19,20- dehydroedulisone A (4), and five new cyclopenta[bc]benzopyrans, edulirin A (5), edulirin A 10-O-acetate (6), 19,20-dehydroedulirin A (7), isoedulirin A (8), and edulirin B (9), along with one known cyclopenta[b] benzofuran, aglaroxin A (1). From the leaves, four new amides were isolated i.e., aglamides A-D (10-13), along with three known compounds, aglalactone, scopoletin, and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone. (see study below) (6)

Properties
Studies have suggested antiviral, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic properties.

Parts used
Fruits, bark, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruits are edible, sweet with a tinge of sourness.
Folkloric
- No reported folkoric medicinal use in the Philippines. n
- Pericarp used for treatment of diarrhea.
Others
- Wood: Most Aglaia species are known for their hardwood, which is mostly used for construction.
(2) Used for making house posts, carts, boats, furniture, window sills, agricultural implements. Also used for firewood.

Studies
Bisamides / Antiviral / Leaves:
Study of leaves isolated a new bisamide, aglaiduline, along with two new sulfur-containing bisamides, aglaithiodulie and aglaidithioduline. The sulfur containing amides showed slight antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. (4)
Cytotoxic Flavaglines and Bisamides / Bark and Leaves: Study of bark isolated two new cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, aglaroxin A 1-O-acetate (2) and 3'- methoxyaglaroxin A 1-O-acetate (3), a new benzo[b]oxepine, 19,20- dehydroedulisone A (4), and five new cyclopenta[bc]benzopyrans, edulurin A A (5), edulirin A 10-O-acetate (6), 19,20-dehydroedulirin A (7), isoedulirin A (8), and edulirin B (9), along with one known cyclopenta[b] benzofuran, aglaroxin A (1). The isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines (Lu1, LNCaP, and MCF-7) and a non-tumorigenic (HUVEC) cell line. Of the isolates, the compounds 1-3 exhibited potent in vitro cytotoxic activity with ED50 ranging from 0.001 to 0.8 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (6)
Larvicidal against Aedes aegypti: Study evaluated Aglaia edulis, Jasminum brevifolium, and Pogostemon auricularis for bioactive compounds and their mode of action with special inference on ROS production and microbial inhabitants. The isolated bioactive compounds induced excessive production of reactive oxygen species thereby leading to oxidative stress and death. All the isolated compounds showed strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis with MICs ranging from 0.08 to 1.65 mg/ml. They also showed promising larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae. (7)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

January 2021

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Meliacea: Aglaia edulis - Fruiting twig / © Leonardo L Co / 2011 / Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Meliacea: Aglaia edulis - Leaf / © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL97859] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
 
 
IMAGE SOURCE: Hedyotis costata / Subject Database of China Plant <http://www.naturemuseum.net/album/ShowPhoto.aspx?photoid=2671c974-77ca-44f9-b304-0f16660a06f7> Helixcn
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. - quickstick GLSE2 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Fruit of Syzygium samarangense / Wax apple / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Aglaia edulis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
Aglaia / PROSEA Medicinal Plants
(3)
Aglaia edulis / Indian Biodiversity Portal

(4)
Bisamides from Aglaia edulis / E mSaifah, R Suttisri, S Shamsub, T Pengsuparp, V Lipipun / Phytochemistry, Nov 1999; 52(6): pp 1085-1088 / DOI: 10.1016/s0031-9422(99)00378-7
(5)
Aglaia edulis: Food and fruit-bearing forest species (Examples from Southeaster Asia) / Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations / Monographs prepared by the Forest Research Institute of the Ministry of Natural Resources, Laguna, Philippines / M-32 ISBN 92-5-102153-8
(6)
Cytotoxic Flavaglines and Bisamides from Aglaia edulis / Soyoung Kim, Young-Won Chin, Bao-Ning Su, A Douglas Kinghorn et al / J Nat Prod., 2006; 69(12): pp 1769-1775 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np060428x /
(7)
Exploring the mode of action of isolatee bioactive compounds by induced reactive oxygen species generation in Aedes aegypti: a microbes bsed double-edged weapon to fight against Arboviral diseases / A N Anoopkumar, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Ambalaparambil Vasu Sudhikumar / International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 2020; 40: pp 573-485

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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