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Family Polypodiaceae
/ Pteridaceae
Lagolo
Acrostichum aureum Linn.
GOLDEN LEATHER FERN

Jin jue

Scientific names Common names
Acrostichum aureum Linn. Lagolo (Tag.)
Acrostichum guineense Gaudich. Coarse swamp fern (Engl.)
Acrostichum inaequale Willd. Golden leather fern (Engl.)
Chrysodium aureum (L.) Mett. Mangrove fern (Engl.)
Chrysodium inaequale (Willd.) Fée Swamp fern (Engl.)
Chrysodium vulgare Fée  
Lagolo is a common name shared by (1) Acrostichum aureum and (2) Drymoglossum heterophyllum, pagong-pagoñgan.
Acrostichum aureum L. is an accepted name. The Plant List


Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin jue, Lu jue.
INDIA: Minni
INDONESIA: Paku tiai; Kalakeok, Kerakas, Wihakas
JAMAICA: Alligator rush, Crab thatch, Golden fern, Gold fern
MALAYSIA: Piai raya, Paku bulu emas, Paku laut, Larat, Peye, Piai, Piai lasa, Umbi piai, Pebisi
SRI LANKA: Karen koku
VIETNAMESE: Ráng, Ráng Đại

Botany
Lagolo is a coarse fern growing to a height of 2 meters. Root stocks are stout, woody and scaly. Stipes are clustered, stout and glabrous, 30 to 50 centimeters long. Fronds are leathery, pinnate, 50 to 200 centimeters long. Leaflets are 20 to 50 centimeters long, 4 to 6 centimeters wide. Terminal part of the frond has fertile pinnae covered with brownish sporangia. Fertile upper pinnae are smaller than the lower sterile ones.

Distribution
- Abundant in open mud flats, in mangrove swamps, and along tidal streams.
- Occasionally planted as an ornamental.
- Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres.

Constituents
- Phytochemical studies have yielded beta-sitosterol, alkaloid, flavonoids, phenolics, catechins, saponins, tannins.
- An ethanolic plant extract yielded reducing sugars, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, gums, and terpenoids. (see study below) (9)
- Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of whole plant yielded triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. (11)
- Study of leaves yielded five phytosterols: stigmasterol, y-sitosterol, campesterol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene cycloartanol. (see study below) (17)
- Various extracts of whole plant yielded triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. (19)
-Study of methanolic extract of aerial parts yielded two new sesquiterpenes, (2R,3S)-sulfated pterosin C (1) and (2S,3S)-sulfated pterosin C (2), along with two known derivatives, (2S,3S)-pterosin C and (2R)-pterosin P. (see study below) (22)

Properties
- Considered emollient, vulnerary, febrifuge, purgative.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots, rhizomes.

Uses
Folkloric
• Rhizomes are used for the healing of stubborn ulcers.
• Leaves used topically as emollient.
• In Malaya and Borneo, powdered or grated rhizomes applied as paste to wounds and boils.
• In Sri Lanka fronds used as antidote for snake bites; rhizomes used for boils and wounds.
• In Kerala whole plant is used as styptic and anthelmintic, and as an astringent in hemorrhage.
• Fertile fronds, along with the roots, are applied to syphilitic ulcers.
• In Fiji, used for sore throat, chest pains and elephantiasis, for constipation and as purgative; also, as febrifuge.
• In Bangladesh, leaves used for cloudy urination in women.
• In Malaysia, used for wound healing.
• In India, used for treating pharyngitis, chest pains, and diabetes. (16)
Others
• Litter used for cattle and roof thatching.

Studies
Cytotoxic: In a study of 16 listed Bangladeshi plants screened against human gastric, colon, and breast cancer cell lines, Acrostichum aureum showed the most potent selective cytotoxicity. (1)
Antibacterial / Fronds: Fronds were evaluated for phytochemical contents and antibacterial potential. Flavonoids and phenols were observed in various extracts. A methanol extract showed maximum activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a resistant strain to Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol. (4)
Anti-Inflammatory / Root: An ethanol crude extract of root was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan-induced edema in rats, comparable to results obtained with indomethacin. (7)

Antioxidant / Analgesic: Study of ethanolic plant extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity in DPPH both qualitatively and quantitatively. In acetic acid writhing test in Swiss albino mice, the plant showed statistically significant dose dependent analgesic activity (P<0.01). (see constituents above) (9)
Wound Healing / Rhizomes: Study evaluated Acrostichum aureum and A. speciosum in excisional wound models in rabbits. Based on wound contraction, epithelization period and histopathological study, the aqueous extract of rhizomes and leaves of A. aureum showed the best wound healing properties with more collagen and fibroblasts proliferation and complete epithelized cells. (10)
Biosorption of Heavy Metal: Study evaluated the biosorption behavior of the mangrove fern A. aureum leaf biomass for the removal of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) from aqueous solution. Kinetic studies indicated the biosorption of heavy metal followed the pseudo second order. Study identified the potential of a new cost-effective and easily available bioadsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. (12)
Phytoremediation of Antibiotic Contaminated Sediment: In Vietnam's coastal wetlands, antibiotic sediment of fluoroquinolones
are often detected in former shrimp plants. Study investigated the potential of A. aureum and R. apiculata for phytoremediation of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin). The antibiotics were found mainly in roots. Results showed both AR and RA can be both valuable for phytoremediation of antibiotic-contaminated sediments. (13)
Cytotoxicity Screening / Anti-Cancer Compounds: A. aureus showed low cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast (IC50>2.5 mg/mL) but selective potent toxicity against cancer cells (IC50 0.2-2.3 mg/mL). Study isolated one compound from an n-hexane fraction and 12 compounds from the methanolic fraction. Of the 13 compounds, compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, and 13 showed cytotoxic activity, with di-(20methylheptyl)phthalate (compound 3) and (2S,3S)-sulfated pterosin C (compound 5) showing the most potent cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines. (14)
Novel Cytotoxic Compounds: Study isolated 13 compounds. Three compounds (1, 2 and 5) were identified as novel natural products. Eight known compounds were isolated for the first time, viz. di-(2-methylheptyl) phthalate (3), (2S, 3S)-pterosin C (4), (2R)-pterosin P (7), tetracosane (6), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(6→1)-α-L-rhamnoside (9), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (10) and quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), and patriscabratine (13). Compound 5 showed the most potent cytotoxicity against gastric and colon adenocarcinoma cells lines. The mode of action was through induction of apoptosis. (15)
• Antioxidant / Rachis: Study evaluated various extracts of rachis of A. aureus for antioxidant activity using DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activity by ABTS and reducing power assays. Results showed dose dependent antioxidant activity in all assays. Study suggests A. aureus has potential for use against free radical associated oxidative damage. (16)
• Anti-Tumour / Sterols / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded five phytosterols: stigmasterol, y-sitosterol, campesterol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene cycloartanol. In silico analysis of cytotoxicity for tumor cell lines highlighted potential to suppress adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, and mesothelioma. (17)
• Cytotoxicity / Patriscabratine and Tetracosane / Flavonoids / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the cytotoxic properties of secondary metabolites from methanol extract of aerial parts of A. aureum. Seven known compounds were isolated: patriscabratine (1), tetracosane (2) and 5 flavonoids (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucosyl-(6→1)-α-l-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnosyl-7-O-β-d-glucoside and kaempferol). Patriscabratine showed moderate cytotoxicity against AGS, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Tetracosane showed some toxicity against AGS, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, and NIH 3T3 cells. (18)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the in vitro wound healing properties of various extracts and fractions of A. aureum and A. speciosum using scratch wound assay on NIH/3T3 cell line. Results showed the cell line treated with aqueous extract of rhizomes and stems of both species improved migration rate. Results showed beneficial effects of both extracts for wound healing. (20)
• Antioxidative / Anti-Inflammatory Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of water extract of A. aureum in ethanol-induced gastric injury model. Pretreatment dramatically decreased gastric ulcer are and ameliorated the pathological damage induced by alcohol in rat's gastric tissue. The extract also reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expressions of phosphorylation of IkBa and p65. The therapeutic efficacy may be associated with suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. (21)
• (2S,3S)-Sulfated Pterosin C / Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene / Aerial Parts: Study of methanolic extract of aerial parts yielded two new sesquiterpenes, (2R,3S)-sulfated pterosin C (1) and (2S,3S)-sulfated pterosin C (2), along with two known derivatives, (2S,3S)-pterosin C and (2R)-pterosin P. The pterosins were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against AGS, HT29, MDA_MB-231, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Lowest IC50 of 23.9 µM was recorded against AGS gastric adenocarcinomaa cells. Compound 2 exhibited an apoptotic effect on AGS cells. (22)
• Nutritional Analysis of Rhizome and Starch: Study evaluated nutritional and phytochemical characteristics of rhizome and extracted starch. The rhizome showed to be a rich source of starch (24%) and essential nutrients like protein, fiber, ash, and minerals. Amylose content of the starch was 24%. Starch pH was slightly acidic. Results suggest the starch has potential as food substitute and pharmaceutical application. (23)
• Novel Phthalic Acid Ester / Antiviral Activity / Aerial Parts: Study isolated and elucidated novel antiviral secondary metabolites from a methanol extract of aerial parts. A novel phthalic acid ester (2’’-(methoxycarbonyl)-5’’- methylpentyl 2’-methylhexyl phthalate) was isolated and tested for antiviral activity. The novel phthalate showed antiviral activity against dengue virus, human parainfluenza virus and chikungunya. The most potent activity was against hPoV3 (EC50 29.4 µM), slightly higher than positive control. The compound was non-toxic against Vero and LLC-MK2 cells. (24)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Updated May 2019 / December 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Acrostichum-aureum.jpg / Tau'olunga / 23 June 2007 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Acrostichum aureum / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 1 / Philippine Mangrove Swamps / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Plate VIII / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts / Shaikh J Uddin et al /
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011 / doi:10.1093/ecam/nep111
(2)
Medical Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Bioactivity of the Ferns of Moorea,French Polynesia / Nicole Baltrushes / Thesis

(3)
Traditional Use of Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh to Treat Urinary Tract Infections and Sexually
Transmitted Diseases
/ Shahadat Hossan, Abu Hanif et al / Ethnobotany Research & Applications
(4)
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of Acrostichum aureum Linn. / Toji Thomas / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, March 2012; 3(1): pp 135-138.
(5)
Acrostichum aureum L. / Chinese names and synonyms / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Acrostichum aureum L. - PTERIDACEAE - Filicopsida
/ Mangrove Species of South East India and Sri Lanka
(7)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Acrostichum aureum (Linn.) Root / Hemayet Hossain, Ismet Ara Jaltan et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 2011; Vol 14, No 2
(8)
Acrostichum aureum / Vernacular names /GLOBinMED
(9)
Assessment of antioxidant and analgesic activity of Acrostichum aureum Linn. (Family- Pteridaceae) / Shams Ara Khan, Md. Aslam Hossain*, Sandesh Panthi, Md. Asadujjaman, Arif Hossin / Pharmacology OnLine Archives, 2013; Vol 1: pp 166 -171
(10)
WOUND HEALING PROPERTIES OF ACROSTICHUM AUREUM AND A. SPECIOSUM ON NIH/3T3 FIBROBLASTS CELL LINE AND EXCISIONAL WOUND ON RABBITS / HENDY PUTRA BIN HERMAN / Thesis / June 2014
(11)
Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of whole plant of Acrostichum aureum
/ Raja S and Ravindranadh K / World J Pharm Sci., 2014; 2(12):pp 1753-1759
(12)
Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous solution using Mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum L. leaf Biomass as a Sorbent / Lobo Soniya M. and Gulimane Krishnakumar / International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, Vol. 4(11), 25-31, November (2015)
(13)
A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PHYTOREMEDIATION OF ANTIBIOTIC CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT
/ Thuy Thi Thanh Hoang, Loan Thi Cam Tu, Nga Phi Le & Quoc Phu Dao / International Journal of Phytoremediation, Volume 15, Issue 1, 2013 / DOI:10.1080/15226514.2012.670316
(14)
Cytotoxicity Screening of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants and Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Novel Anti-Cancer Compounds from Acrostichum aureum / Shaikh Jamal Uddin / Thesis, Dec 2010.
(15)
Isolation of Novel Cytotoxic Compounds from a Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Acrostichum aureum
/ S Uddin, T Jason, K Beattie, D Grice, E Tiralongo / Planta Med., 2011; 77 - SL19 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282142
(16)
Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Acrostichum aureum Linn. Rachis / Vadivel V, Arockia Badhsheeba / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2018; 7(6): pp 1146-1151
(17)
A Profiling of Anti-Tumour Potential of Sterols in the Mangrove Fern Acrostichum aureum. / Anitta Thomas, Prashob Peter K J, N Chandramohanakumar / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 2016; 8(11): pp1828-1832
(18)
Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of patriscabratine, tetracosane and various flavonoids isolated from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Acrostichum aureum / Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Darren Grice and Evelin Tiralongo / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2012; 50(10) / https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2012.673628
(19)
Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of whole plant of Acrostichum aureum / Raja S and Ravindranadh K / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 2(12): pp 1753-1759
(20)
In vitro evaluation of wound healing properties of fractions and extracts of Acrostichum Aureum Linné and A. Speciosum Willd / Hendy Putra Herman, Deny Susanti et al / IUCM Repository / http://www.fs.utm.my/ispc2012/index.php/welcoming
(21)
Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Extract of Acrostichum aureum Linn. against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats / XueWu, Qionghui Huang, Nan Xu, Jian Cai, Dandan Luo, Qian Zhang,
Ziren Su, Changjun Gao, and Yuhong Liu / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,
Volume 2018, Article ID 3585394 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3585394
(22)
2S,3S)-Sulfated Pterosin C, a Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene from the Bangladeshi Mangrove Fern Acrostichum aureum / Shaikh J Uddin, Tracy L H Jason, Karren D Beattie, I Darren Grice and Evelin Tiralongo / J. Nat. Prod., 2011; 74 (9): pp 2010–2013 / DOI: 10.1021/np2004598
(23)
Nutritional analysis of rhizome and physicochemical characteristics of starch extracted from the mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum L. / Soniya Marsi Lobo, Krishnakumar Gulimane / Starch, July 2015; 67(7-8): pp 716-719 / https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201500024
(24)
In-vitro Antiviral Activity of a Novel Phthalic Acid Ester Derivative Isolated from the Bangladeshi Mangrove Fern Acrostichumaureum / Shaikh J Uddin, Jayaram Bettadapura, Patrice Guillon, Daarren Grice I, Suresh Mahalingam and Evelin Tiralongo / Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals, 2013; 5:6 / DOI: 10.4172/jaa.1000078

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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