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Family Rutaceae / Sapindaceae
Litsiyas
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
LYCHEE
Li zhi guo

Scientific names Common names
Corvinia litschi Stadtm. ex Willemet Alupag-amo (Tag.)
Euphorbia didyma Blanco Letsias (Tag.)
Euphorbia litchi Juss. ex Desf. [Illegitimate] Letchia (Tag)
Euphorbia sinensis J.F.Gmel. Lechias (Tag.)
Litchi chinensis Sonn. Litsiyas (Tag.)
Nephelium chinensis (Sonn.) Druce Chinese cherry (Engl.)
Nephelium litchi Steud. Leechee (Engl.)
Nephelium litchi Cambess. Lichee (Engl.)
Scytalia litschi Gaertn. Litchi (Engl.)
  Lychee (Engl.)
Litchi chinensis Sonn. is an accepted name. The Plant List
Litchi philippinensis Radlk. ex Whitford is an accepted name with no recorded synonyms. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Li zhi, Li chi, Li zhi guo, Li zi.
DANISH: Kinesisk blomme, Litchiblomme.
DUTCH: Lychee.
FRENCH: Cerisier de Chine, Letchi, Litchi, Litchi de Chine, Litchier, Pied de letchi, Quenepe chinois.
GERMAN: Litschi, Litschipflaume, Litschibaum.
GREEK: Litsi.
JAPANESE: Reishi.
KHMER: Kuleen.
LAOTIAN: Ngeew.
MALAY: Kalengkeng, Kelengkang, Laici, Lici, Litsi, Klengkeng, Mengkuris.
PORTUGUESE: Lechia, Lichia, Litchia.
RUSSIAN: Lichi kitaiskaia, Lichi lichi, Lichi kitaiskoe, Lidzhi kitaiskoe, Nefelium, Nefelium lichi.
SPANISH: Lechia.
SWEDISH: Kinesiska plommon, Litchiplommon.
THAI: Linchi, Lin chi pa, Si raman, Si raman khao.
VIETNAMESE: Cây vải , Giống vải, Ngan xanh, Quả vải , Tu hú, Vải.

Gen info
Lychee cultivation was recorded in China as far back as 2000 BC. Litchi chinensis is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family. In the Philippines, a relatively unknown indigenous species belonging to the same genus is called "alupag" (Litchi chinensis subsp. philippinensis). Initial grafting trials suggest it has good rootstock potential and compatibility with lychee.

Botany
Litsiyas is a handsome, dense, slow-growing, round-topped tree, growing to a height of 10 to 30 meters. Leaves are alternate, up to 20 centimeters long, acuminate, and leathery. Flowers are greenish white, in terminal panicles. Fruit is rounded, red, 3 to 5 centimeters long, with a pink-red, roughly texture rind, with a sweet, translucent, fleshy edible aril.

Distribution
- In the Philippines, found predominantly in the cool highlands of the Cordilleras. specifically Benguet and Baguio and in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur.
- Introduced from China in the early 20th century.
- Native to the low elevations of provinces of Kwangtung and Fukien in southern China.
- Extensive plantings in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Taiwan, Japan, Queensland, Madagascar, Brazil, and South Africa.
- Reported scattered cultivation in
Hawaii, West Indies, Guatemala, and California.

Varieties
- Majority are "water types" grown in low, well-irrigated land.
- Some leak juice when the skin is broken; some retain juice within the flesh. The latter is referred to as "dry-and-clean" and are highly prized.
- There is much variation in form (round, egg-shaped, or heart-shaped), skin color and texture, fragrance, flavor, and even color of the flesh, and more important, the size and form of the seed.
- Professor Groff, in his book The Lychee and the Lungan, lists 15 cultivars.

- In the Philippines, two cultivars are predominantly grown in the highlands: Mauritius, from South Africa, and Sinco, from China.

Constituents
- Food value per 100 g of edible portion: calories 63-64 (fresh), 277 (dried); protein 0.68-1 g (f), 2.9-3.8 g (d), fat 0.3-0.58 g (f), 0.2-1.2g (d); carbohydrates 13.31-16.4g (f), 70.7-77.5 g (d); fiber 0.23-0.4g (f), 1.4g (d), calcium 8-10mg (f), 33 mg (d); potassium 170 mg (f), 1,100 mg (d); ascorbic acid 24.6 mg (f), 42 mg (d), among others.
- Study of semen litchi (seeds) yielded five chemical constituents. viz., stigmasterol, P-hydroxy- benzaldehyde, protocatechuic acid, daucosterol, and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. (8)
- Study of pericarp extract yielded three flavonoids, viz., Epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B2 and proanthocyanidin B4. (See studies below).
- Nutrient analysis of 100 grams of edible portion of raw lichis yielded proximate values as: water 81.76 g, energy 66 kcal, protein 0.83 g, total lipid 0.44 g, total dietary fiber 1.3 g, ash 0.44 g. Mineral analysis yielded calcium 5 mg, iron 0.31 mg, magnesium 10 mg, phosphorus 31 mg, potassium 171 mg, sodium 1 mg, zinc 0.07 mg, copper 0.148 mg, manganese 0.055 mg, selenium 0.6 mcg. Vitamin analysis yielded vitamin C 71.5 mg, thiamin 0.011 mg, riboflavin 0.065 mg, niacin 0.603 mg, vitamin B6 0.100 mg, total folate 14 mcg, vitamin B12 0.00 mcg. (12)
- Proximate analysis showed the seeds to be an excellent source of carbohydrate (81.098%), protein (6.126%), fat (0.89%) and crude fiber (4.327%%). Nutritive value showed 356.917 Kcal/100 gm of seeds. (see study below) (21)

- Nutritive analysis of fresh fruit per 100 g yielded: (Principle) energy 66 kcal, carbohydrates 16.53 g, protein 00.83 g, total fat .44 g, cholesterol 0 mg, dietary fiber 1.3 g; (Vitamins) folates 14 µg, niacin 0.603 mg, choline 7.3 mg, pyridoxine 0.100 mg, riboflavin 0.065 mg, thiamin 0.011 mg, vitamin A 0 mg, vitamin C 71.5 mg, vitamin E 0.07 mg, vitamin K 0.4 µg; (Electrolytes) sodium 1 mg, potassium 171 mg; (Minerals) calcium 5 mg, copper 0.148 mg, iron 0.31 mg, magnesium 10 mg, manganese 0.055 mg, phosphorus 31 mg, selenium 0.6 µg, zinc 0.07 mg. (USDA National Nutrient Data Base) (27)

Properties
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotectve, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-thrombotic properties.

Parts used
Fruit, seeds, bark, flowers.

Uses

Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit most relished fresh, out-of-hand; but often added to fruit cups and fruit salads, or stuffed with cream, nuts or other fruits.
- Also used for sherbet, gelatin, flavoring ham or grilling on top of meats.
- Canned in sugar syrup.
- In China, dried lychees eaten like raisins. Also, dried flesh used as sweetener of tea, in lieu of sugar.
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used for common colds, asthma, stomach pains, hiccups, chronic diarrhea, headaches, anemia, menorrhagia, irritable bowels, testicular swellings.
- Reported to relieve coughing, especially when ingested in moderate amounts.
- Also reported beneficial effects on gastralgia, tumors, and gland enlargements.
- In China, seeds used for pain relief; used in neuralgia and orchitis. Tea of fruit peel is taken for smallpox eruptions and diarrhea.
- In India, powdered seeds are considered astringent and used for intestinal troubles; also used for neuralgic pains. Decoction of root, bark, and flowers are gargled to relieve throat ailments.

- In Chinese medicine, used for liver protection. (24)

Studies
Aldose Reductase / Diabetic Cataracts:
Study of extracts of fruits and an EtOAc fraction showed potent inhibition of rat lens reductase in vitro. Aldose reductase has been reported to play an important role in sugar-induced cataract. From the EtOAc fraction, delphinidin 3-O-beta- galactopyranoside-39-O-beta-glucopyranoside was one of four minor compounds identified, and was found to be the most potent of the inhibitors and may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Anti-Apoptotic: Study of fruit pulp extracts in rats intraperitoneally injected with CCl4. Antioxidant properties of the lychees extracts, as evidenced by the vitamin C and phenolic compounds, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-apoptosis could explain the hepatoprotective effects in CC;4-induced hepatotoxicity. (5)
Antiplatelet / Anticoagulant / Fribrinolytic: Study of a 70% ethanol extract showed dose-dependent inhibition of collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rat platelet-rich plasma. It also significantly prolonged coagulation times (PTT and PT). The antithrombotic effect suggests L. chinensis may be a natural source for
development of of antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapeutics for thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases. (6)
Hepatoprotective / Fruit Pulp / Leaf: Study showed both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of fruit pulp of L. chinensis exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The aqueous extract was more effective than the alcoholic extract. (7) Chloroform and methanol extracts of L. chinensis leaf were evaluated for protective effects on paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. While both test extracts showed hepatoprotective efficacy, the methanol extract was more effective. (14)
Immunomodulatory / Anticancer / Pericarp: Study of
litchi pericarp extract isolated epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B2 and proanthocyanidin B4. All three showed higher stimulatory effects on splenocyte proliferation than the reference, rutin. Epicatechin and proanthocyanidin B2 showed lower cytotoxicities to human breast cancer cell MCF-7 and human embryotic lung fibroblast than paclitaxel. (9)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Stem
-Bark: Study of methanol extract of stem-bark and its fractions yielded phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins. An aqueous-methanolic extract showed the highest total antioxidant activity and a maximum growth inhibition against Bacillus subtilis. (10)
Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Studies / Leaves:
Animal study of petroleum ether extract of leaves showed no toxicity up to up to 1 g/kg intraperitoneal dose. Results suggest it may inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. (11)
Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study investigated seed aqueous extracts from Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum for antibacterial activity. Both showed moderate inhibition against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The highest inhibitory activity was produced by L. chinensis against Streptococcus pyogenes. (13)
Anti-Cancer / Seed: Study reviews recent findings regarding the benefits of the traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of human cancer and the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of the litchi seed. Study suggests LCSP treatment could inhibit proliferation in various cancer cells and induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in CRC cells, suggesting a potential as a novel chemopreventive agent. (15)
Anti-Inflammatory / Flower: Flower ethanol extract yielded five flavanoids, nine phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidin. The extract was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. Results showed suppression of expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the productions of NO and prostaglandin E2, and the secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (16)
Antioxidant / Antinociceptive: Crude extracts of leaves and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the main compounds viz procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2 was remarkably high with DPPH and ABTS. There was also reduction in nociception in FM and HP models. (17)
Biosorbent / Peel Waste: Study evaluated the adsorption capacity of lychee peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solution. Results suggest that Litchi chinensis peel waste can be used as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes. (18)
Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Pericarp: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of L. chinensis in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity and provided significant protection against kidney damage, which might be due to its antioxidant properties. (19)
Effect on Prostaglandin E2 and NO Production / Heating Fruit: Litchi chinensis is used in Chinese medicine as a "heating fruit." Study investigated the effects of litchi on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in myrine macrophage cells. Study isolated three compounds: benzyl alcohol, hydrobenzoin, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuroaldehyde (%-HMF) from the AcOEt extract. Results showed marked dose dependent increase in PGE2 and NO production. Regulation of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and NF-kB (p50) activation may be involved in the mechanism of the stimulative process. Study suggests some molecular compounds play inflammatory effects on humans. (20)
Proximate Analysis / Antioxidant Activity / Seeds: Study investigated the proximate analysis, nutritive value, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Litchi seeds. Results showed seeds contain medicinally active metabolites. An ethanolic macerate showed the highest phenolic content. An n-butanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity on DPPH and FRAP assays. (see constituents above). (21)
Antibacterial / Seeds: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of aqueous seed extracts of Nephelium lappaceum and Litchi chinensis. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition against pathogenic bacteria viz. gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The highest inhibitory activity was by Litchi chinensis against S. pyogenes. (22)
• Biphasic Dose Effect on Alcoholic Liver Disease / Pulp: A previous study showed hepatoprotective effect of phenolics from lychee pulp against restraint stress-induced liver injury. This study of lychee phenolic pulp extract showed biphasic effects on ethanol-induced liver injury in mice, indicating a potential for prevention and control of alcoholic liver disease. (24)
• Antineoplastic Mechanisms of Litchi Seeds: Review focuses on the antitumor-related effects, molecular mechanisms, and immune effects of litchi seeds. Litchi seeds can inhibit tumor cell proliferation, promote tumor cell apoptosis, and restrain tumor metastasis. Seeds have a positive anti-cancer effect through a variety of molecular mechanisms with no serious side effects. Study suggests a potential for combining Litchi seeds with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (25)
• Anti-Nutritional Compounds in Fresh and Dried Fractions: Study evaluate the anti-nutritional factors of L. chinensis peel, pulp, and seed. Among fresh fractions, the seed had the lowest content of phenolic compounds. The pulp showed higher α-amlase inhibitory activity while the fresh peel showed higher trypsin inhibitory activity. All the ethanolic extracts of fractions showed inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase. The presence of anti-nutrients (phenolic compounds, nitrate, trypsin inhibitors, α-amylase and lipase) are present in amounts that do not preclude use of the fractions, fresh or dried, as nutrient sources. The residues can be used for developing new products and food enrichment. (26)
• Effect on Peripheral Circulation / Pilot Study: Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial investigated Oligonol, a highly bioavailable low molecular weight polyphenol extract from the lychee fruit, for its effect on peripheral blood circulation. Results suggest polyphenol might act as a vasodilator with a potential for treatment of various vasocontrictive symptoms such as cold hands and feet, shoulder discomfort and diabetic related vascular problems. (28)
• Anticancer Activity / Human Breast Cancer / Fruit Pericarp: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of Litchi fruit pericarp extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, in part, from its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells. (29)
• Clean Production of Freeze-Dried Lychee Powder: Study reports on the clean production of freeze-dried lychee powder with high productivity and low environmental impact. Analysis suggests high feasibility for commercial production. (30)
• Diminished Prostate Cancer Progression / Seeds: Study in mice evaluated an n-butanol alcohol Litchi seed extract against prostate cancer PCe, DU145, RM1 and C4-2B cells. The extract induced a significant decrease in cell viability and clonogenic growth in a dose-dependent manner. There was induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle G1/S phase arrest via inactivation of Akt signaling pathway. Results suggest a potential for development of a safe and potent alternative therapy for prostate cancer patients. (31)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Hepatoprotective / Fruits: Flavanol (flavan-3-ol)-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols from lychee fruit, rich in flavonol monomers, dimers and trimers. Study evaluated the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) treated rat hepatocytes. Results showed inhibition of NF-kB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress expression of inflammatory genes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of the FRLFE may be due to the flavonol contents and may be used to treat inflammatory processes. (32)
ª Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract on proliferation of cell cycle and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines. Results showed significant induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. Study provides in vitro evidence for the ethanol seed extract as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. (33)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Extracts in the cybermarket.


Last update March 2017
Updated July 2015
January 2012


© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: One of the earliest natural history books about China. Jesuit Missionary author. (obviously includes some non-Chinese {and non-floral} species) / File:Flora Sinensis - Lychee.JPG / 1656 /Author: Michael Boym (Michał Piotr Boym) / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: One of the earliest natural history books about China. Jesuit Missionary author. (obviously includes some non-Chinese {and non-floral} species) / File:Flora Sinensis - Lychee.JPG / 1656 /Author: Michael Boym (Michał Piotr Boym) / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo by Peggy Greb. / File:ARS Litchi chinensis.jpg / Peggy Greb / Agricultural Research Service, the research agency of the USDA / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Lychee / Litchi chinensis Sonn. / Morton, J. 1987. Lychee. p. 249–259. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. / HortPurdueEdu
(2)
LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILIPPINES / Rachel Sotto / FAO Corporate Document Repository
(3)
Sorting Litchi names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(4)
Aldose reductase inhibitors from Litchi chinensis Sonn. / Lee SJ, Park WH, Park SD, Moon HI. / J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Aug;24(4):957-9.
(5)
Hepatoprotective effects of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): a combination of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities / Bhoopat L, Srichairatanakool S, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Thananchai H, Bhoopat T. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 14;136(1):55-66. Epub 2011 Apr 20.
(6)
Antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effects of Litchi chinensis Sonn. extract / Yoon-Young Sung, Won-Kyung Yang, Ho Kyoung Kim / Doi: 10.3892/mmr.2011.735
(7)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract of Litchi chinensis Sonner on Carbon tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in albino Rats / M.G. Souza, R. Singh, P.P. Reddy, V.I. Hukkeri & V.V. Byahatti / he Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2007 Volume 4 Number 1
(8)
Five chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of semen litchi / Jie-wen Guo, Jian-mei Chen, Li-jing Lin and Feng Xu / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(1), pp. 168-170, 9 January, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.794
(9)
Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of flavonoids extracted from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp / Mouming Zhao, Bao Yang, Jinshui Wang, Yang Liu, Limei Yu, Yueming Jiang / International Immunopharmacology, Volume 7, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 162–166
(10)
Comparative study on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of stem-bark extract of Litchi chinensis and its organic fractions / DURRE SHAHWAR, MUHAMMAD ASAM RAZA et al / Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, Vol 32, No 3 (2010)
(11)
Antiinflammatory effect of petroleum ether extract of leaves of Litchi chinensis Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) / S.E. Besra, R.M. Sharma, A. Gomes / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 54, Issue 1, October 1996, Pages 1–6
(12)
Litchis, raw / Scientific Name: Litchi chinensis / NDB No: 09164 / USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 14 (July 2001)
(13)
Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains / Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Sooad Al-daihan / Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 79–82
(14)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Litchi chinensis Leaves Against Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Rats / Soumita Basu, Nandita Haldar, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Subhamita Biswas and Moulisha Biswas / American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 7 (2): 77-81, 2012 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejsr.2012.7.2.63249
(15)
Anti-cancer potential of litchi seed extract / Chih-Cheng Lin, Yuan-Chiang Chung and Chih-Ping Hsu /
World J Exp Med 2013 November 20; 3(4): 56-61 / doi: 10.5493/wjem.v3.i4.56.
(16)
Inhibitory Effect of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Flower on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in RAW264.7 Cells through NF-κB, ERK, and JAK2/STAT3 Inactivation / Deng-Jye Yang, Yuan-Yen Chang, Hui-Wen Lin, Yi-Chen Chen, Shih-Han Hsu, and Jau-Tien Lin * / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62 (15), pp 3458–3465 / DOI: 10.1021/jf5003705
(17)
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antinociceptive properties of Litchi chinensis leaves. / Rosana C L Castellain, Marluci Gesser, Fernanda Tonini, Rafael V Schulte, Kely Z Demessiano, Fellippe R Wolff, Franco Delle-Monache, Daisy J A Netz, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Rilton Alves de Freitas, Márcia M de Souza, Christiane Meyre-Silva / J Pharm Pharmacol 2014 Dec 12;66(12):1796-807. Epub 2014 Sep 12.
(18)
Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water. /
Bhatnagar A, Minocha AK / Environmental technology 31:1 2010 Jan pg 97-105
(19)
Effect of aqueous pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities in normal and in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Eswar Kumar Kilari*, Rohini Koratana, Swathi Putta / Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations, Feb 2015; vol. 2 (Issue 1): 29-35
(20)
Effects of Litchi chinensis fruit isolates on prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in J774 murine macrophage cells / Yang Zhou, Hong Wang, Ruili Yang, Hui Huang, Yuanming Sun*, Yudong Shen, Hongtao Lei and Hong Gao / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:12 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-12
(21)
Proximate analysis, nutritive value, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Litchi Chinensis sonn. / Deepak Painuly et al / Natural Products: An Indian Journal 12/2012; 8(9):361-369
(22)
Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains / Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Sooad Al-daihan/ / Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 79–82
(23)
Litchi chinensis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(24)
The biphasic dose effect of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp phenolic extract on alcoholic liver disease in mice / Juan Xiao, Ruifen Zhang, Fei Huang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Deng, Zhencheng Wei, Yan Zhang, Dong Liu* and Mingwei Zhang* / Food Funct., 2017,8, 189-200 / DOI: 10.1039/C6FO01166G
(25)
Research Progress on the Antineoplastic Pharmacological Effects and Mechanisms of Litchi Seeds / Juyan Zhang, Cui Zhang* / Chinese Medicine, 2015, 6, 20-26 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cm.2015.61003
(26)
Anti-nutritional compounds in fresh and dried lychee fractions (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) / Estela de Rezende Queiroz*, Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu, Denise Alvarenga Rocha, Anderson Assaid Simão, Valquíria Aparecida Alves Bastos, Lucimara Nazaré Silva Botelho and Mariana Aparecida Braga / African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 10(6), pp. 499-504, 5 February, 2015 / DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2014.8750
(27)
Lychee fruit nutrition facts / NutritionAndYou
(28)
Effect of Lychee Fruit Extract (Oligonol) on Peripheral Circulation, a Pilot Study (Skin thermography demonstrates vasodilatation effects of polyphenol) / Kentaro Kitadate, DVM, Kazumasa Aoyagi, MD, PhD, and Kohei Homma, PhD / Natural Medicine Journal, July 2014, Vol 6, Issue 7
(29)
Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo / Xiujie Wang⁎, Shulan Yuan, Jing Wang, Ping Lin, Guanjian Liu, Yanrong Lu, Jie Zhang, Wendong Wang, Yuquan Wei⁎ / Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 215 (2006) 168–178
(30)
CLEAN PRODUCTION OF FREEZE-DRIED LYCHEE POWDER FOR MEDICINAL HERB AND NUTRITIONAL HEALTH BENEFITS / O. Deerasamee, S. Chaisawadi / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1023: International Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants / DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1023.7
(31)
Litchi seed extracts diminish prostate cancer progression via induction of apoptosis and attenuation of EMT through Akt/GSK-3β signaling / Hongwei Guo, Hua Luo, Hebao Yuan, Yudui Xia, Pan Shu, Xin Huang, Yi Lu, Xia Liu, Evan T. Keller, Duxin Sun, Jiagang Deng & Jian Zhang / Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 41656 (2017) / doi:10.1038/srep41656
(32)
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavanol-Rich Lychee Fruit Extract in Rat Hepatocytes / Ryota Yamanishi, Emi Yoshigai, Tetsuya Okuyama, Masatoshi Mori, Hiromitsu Murase, Toru Machida, Tadayoshi Okumura, Mikio Nishizawa / PLOS One, April 4, 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093818
(33)
Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract /
Chih-Ping Hsu, Chih-Cheng Lin, Chiu-Chen Huang, Yi-Hsien Lin, Jyh-Ching Chou, Yu-Ting Tsia, Jhih-Rou Su, and Yuan-Chiang Chung / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/341479

 

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