HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Kupang
Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr.

TREE BEAN
Qui hua dou

Scientific names  Common names
Gleditschia javanica Lam.  Amarang (Tagb.)
Gleditsia javanica Lam.  Bagoen (Ilk.)
Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr. Balaiuak (Ilk.)
  Kupang (Tag., Sbl., Tabg., Ilk.)
  Tree bean (Engl.)
Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qui hua dou. (Taiwan)
BURMESE: Mai-karien.
INDIA: Yoncha.
INDONESIAN: Alai, Kedawung, Peundeuy.
MALAYSIA: Keduwang, Kupang, Petai Kerayong, Kedaung.
THAI: Karieng, Riang.

Botany
Kupang is a very large tree growing to a height of 25 to 40 meters. Leaves are evenly bipinnate, 30 to 80 centimeters long. Pinnae are 40 to 60, 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are 60 to 140, linear-oblong, 6-12 millimeters long, close-set, shining above, and pointed at the tip. Heads are dense, obovoid or pyriform, axillary, long-peduncled, up to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 1 centimeter long. The pods are 25 to 30 centimeters long, about 3.5 centimeters wide, rather thick, pendulous, black and shining when mature, containing 15 to 20 seeds.

Distribution
- Common in forests at low and medium altitudes in La Union to Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Palawan.
- Also occurs in India to Timor.

Constituents
- Pulp contains 60% sugar weight (a mixture of dextrose and levulose); 0.98 % free tartaric and citric acids, fats, and albuminoids.
- Study extracted a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin showed two forms of protein that appeared to be single polypeptide chains.

- Phytochemical screening yielded ß-sitosterol, ursolic acid (pentacyclic triterpene acid), iridoid glucosides. (4)
- HPLC and NMR analysis of fruit extract yielded
flavone compounds baicalein, quercetin and chrysin. (see study below) (11)

Properties
- Studies suggest antibacterial, hemagglutinating, anticancer, antileishmanial properties.

Parts utilized
Seeds, pods, bark, leaves.

Uses
Edibility
- Pods are edible. Pulp is sweetish with an odor of violets.
- In Africa, the roasted seeds make a coffee-like infusion called "soudan coffee."
Folkloric
- Seeds are used, in lieu of peppermint, for abdominal colic.
- Pods are used for bleeding hemorrhoids.
- In India, pods are used for bleeding piles. Bark extract used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Lotion made from bark and leaves applied to sores and skin affections.
- Tribal people of Tripura use P. javanica extract to cure stomach aches and cholera. Mizo tribals use the green portion of the fruit to cure wounds and scabies, and eat the fruit or young fruit for diarrhea, dysentery, and food poisoning. (4)
- In India, decoction of pod cover peel or bark used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. Decoction of bark mixed with bark of Spondias pinnata and tuberous root stock of Bengonia roxburghii used for treatment of chronic dysentery. (13)
Others
- Dye: Fruit skin known to give a brown color but not used extensively for dyeing fabrics. • Fruit peel yields a brown/black dye used for dyeing cotton and silk. (12)

Studies
• Iridoid Glucosides / Leaf and Bark: Study yielded two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A and B along with known compounds, urosolic acid, B-sitosterol from the leaf and bark of Pj. (1)
• Hemagglutinating Activity: Study yielded a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin could agglutinate the RBCs of rabbit and rat but not human, sheep or goose.
• Antibacterial: Methanol crude extracts showed antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains tested. (4)
• Anticancer: Methanol extract of Parkia javanica showed efficacy in imparting growth inhibition against various human cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The decrease in cancer cells was through induction of apoptosis. (4)
• Antileishmanial: Methanol extract of P. javanica showed negligible anti-promastigote activity but significant anti-amastigote activity. Results suggest involvement of macrophage mitochondria in the killing of Leishmania parasites. (4)
• Antiproliferative: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of plant extract in vitro and in vivo. Results showed 35 to 94% antiproliferative activity in vitro with different cell line. In vivo results showed 99% protection and increase in survival of cancer cell carrying mice. Results suggest induction of apoptosis involving mitrochondrial pathway. (5)
• Thioproline / Radioprotective: Thioproline is the principal agent responsible for the distinctive sulphur-aroma in Parkia timoriana seeds. It is a condensation product of formaldehyde and cysteine and is a natural metabolite that can act as antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Study showed radioprotective effects of pure thioproline through protection of DNA against gamma irradiation, with practical applications in cancer radiotherapy and risk reduction of exposed individuals. (6)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated various extracts of Parkia javanica and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus for antioxidant activity using three assays: DPPH, FRAP, and Ascorbate-Iron (III) induced lipid peroxidation assay. Both plants showed high antioxidant activity, with a positive correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity of the extracts. (7)
• Apoptosis Induction in S-180 Cells: Study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of aqueous methanol extract of fruit and in vitro radical scavenging activity. Extract caused significant cytotoxicity in S-180 cells suggesting reduced cell viability mediated by induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis in the presence of caspase-9 inhibitor in PJE-treated cells indicated intrinsic pathway of inhibition. (9)
• Anti-Vibrio Activity: Study evaluated the anti-cholera activity of P. javanica against 4 Vibrio cholerae strains. The crude methanol extract showed an IC100 of 10mg/ml for the Vibrio cholerae strains and bactericidal activity against all four Vibrio cholerae at the same concentrations. (10)
• Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of an EA fraction of P. javanica fruit extract against model biofilm-causing microorganism Pseudomoas aeruginosa. Analysis yielded flavone compounds baicalein, quercetin and chrysin. Results showed the extract as a whole exhibited higher antibiofilm activity at low concentrations while individual compounds showed comparatively lower biofilm activity. (11)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last update February 2017
Updated August 2015


Photos / Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Iridoid glucosides from leaves and stem barks of Parkia javanica / Bisswanath Dinda et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 3 March 2009 , pages 229 - 235 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020902727280
(2)
Purification of a lectin from Parkia javanica beans / Prapapom Utarabhand and Paltoon Akkayanont / Phytochemistry Vol 38, Issue 2, January 1995, Pages 281-285 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)00550-D
(3)
Parkia timoriana / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(4)
STUDIES ON BIOACTIVITIES OF PARKIA JAVANICA (LAMK.) MERR. AND EVOLVULUS NUMMULARIUS (L.) L.: TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS OF TRIPURA. / THESIS / RUPANJALI SAHA / 2012
(5)
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES ON ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF PARKIA JAVANI CA /
RUPANJALI SAHA, JAYATI MOOKERJEE BASU, ANANDA MOOKERJEE, BIKAS C MOHANTA, SOUMITRA K CHAUDHURI, SYAMAL ROY, BISWANATH DINDA and SAMIR K SIL / *
(6)
Sulphur Free Radical Reactivity of Thioproline and Crude Extracts of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.
/ Robert Thangjam, Damayanti Devi Maibam / Environ. Eng. Res. 2012 December,17(S1) : S9-S13 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4491/eer. 2012.17. S1. S9
(7)
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO MEDICINAL VEGETABLES: PARKIA JAVANICA AND
PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS
/ KHANGEMBAM VICTORIA CHANU*, M. AYUB ALI, MEENA KATARIA / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 1, 2012
(8)
Parkia javanica / Synonyms / The Plant List
(9)
Parkia javanica Extract Induces Apoptosis in S-180 Cells via the Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis /
Patra K, Jana S, Sarkar A, Karmakar S, Jana J, Gupta M, Mukherjee G, De UC5, Mandal DP, Bhattacharjee S / Nutr Cancer. 2016 May-Jun;68(4):689-707 / doi: 10.1080/01635581.2016.1158298. Epub 2016 May 4.
(10)
Anti-Vibrio Activity of Parkia javanica: Studies on MIC, MBC, Growth Curve Analysis and ROS Generation on Four Vibrio cholarae Strains / Susmita Saha, Jhinuk Basu Mullick, Parichita Ray Choudhury, Partha Saha, Debaprasad Chakraborty and Samir Kumar Sil / Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2016) 5(8): 538-544
(11)
Antibiofilm activity of Parkia javanica against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a study with fruit extract / Antu Das, Manash C. Das, Padmani Sandhu, Niranjan Das, Prosun Tribedi, Utpal C. De, Yusuf Akhter and Surajit Bhattacharjee* / RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 5497
(12)
Traditional dye yielding plants of Tripura, Northeast India / Biswajit Sutradhar, Dipankar Deb, Koushik Majumdar, B K Datta / Biodiversitas, Vol 16, No 2, October 2015
(13)
Some Anti-diarrhoeic and Anti-dysenteric Ethno-medicinal Plants of Mao Naga Tribe Community of Mao, Senapati District, Manipur / Sunita Gurumayum and Jiten Singh Soram / Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 2 (1): 147-155 (2014)
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT