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Family Tiliaceae
Kulutkulutan
Triumfetta bartramia Linn.
CHINESE BURR

Ci shuo ma

sy
Scientific names   Common names 
Mopex sinensisLour. ex Gomes Mach.            Unresolved Balanggot (Bik.)
Triumfetta bartramia Linn. Bulagun (Sul.)
Triumfetta bartramia var. clementii Domin       Unresolved Daupang (Sul.)
  Kollokolot (Sub., Ilk.)
  Kolotang-bilog (Tag.)
  Kullukullot (Ilk.)
  Kulutan (Tag.)
  Kulutkulutan (Tag., Pang.)
  Kupot (Ig.)
  Moropoto (S. L. Bis.)
  Pallopallot (Neg., Ilk.)
  Burweed (Engl.)
  Chinese burr (Engl.)
  Diamond burbark (Engl.)
Triumfetta bartramia L. is an accepted name The Plant List
Quisumbing's compilation and other studies list T. bartramia and T. rhomboidea as synonyms. Others list them as separate species.
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. is an accepted name (Triumfetta bartramia is not listed as synonym) The Plant List
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. lists various synonyms: Bartramia angulata, B. crispifolia, B. glandulosa, B. indica, B. lappago, B. rhombifolia, Triumfetta angulata, T. glandulosa, T. indica, T. mollis, T. riparia, T. trilocularis, T. vahlii, T. velutina. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ci shuo ma.
INDONESIAN: Sukupan, Pungpurutan, Galopang.
MALAYSIAN: Pulut-pulut, Champadang.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Gavana, Siponi.
THAI: Poyumyuu, Seng.
VIETNAMESE: Day k[es], Gai d[aaf]u.

Botany
Kulutkulutan erect, more or less hairy, branched annual, often half-woody shrub, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are variable, usually orbicular to rhomboid-ovate, 2 to 6 centimeters in length, entire or 3-lobed, the upper ones oblong to ovate-lanceolate, smaller and not lobed. Flowers are yellow, numerous, about 6 millimeters long, borne on dense axillary fascicles. Fruit is small, rounded, hairy, covered with hooked, smooth spines.

Distribution
- Very common in open waste places in all islands and provinces, at low and medium altitudes.
- Certainly introduced.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Plant yields carbohydrate glycosides, phytosterols, steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. (6)
- Study yielded
yielded ß-sitosterol, friedelin, friedelinol quercetin, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and rosmarinic acid. (4)
- Study isolated four flavonoids from the leaves of Triumfetta procumbens viz. apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucuro- nide, schaftoside and kaempferol 3-O-(p-coumaroylglucoside). (12)

Properties
- Roots, bark, leaves are mucilaginous and in decoction are astringent.
- Root considered styptic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, diuretic, cooling.
- Studies have suggested antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, diuretic, and immune-modulating properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
- Pounded or decoction of roots used for intestinal ulcers.
- Decoction of roots and leaves used in decoction as emollient. Also employed as antiblennorrhagic.
- Zulu women use a hot infusion of roots used to facilitate childbirth or hasten inception of parturition.
- Bark and fresh leaves used in diarrhea.
- Roots, bark, and leaves are mucilaginous; considered astringent in infusion or decoction.
- Pounded roots given for intestinal ulcers.
- Leaves, flowers, and roots used in gonorrhea and leprosy.
- In Rwanda, used as abortifacient and for snake bites.
- In
Kenya root infusion applied to site of snake bites. In Tanzania powdered leaves are tied to the affected site and decoction taken orally once a day. (13)
- In Nepal, leaves used for boils.
Plant paste used for boils, pimples, and blisters.

Studies
Quisumbing's compilation and other studies list T. bartramia and T. rhomboidea as synonyms. Others list them as separate species. The section includes studies for both.
Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study evaluated a methanol extract of TR for antitumor and antioxidant activities against Dalton's ascites lymphoma bearing Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in vivo. (1)
Antimicrobial /
Essential Oil: Antimicrobial tests showed mild activity against E coli and Enterococcus hirae. The main constituents were trans-B-caryophyllene, kessane and caryophyllene oxide. (2)
Immune Modulating: Triumfetta rhomboidea was one of the Rwandan medicinal plants studied for complement modulating activity. (3)
Phytochemicals: Study yielded ß-sitosterol, friedelin, friedelinol quercetin, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and rosmarinic acid.
(4)
Antibacterial: Study yielded carbohydrate glycosides, phytosterols, steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Results showed TR exhibited good antibacterial action.
(6)
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of T. bartramia and I. glandulifera with Silymarin as standard drug. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity with good regenerative areas and reduction of liver necrosis. (9)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of R. rhomboidea in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels, comparable to glibenclamide. (10)
Diuretic / Roots: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of roots in Wistar albino rats. Both extracts showed significant dose dependent diuretic activity with significant increase in urinary output and urine concentrations of urine Na+ and K+. (11)

Availability
Wildcrafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Triumfetta rhomboidea Against Dalton's Ascites Lymphoma Bearing Swiss Albino Mice / P Sivakumar et al / Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2 (4): 203-208, 2008
(2)
Composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq
/ J P Mevy, J M Bessiere et al / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 21 Issue 1, Pages 80 - 83
(3)
Complement modulating activity of Rwandan medicinal plants
(4)
Chemical components from Triumfetta bartramia / Ho, Li-Kang et al / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society • (Taipei) (1995), 42(1), 93-5 CODEN
(5)
Study of antiulcer activity of roots of Triumfetta rhomboidea / Pradhan D et al / Journal of Science and Pharmacy 5, 18--21
(6)
Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Study of Ethanolic Extract of Triumfetta Rhomboidea Jacq / Devmurari VP et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2010; 2(1): 40-42
(7)
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacquem. (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China

(8)
Triumfetta bartramia / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(9)
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF IMPATIE􏰀S GLA􏰀DULIFERA A􏰁D TRIUMFETTA BARTRAMIA / M.K.Zaman, Debajyoti*, Bijit Saha, Ashutosh Kumar / Pharmacologyonline 2: 320-326 (2009)
(10)
Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Triumfetta rhomboidea in alloxan inducedWistar rats
/ N Duganath, D Rama Krishna, Deepak Reddy G, B Sudheera, M Mallikarjun, PavaniBeesetty / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and ChemicalSciences, Vol 2, Issue 1, Jan-Mar 2011
(11)
Diuretic activity of the roots of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. / Jyothi M Joy*, V Madhavan, Anita Murali, S.N Yoganarasimhan, A. Saravanakumar / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Vol 1, Issue 2, Jul-Dec 2011: pp 33-37.
(12)
Flavone and Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Triumfetta procumbens in Ryukyu Islands
/ Tsukasa Iwashina* and Goro Kokubugata / Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. B, 38(2), pp. 63–67, May 22, 2012
(13)
Ethnophamacological Survey of Snake Bite Treatment in Ukerewe Island
/ Tanzania Sheila Maregesi, Godeliver Kagashe, Kalendero Masatu / Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2013; 2(5):381-386

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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