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Family Myrtaceae
Syzygium polycephaloides (C. B. Rob.) Merr.

Scientific names Common names
Eugenia polycephaloides C. B. Robinson Amhi (Bik.)
Syzygium polycephaloides (C. B. Rob.) Merr. Atu-ang (If.)
  Bahhag (If.)
  Baligang (Tag., Bik.)
  Bulinayo (If.)
  Igot (Bis.)
  Lipot (Tag.)
  Lipote (Tag.)
  Lipoti (Tag.)
  Maigang (Leyte)
  Malig-ang (Bik.)
Syzygium polycephaloides (C.B.Rob.) Merr. is an accepted name. The Plant List
Some compilations list Syzygium polycephaloides (C.B.Rob.) Merr. and S. curranii (C.B.Rob.) Merr. as synonyms. The Plant List lists them as separate species.

Lipote is a small to medium-sized tree growing up to 14 meters tall. Trunk is up to 75 centimeters in diameter. Outer bark is purplish gray. Twigs are angularly winged. Leaves are alternate, oblong-lanceolate or obovate, acuminate, 6 to 20 centimeters long, 4 to 7 centimeters wide, with 14 to 16 pairs of secondary veins. Flowers are white, numerous, and in panicles. Fruits are subglobose, fleshy, red to dark purple, sweet sour, and edible, 1 centimeter in diameter.

- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Occasionally
cultivated for its edible fruit.
- Considered vulnerable and potentially endangered.
- Reported in Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Island.

- Fruits are rich in vitamin C.
- On screening for flavonols and flavanols, methanol extract yielded 58.85 µg catechin g-1 fresh sample. (see study below) (7)
- Ripe fruit per 100 g contains 83% edible potion, with 83.4 g water, 77 kcal energy, 0.7 g protein, 2.5 g fat, 12.9 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g crude fiber, 93 mg calcium, 22 mg phosphorus, 0.2 mg iron, 50 µg ß-carotene, 10 µg total vitamin A, 0.01 mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin, 0.3 mg niacin, and 16 mg ascorbic acid. (8)
- Study of fruits for total flavonoids and total phenolic contents yielded 2780 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g fresh sample and 5141 µg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g fresh sample, respectively. (9)

Considered antioxidant, antihypertensive.
- Studies suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-tumor properties.


- Fruits eaten, raw or cooked.
- Fruit used in making preserves, jellies, wine, pickles and beverages.
- Used for diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol.
- Ifugaos use the sour fruit for treating coughs. Leaf decoction used for hypertension.
- Wine: Source of tropical fruit wine.
- Wood: Used for construction.

Syzygiol / Skin Tumor Inhibitory Activity:
Study isolated syzygiol from Syzygium polycephaloides. It showed significant inhibitory activity of skin tumor promotion. (2)
Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory / Bark: Study of alcoholic extract of lipote bark yielded active constituents, inorganic salts, carbohydrates, and proteins. The extract showed antibacterial activity, specifically Staphylococcus aureus. The bark extract also showed slight anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 1,000 mg/kg showing 19.67% protection against edema formation in female rats. (3)
Antioxidant / Flavonols: Lipote fruit showed 77.7% inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. On screening for flavonols and flavanols, methanol extract yielded 58.85 µg catechin g-1 fresh sample. (7)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Update May 2018 / January 2017
September 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antibacterial property of lyophilized crude extract of Syzygium polycephaloides (lipote) against Escherichia coli and mocrococcus luteum / Sara C. Abdolahi et al
Structure of syzygiol : a skin-tumor promotion inhibitor / NISHIZAWA M. ; YAMADA H. ; SANO J. ; ITO S. ; HAYASHI Y. ; IKEDA H. ; CHAIRUL ; SHIRO M. ; TOKUDA H / Tetrahedron letters, 1991, vol. 32, no2, pp. 211-212
Phytochemical, microbiological and pharmacological screening of the alcoholic extract from the bark of lipote (Syzygium polycephaloides) C.B. Rob (Family Myrtaceae) / Chacon, N.O. / Centro Escolar Univ., Manila, Mar 1995.
Syzygium polycephaloides (C.B.Rob.) Merr. is an accepted name
/ Synonoyms / The Plant List
Minor Products of Philippine Islands / Syzygium polycephaloides / Common names / Edited by William H. Brown, Ph.D., 1921
MACROFLORAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN IFUGAO / Napoleon K. Taguiling, PhD / European Scientific Journal December 2013 /SPECIAL/ edition vol.4
Antioxidant Activities, Flavonol and Flavanol Content of Selected Southeast Asian Indigenous Fruits / Dennis Marvin O. Santiago, Virgilio V. Garcia, Erlinda I. Dizon, Florinia E. Merca / Philippine Agricultural Scientist, June 2007 - Vol 90 No 2, pp. 123-130
Lipote: Syzygium polycephanoides / RISE: Research Information Series on Ecosystems: May-Aug 2017
Antioxidant Activities, Flavonol and Flavanol Content of Selected Southeast Asian Indigenous Fruits / Dennis Marvin O. Santiago*, Virgilio V. Garcia, Erlinda I. Dizon and Florinia E. Merca / The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, June 2007; Vol 90, No 2: pp 123-130

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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