Kupang is a very large tree growing to
a height of 25 to 40 meters. Leaves are evenly bipinnate,
30 to 80 centimeters long. Pinnae are 40 to 60, 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are 60 to 140, linear-oblong, 6-12 millimeters long,
close-set, shining above, and pointed at the tip. Heads are
dense, obovoid or pyriform, axillary, long-peduncled, up to 6
centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 1 centimeter long. The pods are 25
to 30 centimeters long, about 3.5 centimeters wide, rather thick, pendulous, black
and shining when mature, containing 15 to 20 seeds.
- Common in forests at low and medium altitudes in La Union to Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Palawan.
- Also occurs in India to Timor.
- Study of stem and bark yielded two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A (1) and B (2) along with known compounds ursolic acid and ß-sitosterol. New compounds were identified as 8-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-6'-O-p-coumaroyl-mussaenosidic acid (1) and 7-O-E-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-6'-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylloganic acid. (1)
Pulp contains 60% sugar weight (a mixture of dextrose
and levulose); 0.98 % free tartaric and citric acids, fats, and albuminoids.
- Study extracted a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin showed
two forms of protein that appeared to be single polypeptide chains.
- Phytochemical screening yielded ß-sitosterol, ursolic acid (pentacyclic triterpene acid), iridoid glucosides. (4)
- HPLC and NMR analysis of fruit extract yielded flavone compounds baicalein, quercetin and chrysin.
(see study below) (11)
- Studies suggest antibacterial, hemagglutinating, anticancer, antileishmanial, anti-biofilm, apoptosis- inducing, anti-biofilm properties.
Seeds, pods, bark, leaves.
- Pods are edible. Pulp is sweetish
with an odor of violets.
- In Africa, the roasted seeds make a coffee-like infusion called "soudan
- Seeds are used, in lieu of peppermint, for abdominal colic.
- Pods are used for bleeding hemorrhoids.
- In India, pods are used
for bleeding piles. Bark extract used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Lotion made from bark and leaves applied to sores and skin affections.
- Tribal people of Tripura use P. javanica extract to cure stomach aches and cholera. Mizo tribals use the green portion of the fruit to cure wounds and scabies, and eat the fruit or young fruit for diarrhea, dysentery, and food poisoning. (4)
- In India, decoction of pod cover peel or bark used to treat diarrhea and dysentery.
Decoction of bark mixed with bark of Spondias pinnata and tuberous root stock of Bengonia roxburghii used for treatment of chronic dysentery. (13)
- Dye: Fruit skin known to give a brown color but not used extensively for dyeing fabrics. • Fruit peel yields a brown/black dye used for dyeing cotton and silk. (12)
• Iridoid Glucosides / Leaf and Bark:
Study yielded two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A and B along
with known compounds, urosolic acid, B-sitosterol from the leaf and
bark of Pj. (1)
• Hemagglutinating Activity:
Study yielded a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin could
agglutinate the RBCs of rabbit and rat but not human, sheep or goose.
Methanol crude extracts showed antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains tested. (4)
Methanol extract of Parkia javanica showed efficacy in imparting growth inhibition against various human cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The decrease in cancer cells was through induction of apoptosis. (4)
Methanol extract of P. javanica showed negligible anti-promastigote activity but significant anti-amastigote activity. Results suggest involvement of macrophage mitochondria in the killing of Leishmania parasites. (4)
Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of plant extract in vitro and in vivo. Results showed 35 to 94% antiproliferative activity in vitro with different cell line. In vivo results showed 99% protection and increase in survival of cancer cell carrying mice. Results suggest induction of apoptosis involving mitrochondrial pathway. (5)
• Anticancer / Seeds:
Study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and anticancer activity of seeds of Parkia javanica. The extracts yielded alkaloiids flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins and anthraquinones. The methanol extract exhibited 50% cell death in HepG2, human liver cancer cells at 0.48 mg/mL, with comparatively lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells. (6)
Study evaluated various extracts of Parkia javanica and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus for antioxidant activity using three assays: DPPH, FRAP, and Ascorbate-Iron (III) induced lipid peroxidation assay. Both plants showed high antioxidant activity, with a positive correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity of the extracts. (7)
Induction in S-180 Cells: Study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of aqueous methanol extract of fruit and in vitro radical scavenging activity. Extract caused significant cytotoxicity in S-180 cells suggesting reduced cell viability mediated by induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis in the presence of caspase-9 inhibitor in PJE-treated cells indicated intrinsic pathway of inhibition. (9)
• Anti-Vibrio Activity: Study evaluated the anti-cholera activity of P. javanica against 4 Vibrio cholerae strains. The crude methanol extract showed an IC100 of 10mg/ml for the Vibrio cholerae strains and bactericidal activity against all four Vibrio cholerae at the same concentrations. (10)
• Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of an EA fraction of P. javanica fruit extract against model biofilm-causing microorganism Pseudomoas aeruginosa. Analysis yielded flavone compounds baicalein, quercetin and chrysin. Results showed the extract as a whole exhibited higher antibiofilm activity at low concentrations while individual compounds showed comparatively lower biofilm activity. (11)
• Apoptosis Inducing Ability in Cancer Cells / Seeds:
Study evaluated the apoptosis inducing ability of methanol extract of P. javanica seeds in cancer cells. Results showed a 50% cell death in HeLa and MCF-7 cells at 0.54 and 0,74 mg/ml, respectively, lower than that of normal cells. (14)
• Antibacterial in Chronic Wounds / Seeds:
Study evaluated a crude methanol extract of P. javanica for antibacterial activity against bacterial species predominantly found in chronic wound. MIC and MBC were in the range of IC100 5-40 mg/ml for standard bacterial strains. Results suggest ROS induced DNA damage could be the possible mediator of its antimicrobial activity. (15)
• Immunostimulant on Macrophage Cells:
Study evaluated a crude methanol extract of P. javanica for immunomodulatory activity on macrophage cells, RAW 264.7 by cell proliferation, migration and qRT PCR based interleukin expression assays. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-α were increased after treatment with the methanol extract. Results suggest an immune stimulant property on macrophage cells. (16)
• Antibacterial against Multidrug Resistant Gram Negative in Skin Wound:
the antibacterial activity of P. javanica against gram negative MDR bacterial strains predominantly found in skin wound viz. E. aerugenes, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumonia. Results showed a chloroform fraction exhibited promising antimicrobial substances with activity against MDR bacterial strains and ROS induced bacterial cell damage which could be a possible mediator of antimicrobial activity. (17)