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Family Molluginaceae
Glinus lotoides L.

Xing su cao

Scientific names Common names
Doosera esculenta Roxb. ex Wight & Arn. Amargoso-babi (Pamp.)
Glinus dictamnoides Burm.f. Lobio (Tag.)
Glinus lotoides Linn. Papait-ti-nuang (Ilk.)
Glinus micranthus Boiss. Damascisa (Engl.)
Glinus ononoides Burm.f. Glinus (Engl.)
Glinus parviflorus Wall. [Invalid] Hairy carpet weed (Engl.)
Mollugo hirta Thunb. Lotus sweet juice (Engl.)
Mollugo lotoides (L.) Arcang.  
Mollugo lotoides (L.) Kuntze  
Pharnaceum hirtum (Thunb.) Spreng.  
Mollugo lotoides (L.) Kuntze is a synonym of Glinus lotoides L. The Plant List
Glinus lotoides L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Moghua, Moghera.
CHINESE; Xing su cao.
BENGALI: Duserasag.
ETHIOPIA: Mettere, Amkin.
GUJARATI: Gholo okhrad, Meetho okhrad.
HINDI: Gandhi-buti, Bakada, dholakani, Hata.
KANNADA: Chandrakaasi soppu.
MARATHI: Kotak, Kadi-bhaji.
SANSKRIT: Ushandi, Bhissata, Okharad.i
TAMIL: Cheruppadai, Ceruppati, Ciru-ceruppadai.
TELUGU: Chadrasi koora, Thella poraku

Lobio is a spreading or prostrate, much branched, annual herb, with branches 20 to 50 centimeters long. All parts are densely stellate-pubescent, with short gray hairs. Leaves are opposite or whorled, broadly obovate, and 1 to 3 centimeters in length. Flowers are fascicled, sessile or shortly pedicelled, greenish, and about 5 millimeters long. Sepals are densely hairy outside. Capsule is ovoid, and somewhat shorter than the sepals. Seeds are small, brown or black, very numerous, and appendaged at the hilum.

- In open, waste places about towns, in rice paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes, in Ilocos Norte to Rizal Provinces in Luzon.
- Pantropic.

- Study yielded Stidmollugogenol-F, a new triterpenoid sapogenin – 3β,16β,22-trihydroxyisohopane. (1)
- Seeds contain protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture, sugar profile, fatty acids. (7)

- Phytochemical screening yielded anthroquinones, alkaloids, steroids, saponin, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and quinones. Seeds contains protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture, sugar profile, fatty acids. (13)
- Seeds yielded four new hopane-type saponins, glinusides F, G, H, and I, and the known succulentodise B, as well as two known flavones 5,7,4‘-trihydroxyflavone-6,8-di-C-glucoside (vicenin-2) and 5,7,4‘-trihydroxyflavone-8-C-sophoroside (vitexin-2‘ ‘-O-glucoside). (15)
- Nutritive content analysis (%) of root (R), shoot (S), and fruit (F) showed: crude protein 6.48 R, 11.38 S, 11.39 F; crude fat 30.19 R, 22.32 S, 18.53 F; total ash 5.72 R, 15.46 S, 23.70 F; nitrogen free extract (NFE) 57.00 R, 49.94 S, 45.41 F; organic matter 94.00 R, 84.54 S, 76.30 F; carbohydrates 87.00 R, 72.24 S, 62.44 F; calcium 3.54 R, 4.76 S, 6.74 F; phosphorus 1.66 R, 1.03 S, 1.24 F. (16)

- Purgative, anthelmintic, wound healing, antibacterial.
- Studies have shown anthelmintic, mollusicidal, wound healing, antibacterial, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Dried plant, seeds.


- Tender shoots used as pot herb.
- In Punjab, herb given as purgative in diseases of the abdomen.
- In
Sindh, dried plant prescribed by native practitioners for diarrhea.
- Applied to itches and skin diseases.
- In
Ethiopia, seeds of Glinus lotoides used in treatment of tapeworm infestation and stomaches.
Sidda medicine, whole plant used to cure vata diseases, gunmam, soolai, mandham, mega noigal (syphilis), leucorrhea, kapha diseases. (13)
- In Pakistan, poultice of leaves applied over wounds and inflammation. Plant ground in water taken orally as blood purifier in syphilis. Crushed fresh leaves in water drunk to expel intestinal worms. (17)
- Fodder: Used as fodder for goats.

Toxicity Study / Seeds:
Methanolic extract of seeds of G. lotoides and flowers of Hagenia abyssinica were used in repeated dose toxicity studies. Single-dose toxicity study suggested the LD50 of the crude extract of Glinus lotoides might be greater than or equal to 5000 mg/kg. In repeated dose toxicity study of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, no mortality was observed when administered per day for 28 days. (2)
Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study evaluated single and repeated dose oral toxicities of ME of seeds of Glinus lotoides in rats. Various doses of 0, 1000, and 5000 mg/kg crude extract of Gl lotoides were used in single dose toxicity test, while 0, 250, 500, and 100 mg/kg were used in repeated toxicity studies. In single dose toxicity test, 5000 mg/kg produced mortality in two female and one male rat on day 4. No significant difference was noted in body and organ weights in surviving animals. In the 28-day repeated dose study, no mortality was observed, with no significant differences in body weight, no differences in most hematological parameters examined, and no histopathological changes. (3)
Genotoxicity / DNA Damaging Effect: Study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of G. lotoides crude extracts. Fractions containing hopane-type saponins exhibited pronounced DNA damaging effect without affecting the viability of the cells. Further studies are needed before culprit saponins can be cited for reported genotoxicity. (6)
Nutritional Value / Anticancer Activity: Methanol and n-hexane extracts showed differential growth inhibitory responses in carcinoma cell lines. The extracts induced significant apoptosis in the cancer cells. The amount of protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture, sugar profile and fatty acids support the nutritional value of the seeds. (7)
Anthelmintic Activity: Extract of seeds was evaluated for in-vivo anthelminthic activity in albino mice infested with Hymenolepsis nana worms. Results showed the seed extract to be active in both single and multiple doses, although more effective in multiple doses. (8)
Molluscicidal / Cercariacidal / Fruits: Study evaluated aqueous and ethyl acetate crude extracts of fruits for cercariacidal activity and molluscicidal effect against schistosome snail intermediate hosts. Results showed molluscicidal activity against B. pfeifferi snails and cercariacidal activity against S. mansoni. (11)
Wound Healing / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the wound healing potential and antibacterial activity of chloroform extract from GL. Results showed a wound healing effect evidenced by a high tensile strength and antibacterial activity. Wound healing activity was attributed to flavanoids and glycosides.   (12)
Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis: Study presents an eco-friendly method of plant-mediated gold nanoparticle formation using extracts of G. lotoides as reducing agent. (14)
Haemostatic Activity: Study evaluated succulent leaf extracts of six medicinal plants for haemostatic activity in fresh punch wounds in a rabbit model. Glinus lotoides induced haemostasis in 35.00 ± 2.29 seconds compared to automatic haemostasis of 120.00 sec ±2.91 seconds. (18)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated July 2018 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCES: Glinus lotoides / 2 images / Leaves / Flowers / The Flora of our Environment / Copyright © / FloraCatalana.net

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The structure of mollugogenol-f, a new triterpenoid sapogenin from Mollugo hirt / Manash Kumar Choudhury, Parul Chakrabarti / Phytochemistry, Volume 18, Issue 8, 1979, Pages 1363-1365 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(79)83023-X
Toxicological Study of Glinus lotoides and Hagenia abyssinica: Traditionally used Taenicidal Herbs in Ethiopia / Jemal Demma Kimmo / Thesis / July 2005
Toxicological study on Glinus lotoides: A traditionally used taenicidal herb in Ethiopia / Jemal Demmaa, Tsige Gebre-Mariamb, Kaleab Asresc, Wondwossen Ergetied, Ephrem Engidaworka / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 111, Issue 3, 22 May 2007, Pages 451–457
Glinus lotoides L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Accelerated Stability Studies of Glinus lotoides Tablets
/ Y Tesfa, K Asres, T Gebre-Mariam / Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol. 25 (1) 2007: pp. 43-50
An in vitro Study on the DNA Damaging Effects of Phytochemicals Partially Isolated from an Extract of Glinus lotoides / Jemal Demma, Hesham El-Seedi3,4, Ephrem Engidawork, Teshome Leta Aboye, Ulf Göransson4, Björn Hellman* / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 27, Issue 4, pages 507–514, April 2013 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4744
Anticancer activity and nutritional value of extracts of the seed of Glinus lotoides. / Mengesha AE, Youan BB./ J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2010;56(5):311-8 /
DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.56.311
In vivo Anthelminthic activity of the extract of the seeds of GLINUS LOTOIDES in Albino Mice infested with Hymenolepis Nana Worms. / Abebe Endale; Moges Kassa; Tsige Gebre-Mariam / Ethiop Pharm. J, Vol 16,
pp 34-41.
Lotus Sweetjuice / Common names / Flowers of India
Glinus lotoides L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Laboratory assessment of molluscicidal and cercariacidal effects of Glinus lotoides fruits / Gebrehiwot Kiros, Berhanu Erko, Mirutse Giday, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen / BMC Research Notes, April 2014, 7:220
Glinus lotoides (Ciru-Ceruppadai): An overview / S. Bhavani /
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(8):676-682
Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticles using Glinus lotoides extract / Aneesa E.H, Lalitha P and Jannathul Firdhouse M / International Journal of Applied Sciences and Innovation , Vol. 2016, no. 1, pp. 24-33
Hopane-Type Saponins from the Seeds of Glinus lotoides / Abebe Endale, Victor Wray, Renato Murillo, Peter C. Schmidt, and Irmgard Merfort * / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (3), pp 443–446
/ DOI: 10.1021/np049587b
Nutritive contents of two plant species growing in western Rajasthan / Baga Ram , Navdeep S. Bains / Indian J.Pharm.Biol.Res. 2014; 2(3):1-2
COMPARATIVE HAEMOSTATIC EFFICACY OF SUCCULENT LEAF EXTRACTS AND LATEX OF SOME WOUND HEALING PLANTS ON FRESH WOUND OF RABBIT / Shibabrata Pattanayak*, Tapan Kumar Mandal, Pratip Kumar Debnath, Anup Kr. Das, Susanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay / Exploratory Animal and Medical Research, Vol.5, Issue 1, June, 2015

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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