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Family Piperaceae
Kubamba
Piper umbellatum Linn.
COW-FOOT LEAF

Da hu jiao

Scientific names Common names
Heckeria umbellata (L.) Kunth Balai (Bon.)
Lepianthes umbellata (L.) Raf. [Invalid] Bayag-bayag (C. Bis.)
Lepianthes umbellata (L.) Raf. ex Ramamoorthy Dijaran (Ig.)
Peperidia sidifolia Kostel. Gumba (Sol.)
Peperidia umbellata (L.) Kostel. Kamamba (Tag.)
Peperomia umbellata (L.) Kostel. Kubamba (Tag.)
Peperomia umbellata (L.) Kunth Kubanbang-damo (Tag.)
Piper cuernavacanum C. DC. Kuyo (Bag.)
Piper postelsianum Maxim. Kuyok (Bag.)
Piper subpeltatum Willd. Pugapong (Buk.)
Piper umbellatum Linn. Tobayag (P. Bis.)
Pothomorphe dombeyana Miq. Cow-foot leaf (Engl.)
Pothomorphe subpeltata (Willd.) Miq. Wild pepper (Engl.)
Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq.  
Piper umbellatum L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Pariparoba.
CHINESE: Tai wan hu jiao, Da hu jiao.
INDONESIA: Tombo, Sak-masakan, Lomba.
MALAYSIA: Lemba, Lomba.
NIGERIA: Bini-ebe-ahanbi, Igbo-njam nja, Yoruba-ewe-efon, Iwere, Yawe.
SPANISH: Acoyo, Acuyo cimarrón , Cordoncillo, Hierba santa, Hierba santa loca.
THAILAND: Phluu teen chaang, Rok chaang, Haan mu.
VIETNAM: L[aa]n hoa.

Gen info
There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia.

Botany
Kubamba is an erect, suffrutescent plant, 1 to 2 meters high. Leaves are membranaceous with conspicuous, glandular, brown to black dots beneath, broadly ovate to suborbicular-ovate, 17 to 37 centimeters long, 15 to 32 centimeters wide, the base subpeltate, multiplinerved and equilaterally deeply heart-shaped, the apex with a pointed tip, somewhat hairy on the nerves on both surfaces, and the margins ciliate. Petioles are very long, more or less hairy, 11.5 to 27.5 centimeters long. Spikes are numerous, umbellate, axillary, hermaphroditic, 5.5 to 12 centimeters long, 2 to 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Rachis is smooth. Bracts are stalked, peltate, about 1 millimeter long, with semilunar, triangular disk. Fruit is free, crowded, obovoid-trigonous, 0.75 to 1 millimeter long, about 0.5 millimeter in diameter, glandular, with the apex truncate and umbonate. Stigmas are cuspidate. Stamens are two, 0.2 millimeter long and with very short stalks.

Distribution
- In damp forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
- Essential oil from aerial parts contain B-pinene, a-pinene, E-nerolidol and B-caryophyllene.
- Yields safrole, germacrene-D, ß-cadinene,, o-cadinene, and bicyclogermacrene.
- Roots and aerial parts contain 4-nerolidylcatecol.
- Study yielded three pure compounds, viz. isoasarone, 2-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-propenylbenzofuran and 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydrophenyl)-3- methyl-5-propenylbenzofuran. (
10)
- Phytochemical screening of dry leaves indicated the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, and alkaloids. (11)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded a very high amount of steroid (more than 95%), little traces of tannin and alkaloid; saponin and phenol, slightly 10% each; flavonoid, less than 10%. (13)
- Proximate composition of leaves yielded protein (20%), lipids, ash (17%), high amounts of fiber (55.6%), moisture (less than 10%) and small amounts of carbohydrate and lipid. (13)
- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids +, alkaloids ++, cardiac glycosides +++, phenolics +, tannins ++. (21)
- Study of essential oil yielded 37 components. The major components were: aromadendrene (13.74%), caryophyllene (10.44%), linalool (8.55%) and γ- bisabolene (8.06%). (see study below) (22)

Properties
- Plant is considered vulnerary, detergent, antiscorbutic, diuretic.
- In Africa, considered emollient, vulnerary and antiseptic.
- Fruits considered rubefacient and diuretic.
- 4-nerolidylcatechol considered antioxidant.

Parts used
Leaves, fruit.

Uses

Culinary
- In many parts of the tropics, young leaves and inflorescences are eaten raw, steam or boiled as vegetable.
- Also used as condiment for fish or meat and rice.
- In Sierra Leone, leaves are a favorite leafy vegetable.
- Sweet and ripe fruits are eaten as delicacy.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, fresh leaves are applied on the surface of abscesses as topicals.
- Juice of leaves applied to eyes for conjunctivitis.
- In French Guiana, plant is used as remedy for tapeworms.
- In other countries, used as antiscorbutic and diuretic.
- In Africa, used as poultices for swellings, boils and burns. Juice taken as emmenagogue, galactagogue and diuretic. Juice used as eardrops for earaches. Decoction of leaves or roots used for jaundice, malaria, urinary problems, syphilis, gonorrhea, constipation and stomachaches. Also used for migraines. Decoction used as wash for fevers in children.
- In Cote d'ivoire and Central Africa aerial parts used to regulate menstruation and prevent abortion.
- In Guinea, plant used to expel tapeworms; in the Congo, leaves are used a vermifuge.
- In Cameroon, used for toothaches and hypertension.
- In Nigeria, leaves, roots and fruits used for rheumatism, inflammatory tumors, stomach pains, ascites and anasarca. Leaves boiled with local palm kernel oil used as laxative for pregnant women. Root decoction in local dry gin used for inflammation and rheumatism. (
16)
- In Madagascar, leaves applied in friction for rheumatism.
- In Brazil, used in baths for treatment of edema and uterine problems. Also, used for malaria.
- In Malaysia, fruits chewed with betel leaves for cough.
- In Libreville, Gabon (West Africa), plant decoction used for management of hypertension. (23)
Others
In SE Asia and South America, used as an ingredient of arrow poison.


Studies
Anti-Venom:
Phospholipases A2 are important constituents of snake venoms, responsible for their toxic actions. Study showed extracts from P umbellatum and P peltatum showed inhibition of the enzymatic activity of myotoxin 1, a PLA2 from Bothrops asper, and isolated 4-nerolidylcatechol which completely inhibited the enzyme activity of B asper myotoxin. (2)
Aristolactams / Antioxidant / Antifungal: Study isolated four alkaloids, piperumbellactams A-D from the branches of P umbellatum together with three other known compounds.
Some compounds showed a-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antifungal activity. (3)
Antioxidant: In a study evaluating the antioxidant capacity of 14 herbs/spices from Cameroon, P umbellatum led the antioxidant activity on one assay method. (4)
Essential Oil: Major essential oil constituents of the fruits showed to be linalool (14.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (10.0%); from the leaves, B-pinene (10.8%), B-caryophyllene (28.2%) and (E)-nerolidol (16.5%). (5)
Anti-Plasmodial: (1) Study of extracts of seven Cameroon plants used by traditional healers showed P umbellatum extract had moderate activity against P falcifarum. (2) Crude methanol extract of leaves showed strong dose-dependent antimalarial activity against P. berghei-infected mice. (6)
Insecticidal / Anti-Cockroach: Study yielded isoasarone, a compound shown to be capable of causing immediate hyperexcitation and complete inhibition of the cockroach cercal nerve activity. (10)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated a methanol extract and fractions of P. umbellatum for antimicrobial activity. Results showed in inhibition of all test microorganisms at the doses used. MIC for the ME and n-hexane fraction was <25mg/ml. (11) Powdered samples extracted in three different solvents showed activity against five pathogenic organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans). (14)
Contraceptive Effect: Study evaluated the effect of a methanol extract of leaves on conception and sexual behavior in rodents. The extract protected the rodents from conception from one to three gestational periods. There was dose-related inhibition of regular estrus cycle and ovulation. The contraceptive effect may be due, in part, to secondary metabolites which included phenols and saponins. (12)
Anti-Cancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the evaluated the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced inflammation model) activities of a standardized dichlormethane extract of P. umbellatum leaves. Treatments showed no toxicity. Results showed reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration suggesting that the anticancer activity could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. (15)
• Gastric-Ulcer Protective / Leaves: Study evaluated the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves in experimental rodents. Results showed the HEPu possesses preventive and curative effects in experimental models of gastric ulcers in animals. The effects were considered partially dependent on antioxidant, antisecretory, anti-inflammatory and mucosa regenerative effects. (18)
• Inhibition of Myotoxic Phospholipases A2 from Bothrops Snake Venom: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are important constituents in snake venoms. Extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. peltatum were screened for inhibition of enzymatic activity of myotoxin 1, a PLA2 from Bothrops asper. Fractionation of both plants isolated 4-nerolidylcathechol. The enzyme activity of B. asper myotoxin I was completely inhibited by 4-nerolidylcatechol at an inhibitor:toxin ration of 10:1 wt/wt with an IC50 of approximately equal to 1 mM. Bothrops myotoxin. In situ, immediately after toxin injection, the inhibitory effect was substantially lower or negligible, which may be explained by rapid action of toxins in vivo, together with slow activation of PLA2. (19)
• Anti-Trypanosomal: Study evaluated a crude extract of P. umbellatum for anti-protozoan activity in epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi "Y" strain. After 120 h. of incubation, results showed growth inhibition percentages of the cells of 28.8%, 85.3%, 94.2%, and 98.4% in concentrations of 10.0, 100.0, 500.0 and 1000.0 µg/ml of crude extract of Pariparoba, respectively. (20)
• Insecticidal / Grain Storage Pests / Essential Oil: Study investigated the insecticidal activities of essential oil of P. umbellatum against bean weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae). Results showed the essential oil to be toxic to both insects in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). The essential oil showed higher toxicity to bean weevil than rice weevil. (see constituents above) (22)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.


Last Update January 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Flickr - João de Deus Medeiros - Piper umbellatum.jpg / João Medeiros / 7 November 2010 / Click on Image to go to source page / Creative Commons Attribution 2.) Generic License / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Piper umbellatum / Descourtilz, M.E., Flore médicale des Antilles, vol. 1: t. 37 (1821) [J.T. Descourtilz] / Illustration contributed by the Library of the Missouri Botanical Garden, U.S.A. / Public Domain / Plant Illustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Piper umbellatum / Protabase
(2)
Inhibitory effects of Piper umbellatum and Piper peltatum extracts towards myotoxic phospholipases A2 from Bothrops snake venoms: Isolation of 4-nerolidylcatechol as active principle / Vitelbina Nuñez, Victor Castro et al /
Phytochemistry, Volume 66, Issue 9, May 2005, Pages 1017-1025 / doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.03.026
(3)
Bioactive aristolactams from Piper umbellatum / Turibio Kulate Tabopda, Joseph Ngoupayo et al /
Phytochemistry, Vol 69, Issue 8, May 2008, Pages 1726-1731 / doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.02.018 |
(4)
Antioxidant Capacity of Some Herbs/Spices from Cameroon: A Comparative Study of Two Methods / Gabriel Agbor et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (17), pp 6819–6824
DOI: 10.1021/jf050445c
(5)
Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of different tissues of Piper capense L., Piper guineense Schum. et Thonn., Piper nigrum L. and Piper umbellatum L. grown in Cameroon / Tchoumbougnang Francois, Jazet Dongmo Pierre Michel et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (3), pp. 424-431, 4 February, 2009
(6)
Antiplasmodial activity of seven plants used in African folk medicine / Bidla G, Titanji VPK et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 36, No. 4, August, 2004, pp. 245-246
(7)
Piper umbellatum L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
Sorting Piper names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9)
Piper umbellatum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(10)
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON PIPER UMBELLATUM L. / Fasihuddin B. Ahmad and Cheksum Tawan / ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC) July-September 2002
(11)
Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of the methanol extract and fractions of the leaves of Piper umbellatum Linn (Piperaeceae) / LO Okunrobo, KE Imafidon, JO Uwaya, E Oloton, MO Okebhagbe / Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources.
(12)
Effects Of Methanol Extract Of Piper Umbellatum Leaves On Contraceptive And Sexual Behaviour In Rodents / Paul A. Nwafor;* Emem Ekpo, Enobong E. Udofia; And Mandu E. Smith / Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Applied Science Research, Vol. 1 Number 2.
(13)
STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PIPER UMBELLATUM (LINN) FROM NIGERIA / Nwauzoma, A. B. and Dawari, Songo L. / American Journal of Research Communication, 2013, 1(7): 164-177.
(14)
Nutritional, phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of two wild aromatic vegetables from Edo State
/ J. K. Mensah, J. O. Ihenyen and M. O. Okhiure / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2013, 3 (1):8-14
(15)
Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves / Leilane Hespporte Iwamoto, Débora Barbosa Vendramini-Costa, Paula Araújo Monteiro, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois Ruiz, Ilza Maria de Oliveira Sousa, Mary Ann Foglio, João Ernesto de Carvalho, and Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/948737
(16)
ETHNOMEDICINAL ASPECTS OF PLANTS USED AS SPICES AND CONDIMENTS IN THE NIGER DELTA AREA OF NIGERIA / Ndukwu, B.C. and Ben-Nwadibia, N.B. / opensiuc.lib.siu.edu
(17)
Piper umbellatum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(18)
Piper umbellatum L,: A medicinal plant with gastric-ulcer protective and ulcer healing effects in experimental rodent models / Iberé Ferreira da Silva Junior, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Ruberlei Godinho de Oliveira, Domingos Tabajara Oliveira / Journal of ethnopharmacology, July 2016 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.011

(19)
Inhibitory effects of Piper umbellatum and Piper peltatum extracts towards myotoxic phospholipases A2 from Bothrops snake venoms: isolation of 4-nerolidylcatechol as active principle / Nuñez, V; Castro-Araya, Victor H; Murillo-Masis, Renato; Ponce-Soto, LA; Merfort, I; Lamonte-Vigliotti, Bruno / Phytochemistry, Vol 66, No 9, p 1017-1025
(20)
Anti-trypanosoma activity of extract obtained from plant Piper umbellatum
/ P.S. Luize a, L.G. Morello a, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B.P. Dias Filho, D.A.G. Cortez, and C.V.Nakamura / (1964) Rev. Inst. Med. Trop., 6: 93-100.
(21)
Phytochemical screening of the bioactive compounds in twenty (20) Cameroonian medicinal plants L.M. / Ndam *, A.M. Mih, A.G.N. Fongod, A.S. Tening, R.K. Tonjock, J.E. Enang and Y. Fujii / Int. J.Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2014) 3(12): 768-778
(22)
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM PIPER UMBELLATUM AGAINST GRAIN STORAGE INSECTS / *Awojide Shola Hezekiah, Lajide Labunmi and Owolabi Bodunde Joseph / Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 3621-3627, October 2015
(23)
STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AT LIBREVILLE (GABON): AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACH / N.O. Koumba Madingou, A. Souza*, M. Lamidi, L.E. Mengome, C. Eyele Mve Mba, Bading Bayissi, J. Mavoungou, A.S. Traore /
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF  PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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