- Murraya belongs to the family Rutaceae, which consists of about 150 genera and 1500 species.
- The use of the leaves in curries
dates back in Tamil and Kannada literature to around the 1st and 4th centuries AD. (93)
- The word 'curry' dervies from the Tamil word 'kari', which means 'spiced sauce'.
Karipata is a small, tropical to subtropical tree or shrub growing to a height of 6 to 15 meters. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 11 to 21, thin, ovate, shiny and dark green. Leaflets are 2 to 4.5 centimeters long. Flowers are white, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, in terminal cymes. Flowers are followed by 1-2 seeded, ovoid to oblong, bluish-black fruits, about 2 centimeters in diameter.
Murraya koenigii is a semi-deciduous aromatic shrub or small tree which is about 2.5 m up to 6 m in height and 15-40 cm in diameter with a short trunk, thin, smooth grey or brown bark (Figure 1). The leaves are imparipinnate, glabrous, and very intensely aromatic and about 30 cm long, each bearing 9-25 leaflets, short-stalked, alternate, and have a reticulate venation. Flowers are small, white funnel-shaped, fragrant, bisexual, calyx deeply five clefts, and pubescent. Petals five, free, whitish, glabrous, and with dotted glands. Fruits occur in close clusters, small, round to oblong in shape, glandular, thin pericarp enclosing one or two seeds having spinach green color.
- Recently introduced.
- Native to Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Laos, Malaya, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. (93)
- Grows primarily the wet tropical biome.
- Considered to be the richest or one of the richest source of carbazole alkaloids, which is reponsible for its many biologic properties.
Study of stem bark yielded mahanimbine, girinimbine, murrayanine, murrayazoline, murrayacine and sucrose. Leaves yielded five compounds: Il-decylhenecosane and methoxydotriacontane isolated as a mixture, and mahanimbine, ethyl octadecanoate and mahanine. Roots yielded four compounds: girinimbine, murrayanine, together with 3-methylcarbazole and murrayafoline A. (See studies below) (14)
- Leaves yielded carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid. (17)
- Various extracts of leaves (petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethanol extracts) yielded carbohydrates, gums, mucilage, fats, oil, coumarin glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthraquinone glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids.
(See study below) (20)
- Analysis of dried curry leaf powder (CLP) yielded 12.5% protein, 5.4% fat, 9.7% total ash, 55.6% insoluble fiber, 4.4% soluble fiber, 12.0 mg/100 g iron, 373 mg/100g phosphorus, 2.04% calcium.
(see study below) (29)
Alcoholic extract of leaves yielded steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and carbohydrates. (see study below) (34)
- Study of petroleum ether extract of roots yielded two carbazole alkaloids: 3-methylcarbazole and murrayafoline A. (39)
- Hydrodistillation of leaves yielded 0.5% essential oil on a fresh weight basis, dark yellow, spicy odor and pungent clove-like taste. Characteristics were specific gravity 0.9748. saponification value 5.2, moisture 66.3%, protein 6.1%, fat (ether extract) 1.0%, carbohydrate 18.7%, fiber 6.4%,
mineral matter 4.2%, , calcium 810 mg/100g of edible portion, phosphorus 600 mg/100g of edible portion, iron 3.1 mg/100g of edible portion, carotene (vitamin A) 12,600 IU/100g, nicotinic acid 2.3 mg/100g, vitamin C 4 mg/ 100 g. (48)
- CHCl3 extract of fruit pulp yielded three new dimeric carbazole alkaloids, bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3).Bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). (see study below) (50)
- Analysis of fresh curry leaf for antioxidant vitamins yielded 9744 mg of lutein, 212 mg of alpha-tocopherol, and 183 mg of beta-carotene per gram of fresh weight. (57)
-Study of various extracts of bark powder yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, coumarins, saponins, sterols, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. (58)
- GC-MS study of leaf extract yielded various compounds viz. benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-, tropylium, ethyl, 2 – phenyl, styrene, tropylium, 6-methylenecyclohexa-1,2,4-triene, 2,4-cyclopentadienide. (60)
- GC-MS study of leaves for essential oil yielded
yielded 62 components constituting 96.9% of the oil. Major constituents were ß-phellandrene (24.4%), a-pinene (17.5%), ß-caryophyllene (7.3%), and terpinen-4-ol (6.1%). (65)
- GC-MS analysis of essential oil of leaves yielded 43 compounds representing 99.79% of total composition of oil, among which 3-carene, ß-pinene, a-pinene, linalool, a-eudesmol, p-cymeme, y-terpinene, a-amorphene, allo-ocimeme, sabinene, y-terpinene, linanyl acetate, myrcene,
ß-eudesmol, carvone, limonene, ß-elemene, a-terpineol were major constituents. (see study below) (70)
- Study of methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) extract yielded five carbazole derivatives, viz., euchrestine B (1), bismurrayafoline E (2), mahanine (3), mahanimbicine (4), and mahanimbine (5). (see study below) (78)
- Various leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, protein, tannin, quinone, saponins, and flavonoids. (see study below) (79)
- Leaves are pungent and aromatic.
- Leaves considered tonic, stomachic, carminative, antidysenteric, anti-emetic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, neuroprotective, anti-ulcer, antigenotoxic, chemoprotective, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, anthelmintic, antifungal, hypotensive, wound healing, nephroprotective, thrombolytic properties.
Edibility / Culinary
- Leaves and fruits are edible.
- Leaves are
dry roasted or fried to a crisp.
- Leaves widely used as spice and condiment.
- Essential ingredient of Indian cuisine.
- Leaves used to flavor various dishes, meat, seafood, chutney, relishes, marinades. (Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is unrelated to the curry plant (Helichrysum italicum which also has a curry-like aroma.
- Leaves ground to a paste, with tumeric as an option, and applied to acne.
- In Unani and Ayurveda, used for piles, leucoderma, blood disorders, and to allay body heat.
- Used of nausea and stomach upsets, skin irritations and poisonous bites.
- Oils used as insect repellent and to cure various skin disorders.
- Used for hemorrhoids and as anthelmintic.
- Used to treat hypertension.
- Crushed leaves applied externally to relieve burns and to cure skin eruptions.
- Boiled leaves used for poisonous bites.
- Used for diabetes, dysentery, fever, and inflammation.
- In India, curry leaves are boiled with coconut oil and reduced to a blanked residue which is then used as hair tonic for retaining hair tone and stimulating hair growth. (69)
- In Ayurveda, dried curry leaf mixed with honey and betel juice is used as anti-periodic. Leaves applied externally on bruises, burns, eruptions, and poisonous bites. Internally, used to cure dysentery. Infusion of toasted leaves used as antiemetic. Steam distillate of leaves used as stomachic, carminative, purgative, febrifuge, and anti-anemic. Leaves and roots are anthelmintic and analgesic; also used for piles, fiver, thirst, itching and inflammation. Juices of roots use for liver problems and kidney pains.
- Cosmetics: Leaf oil possess sun protection factor (SPF) property to protect against sunburn. Cream formulation used for skin pigmentation, erythema. Leaf oil used for making soaps, perfumes, creams, lotions, etc. (92) M. koenigii contains hyaluronidase inhibitors, which is formulated in a cream base and incorporated in cosmetic preparations for skin-lightening effect, moisturizing and antioxidant properties. (96)
• Antioxidant / Protective in Cadmium-Induced Cardiac Oxidative Stress: Study showed an aqueous extract of leaf protects rat cardiac tissue against cadmium-induced oxidative stress possibly through its antioxidant activity.
• Anti-Cancer / Proteasome Inhibition / Breast Cancer Cell Death / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves against two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The leaf extract decreased cell viability and dose-dependently altered the growth kinetics in both cell lines. The extract showed it to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death. (4)
• Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of Murraya koenigii leaves and Olea europaea leaves for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed both extracts exhibited potent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as carbazole alkaloids and polyphenols. (5) Study of aqueous extract of leaves in normal and STZ- induced severe diabetic rats showed a favorable effect in bringing down the severity of diabetes. There was also a decrease in TG levels and an increase in HDL cholesterol. (26) Daily administration of aqueous extract and methanol extract of leaves for eight weeks in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose. The hypoglycemic effect might be mediated through stimulation of insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (37) An aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii showed dose-dependent antidiabetic activity with maximum effect at 300 mg/kg. Extract showed significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. (63)
• Girinimbine / Apoptosis Effect on Lung Cancer Cells: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii was investigated for anticancer effects on A549 lung cancer cells. Results showed girinimbine mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through up- and down-regulation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, with significant involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Results suggest girinimbine to be a potential agent for anticancer drug development. (6)
• Plasma Insulin Effect / Hypoglycemic: Study of an aqueous and methanol extract of leaves showed significant reduction of blood glucose with significant increase in plasma insulin. Results suggest the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulation of insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (8)
• Toxicity Studies: Acute toxicity study was carried out against Swiss albino mice. Results showed no mortality at the highest dose level, with no toxic effects at studied dose levels, and safe till the dose level of 9000 mg/k. (9) No signs of mortality or morbidity was seen in either male or female rats fed ethanolic extract of leaf (300 and 500 mg/kg) fir 28 days. No mortality was observed at higher doses (900 mg/kg), but congestion, hemorrhage, and lymphocyte infiltration were recorded. Study concluded safety consumption could be as high as 500 mg/kg. Another study suggest crude leaf powder and methanolic extract was safe up to 9000 mg/kg in mice. However, methanol leaf extract was found to be moderately toxic (LD50 316.23 mg/kbw) to rats and caused liver inflammation; however, with no severe side effects in other organs. (101)
• Natural Preservative Potential / Anti-Aflatoxigenic Food Additive Potential: Study reported the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potential of M. koenigii and its culinary oil food additive potential. Frying oil with M. koenigii could lead to long storage reduction in aflatoxin and frying performance increase without nutritional loss. (10)
• Anti-Obesity / Hypoglycemic Effect: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of ethanol extract of M. koenigii leaves in high fatty diet induced obesity in rats. Results showed a potent anti-hyperglycemic effect, with a significant decrease in both cholesterol and triglycerides, and suggest potential use by the diabetic patient for controlling body weight and maintaining glycemic level. (11)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of M. koenigii leaves. An ethanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory effects using acute carrageenan induced paw edema method and yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. (12)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii in healthy animals for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Results showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity with reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity with increased reaction time by eddy's hot late method and percentage increase in pain by formalin test. (13) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract of dried leaves of M. koenigii in male Wistar rats. Results showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by significant reduction of paw edema volume and analgesic activity by significant and dose-dependent reduction in number of acetic acid-induced writhing and increased latency of paw licking in hot plate method. (92)
• Biologic Activities: The crude extracts of the roots isolated compound including mahanimbine, girinimbine, mahanine and murrayafoline A exhibited significant cytotoxicity activity against CEM-SS cell line. Girinimbine inhibited EBV-activation (100%) in the antitumor promoting assay . Pet ether and the chloroform crude extracts of the stem bark exhibited weak antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. (14)
• Neuroprotective Effect / Reserpine-Induced Orofacial Dyskinesia: Study evaluated the neuroprotective potential and in-vivo antioxidant effect of a methanol extract of leaves in reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Results showed significant inhibition of reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusion, orofacial burst, and cataplexy. Treatment with the extract also restored the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes and inhibited haloperidol-induced cataplexy. Oxidative stress may play a role in the dyskinesia, and M. koenigii may have a role in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia. (15)
• Storage Effect on Nutritional Value: Curry leaf is available fresh, dried, or frozen for long term storage. Fresh curry leaves showed the highest concentration of lutein, frozen leaves the lowest, while oven-dried and air-dried leaves yielded 60% less lutein compared to fresh leaves. Beta-carotene was highest in fresh leaves, lowest in oven-dried leaves. (16)
• Antioxidant Effect: Study investigated Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala for antioxidant activity. M. koenigii showed higher activity than C. tamala which may be due to multiple factors: hydrogen or electron transfer, metal chelating activity, and synergistic activity due to high polyphenol content. (17) Leaf extracts showed effective antioxidant and radical scavenging activities on DPPH, NO, OH, O2- and anti-lipid peroxidation assays. (56)
• Anti-Ulcer Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of M koenigii in pylorus ligated and NSAID induced ulcer model in albino rats. Results showed significant inhibition of the gastric lesion with reduced ulcerative lesion, gastric volume, free and total acidity, with raised pH of gastric juice in the pylorus-ligated model. (18)
• Antimicrobial Effect / Roots / Leaves: Study evaluated various root extracts of M. koenigii against four bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Root extracts in organic solvents showed good antimicrobial activity. S. aureus and T. rubrum were the most susceptible antibacterial and fungal strains. (19) Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaves extracts against six gram-positive and nine gram-negative bacteria and two fungal strains. Leaf extracts in organic solvents showed better antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous extracts. (64)
• Antigenotoxic / Chemoprotective Effect: Study evaluated the chemoprotective activity of a methanolic extract of M. koenigii in Swiss albino mice bone marrow in-vivo model. Results showed the extract effectively prevented cyclophosphamide induced chromosomal aberration. No drug toxicity was noted at 100 mg/kbw dose. (20)
• Antipyretic Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of M. koenigii leaves extract. Results showed an ethanol extract to possess significant antipyretic activity. (21)
• Antifungal / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of shade dried leaves and extracted essential oil from the leaves of M. koenigii for antifungal potential. Acetone extract showed highest activity against Aspergillus niger, benzene extract most active against Alternaria solani and Helminthosporium solani, and the 95% ethanol extract was most active against Penicillium notatum. The essential oil also showed moderate antifungal activity. (22)
• Hypoglycemic / Fruit Juice: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of M. koenigii fruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Results showed reduction in blood glucose level. The fruit juice may also exert a cytoprotective effect because of the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. (23)
• Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots for anthelmintic activity against Eudrillus eugeniae, with albendazole as reference drug. Results showed potent anthelmintic activity in the parameters studied. (24)
• Larvicidal, Pupicidal Repellent Against Malaria Vector: Study evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and anti-vector activity of aqueous extract of M. koenigii against the larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. Results showed a potential for M. koenigii as an ideal eco-friendly approach for vector control. (25)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of M. koenigii leaves in male wistar rats with dichromate induced oxidative stress. Treatment with M. koenigii significantly increased the GSH content in liver and kidney with reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Results indicate M. koenigii leaves have significant potential as a natural antioxidant agent. (27)
• Protective in Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma: Study evaluated the effect of column extracts of M. koenigii plant extracts in vivo and in vitro in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest a protective effect in Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma. In vitro studies showed moderate activity. (28)
• Acceptability of Curry Leaf Products Incorporated for Consumption: Study explored the possibility of incorporating dried curry leaf powder (CLP) at 5 or 10% to common dishes to increase the intake of greens a source of micronutrients. (see constituents above) (29)
• Fruit Juice Repeated Dose Toxicity Study / Effects on Weight, Fat, and Glucose: Use of fruit juice for 28 days decreased body weight, subcutaneous fat, and blood glucose level. More research is suggested on the fruit's biologic activities, especially hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and antiobesity use. (30)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaves extracts of Murraya koenigii against six gram positive and nine gram negative bacterial and two fungal strains. The most susceptible bacterial strains were Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with no antifungal activity. Organic solvents showed better activity than aqueous extracts. (31)
• Hepatoprotective / Lead-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of curry leaf aqueous extract showed amelioration of lead induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissue. Results suggest potential for use in prevention of lead-induced hepatotoxicity in humans occupationally or environmentally exposed to this toxic metal. (32)
• Antidiarrheal / Roots: Study evaluated roots extracts of M. koenigii for antidiarrheal activity using albino rats. Ethanol and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition in the frequency of defecation as well as reduction in the number of wet fecal droppings in castor oil-induced diarrhea model, and significant reduction in propulsion of charcoal meal through the GIT in gastrointestinal motility model. (33)
• Hypotensive / Possible Drug-Herb Synergism with Amlodipine / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihypertensive effect of Murraya koenigii and investigated its interaction with amlodipine in cadmium chloride induced hypertension in rats. Extract was found safe at dose of 2000 mg/kg. The extract showed a hypotensive effect at 250 mg/kg and an antihypertensive effect at dose 150 mg/kg. The combination of the extract with amlodipine showed a profound hypotensive effect suggesting a synergistic interaction. (34)
• Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by M. koenigii leaf extract. The bactericidal activity of standard antibiotics was significantly increased in the presence of AgNPs against pathogenic bacteria, viz., E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. (35)
• Antidepressant / Seeds: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of seeds for antidepressant activity in mice. Results showed significant reduction in duration of immobility of mice in tail suspension test and despair swimming test. (36)
• Hepatoprotective / Ethanol Induced Liver Toxicity: An aqueous extract showed hepatoprotection on ethanol-induced liver toxicity in wistar rats. The extract showed significant increase in reduced glutathione levels and comparable reduction in SGPT and alkaline phosphatase. (38)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Potentiation of Effect: An ethanol extract of leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan induce paw edema method. The combination of the extract with diclofenac potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac, a result that may help in reducing the dose of the synthetic drug. (40)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated three carbazole alkaloids (mahanine, mahanimbicine, mahanimbine), essential oil and ethanol extract for efficacy in healing subcutaneous wounds. The absence of changes in the liver and kidney of the animals suggest the non-toxic nature of the treatments using the extract and the carbazole alkaloids. Wounds treated with mahanimbicine and extract showed the highest rate of collagen deposition with reduced inflammatory cells. (41)
• Nootropic / Memory Enhancing / Potential in Dementia / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of Murraya koenigii leaves on memory in rats using Elevated plus-maze and Hebb-Williams maze as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. The MKL diets produced significant dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged rats and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine and diazepam. Results suggest a potential in the management of dementia patients. (42)
• Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of acute and chronic administration of petroleum ether extract of leaves and total alkaloids in mice. The extract and total alkaloid fraction significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing, significantly increased the latency of paw licking in hot plate method, and increased basal reaction time in tail immersion method. (43)
• Renoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in male Wistar rats. Results showed restoration of serum and urinary parameters with improvement in endogenous antioxidants. Findings suggest both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury. (44)
• Koenimbin / Chemoprevention Potential: Study evaluated the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from M. koenigii, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Results showed koenimbin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells mediated by cell death-transducing signals. Findings suggest a potential for koenimbin for future chemoprevention studies and cancer management strategies. (45)
• Paraoxonase / Hypoglycemic Effect / Leaves: The activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a HDL-associated antioxidant enzyme, was found to be decreased during hypoglycemia. Study explored the effect of MK leaves (MkL) on paraoxonase 1 activity to control oxidative stress in diabetes. MkL significantly decreased blood sugar levels in a dose dependent manner. PON1 activity was found to be increased with MkL extract. Results suggest MkL treatment decreased oxidative stress associated with diabetes by affecting the antioxidant parameters like SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA, and also PON1. (46)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Mk leaves in attenuating hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, a potent oxidative stress induced and a model hepatotoxicant. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect supported by histopathological liver findings. (47)
• Thrombolytic / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant: An aqueous extract of Mk showed thrombolytic activity of 26.17%. Cytotoxicity on brine shrimp lethality assay showed an LC50 value of 6.46. Total antioxidant value was found to be 350.81 ±0.99 mg/g. Findings suggest thrombolytic, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties with potential benefit for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (49)
• Bioactive Dimeric Carbazole Alkaloids / Fruit Pulp: CHCl3 extract of fruit pulp yielded three new dimeric carbazole alkaloids, bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). Bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). The compounds exhibited various levels of antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase, DNA binding, and cytotoxic activities and protein interactions. (50)
• Chemomodulatory / Human Stomach and Skin Papillomagenesis: Study evaluated fresh crude curry leaf aqueous extract in Swiss albino mice for chemomodulatory activity. The anticarcinogenic potential of the curry leaf was evaluated adopting the Benzo(a)pyrene induced fore-stomach and 7,12 DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both tumor model systems studied. Findings suggest the curry leaf can be useful in the prevention of human stomach and skin cancers. (51)
• Antifungal: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for antifungal efficacy against two dermatophytic taxa, namely, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum and evaluated the therapeutic value of the extract against an imidazole fungicide. The extract equally inhibited vegetative growth like that of the fungicide and the extract exerted significant effect on hyphal morphology. Effect of the extract was almost equal that of the fungicide. (52)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study of crude extract of leaves of M. koenigii and M. frondosa and their fractions showed anthelmintic activity using Pheretima posthuma as test worms. Albendazole was used as standard reference. (53)
• Toxicity and Repellent Activity / Essential Oils: Study evaluated essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and M. koenigii for toxicity and repellent activity against Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea. Findings showed the essential oils of lemongrass and curry leaf could be used as less toxic alternatives to protect stored cowpea. (54)
• Antidiabetogenic / Islet Protective and Insulin Secretory Activity: Study investigated the antidiabetogenic effects of Murraya koenigii and O. tenuiflorum on STZ-induced diabetic Swiss mice. Results showed pancreatic and intestinal glucosidase inhibitory activity and pancreatic ß-cell protection. Results suggest a potential for the extracts in adjuvant therapy for treatment of diabetes. (55)
• Repellent Activity / Essential Oils / α-Pinene and Caryophyllene / Leaves: Study of essential oil of leaves yielded 30 different compounds, mostly hydrocarbons. Analysis yielded α-pinene and caryophyllene which are active ingredients for insect repellency. These two compounds has the potential for use as active ingredients in natural based insect repellent. The repellency towards Blattaria was 100%. (59)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Synergism with Aegle marmelos: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of leaves of M. koenigii and Aegle marmelos by carrageenan induced inflammation and paw edema on albino wistar rats. Both extracts showed anti-inflammatory activities, but the combined doses of the two extracts produced pronounced synergistic anti-inflammatory activity, comparable to the reference drug. Results suggest the extracts may possess arachidonate COX inhibitory property. (61)
• Gastroprotective / Antioxidant / Piroxicam Induced
Gastro-Toxic Effects: Piroxicam causes gastric ulceration through oxidative stress. Study evaluated the efficacy of antioxidant-rich curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. in male albino Wistar rats. Results showed curry leaf extract pretreated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Study suggests curry leaves may be included in the regular diet of patients undergoing piroxicam and similar NSAID treatment. (62)
• 28-Day Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the safety of M. koenigii in a 28-day repeated dose study in male and female rats at doses of 300, 500 and 900 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of leaves. Results showed increase in Hb level, decrease in body weight, subcutaneous fat and blood glucose. M. koenigii caused no structural damage to major organs except lymphocytic infiltration and hemorrhage. (66)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4 Toxicity / Leaves: Study of polyphenol rich Murraya koenigii hydroalcoholic leaf extract in carbon tetrachloride treated hepatotoxic rats showed hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by significant decrement in activity levels of ALT, AST, AK, total protein and bilirubin. MK treated rats also showed dose dependent increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, and a reduction in lipid peroxidation. (67)
• Anticancer / Antoxidant / Leaf: Study evaluated the bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf extract from three different locations in Malaysia. The curry leaf with the highest TF (total flavonoid) and TP (total phenolic) contents showed the highest antioxidant activity as indicated by FRAP and DPPH assays. Preliminary screening of curry leaf extracts from all locations exhibited significant cancer activity on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Extracts contained substantial amounts of effective flavonoid compounds such as myricetin, epicatechin, and quercetin which showed potency in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. (68)
• Antifungal / Antioxidant / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activity of essential oil of M. koenigii leaves. The leaf EO showed dose dependent antifungal activity against test pathogenic fungi. It also exhibited superior radical scavenging potency and reducing power with IC50 and RP50 values close to standards. (see constituents above) (70)
• Antidiabetic / Roots: Study evaluated alcoholic and aqueous extracts of M. koenigii roots for hypoglycemic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Aqueous root extract at 400 mg/kg dose exhibited maximum fall (57.76%) in fasting blood glucose of rats after 21 days of treatment. Results suggest potential as drug therapy or adjunct to dietary therapy for controlling diabetes. (71)
• Gastroprotective / CCl4-Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the gastroprotective action of dried and powdered M. koenigii leaf extracts on certain target issues (pancreas and duodenum) on CCl4-induced toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed potent ameliorative action on CCl4 induced toxicity. There was no clear cut beneficial effect of high doses over low doses. (72)
• Increased Glucose Uptake Potential Against Insulin Resistance / Inhibition of Adipogenesis: Study investigated the antidiabetic effect of M. koenigii leaf extracts. A 70% hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of MK leaves exhibited >90% inhibition against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes compared to aqueous and absolute alcohol extracts. Both extracts enhanced glucose uptake in L6 mytotubes attenuating the effect of Palmitate induced insulin resistance. Both hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts exhibited significant inhibition of adipognesis. (73)
• Antimicrobial / Anthelmintic / Leaves: Various solvent extracts of leaves and water extracts of leaves and stems showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus licheniformis, B. cereus, E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. The extracts inhibited radial growth of test fungi viz., Fusarium monoliforme, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solanii. Different solvent extracts also exhibited anthelmintic activity which was attributed to phenolics, alkaloids, and terpenes. (74)
• Effect on Attainment of Puberty and Ovarian Folliculogenesis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic extracts of M. koenigii leaves and Morus alba leaves on age of puberty, relative ovarian and uterine weight and number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant advancement in mean age of attainment of puberty along with increase in number of surface follicles on both ovaries. Effects were attributed to presence of phytoestrogens in the methanolic extracts. (75)
• Ameliorative Effect / Arsenic Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the ameliorative effect of M. koenigii on sodium arsenic induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Results sowed significant amelioration in biochemical and lipid peroxidation levels. Results suggest antidote effects against arsenic induced toxicity. (76)
• Reduction of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol / Leaves: Study showed curry leaf decreases blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob mice. Body weight was also decreased after extract treatment. (77)
• Carbazoles / Antioxidative / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidative properties of leaves extracts of Murraya koenigii using oil stability index and radical scavenging ability against DPPH. Five carbazome derivatives were isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract. Compounds 1 and 3 were assume to contribute to the high OSI values of the extract. DPPH radical scavenging of the carbazoles were in the order of ascorbic acid > 2 > 1, 3 and a-tocopherol > BHT > 4 and 5. (see constituents above) (78)
Antibacterial Potential against Tooth Decay / Streptococcus mutans / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol, ethanol, chloroform, and hot water extracts of M. koenigii leaves for in vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans by disc diffusion method and compared with standard antibiotic streptomycin, penicilliin, gentamycin, and kanamycin. Hot water extract showed better activity compared to other extracts. In silico study to screen marker compounds from Murraya koenigii, bismurrayafoliine A and mrrayazoin showed least binding energy with Streptococcus proteins. Results suggest M. koenigii may serve as a potential source of bioactive compounds to prevent tooth decay. (see constituents above) (79)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Wound Healing / Fruits: Study investigated M. koenigii fruits for anti-inflammatory activity using carraageenan induced paw edema and wound healing effects using an excision wound model in rats. Results showed reduction in carrageenan induced paw edema by low dose (100 mg/kg) and high dose (200 mg/kg) at 42.6 and 50.3%, respectively. Topical application of fruit extract ointment showed significant (p<0.05) wound closure and epithelization compared to control. (80)
• Inhibitory Effect Against Candida albicans Virulence and Biofilm Development: Study evaluated the anti-infective potential of M. koenigii. A methanolic leaf extract significantly inhibited the major virulence factors of Candida albicans, such as biofilm formation, yeast-to-jyyphal transition, cell surface hydrophobicity, hemolysin production and filamentation. Purification and molecular characterization of active lead may produce a novel anticandidal agent. (81)
• Mahanimbine / Altitudinal Variations: Mahanimbine is the most potent of the carbazole alkaloids in Murraya koenigii. Comparative HPLC analysis of this most potent active principle revealed that the compound varies among plants growing in different altitudes, i.e., plants collected from high altitude (Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh) exhibited higher content of mahanimbine compared to plants collected from low altitude locations (Kolkata and West Midnapur). Results indicate a correlation between altitude and mahanimbine content. (82)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in male albino Wistar rats. Study showed the non-toxic nature of M. koenigii leaves up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw. The MK leaves extract showed a dose related significant drop in liver enzyme parameters along with a significant increase in GSH, SOD, and CAT. Histopathological exam showed reduced periportal inflammation with mild hepatic venous congestion. (83)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaves: Study evaluated isolated fractions of M. koenigii hexane leaf extracts for larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were obtained viz., A-F. Fraction D showed 100.0, 97.6 and 99.2% mortality against third instar larvae of A. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi at 100 ppm, respectively, and LC50 of 35.06, 27.20, and 42.51 ppm, respectively. (84)
• Renoprotective in Renal
Ischemia Reperfusion Injury / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of M. koenigii leaves for its renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) injury in male Wistar rats. Treated rats significantly (p<0.05) restored serum and urinary parameters with significant (p<0.05) improvement in endogenous anti-oxidants such as SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and renal MPO, along with supporting histopathological changes. Results showed the aqueous extract possesses both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury. (85)
Efficacy of M. koenigii and Chlorhexidine in Treatment of Gingivitis / Controlled Clinical Trial: A single-center, parallel-arm, randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of M. koenigii mouthwash in reduction of plaque and gingivitis compared with commercially available chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash in 45 participants with mild-to-moderate gingivitis. Results showed M. koenigii mouthwash is equally effective as CHX in treating plaque-induced gingivitis. (86)
• Amelioration of Insulin Resistance by Enhancement of Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity: Study evaluated the effects of ethanolic extract of M. koenigii on diabetes-associated insulin resistance induced in mice by chronic low-dose injection of dexamethasone, exhibiting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with MK reduced the extent of dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia and decreased insulin resistance as evidenced by improved glucose tolerance and increase insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue. Evaluation in clonal skeletal muscle cell lines suggested MK increased glucose uptake in L5 skeletal muscle cells by increasing cell surface GLUT4 density via an AKT-mediated pathway. (87)
• Comparative Effectiveness of Curry-Leaf Mouthwash with Chlorhexidine in Maintaining Salivary and Tongue pH
/ Randomized Controlled Trial: Saliva plays a critical role in maintaining oral health through various defensive mechanisms. This randomized parallel-group study with 70 participants evaluated the effectiveness of curry leaf mouthwash in maintaining salivary and tongue pH compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash. There was no statistical difference between the MK and chlorhexidine. Results suggest traditional curry leaf mouthwash can be a safe, effective, and economical alternative to commercially available mouthwash. (88)
• Anti-Mycobacterial / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated various extracts of Artemisia nilagirica and Murraya koenigii for antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in synergy with first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs and for cytotoxic activities on mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ethanol extracts of A. nilagirica (IC50 300 µg/ml) and M. koenigii ((C50 400 µg/ml) were more effective against M. smegmatis compared to petroleum ether and water extracts. M. koenigii showed maximum activity against M. bovis BCG in combination with first line anti-TB drug rifampicin. M. koenigii leaf extract also showed more cytotoxic (IC50 20 µg/ml), genotoxic, and apoptotic activity in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. (89)
• Antiepileptic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiepileptic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Murraya koenigii on electrically and chemically induced seizures i.e., maximal electroshock induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. Results showed significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by MES and protected animals from PTZ-induced tonic seizures. (90)
• Synthesis and Characterization of Formulations for Topical Application / Leaf Oil: Study evaluated curry leaf oil formulation with an alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier for potential dermatological applications. Results suggest bio-based formulations can be used as such or as a base matrix for loading active ingredients for topical delivery. (91)
• As Hair Growth Promoter / Review: Review on Murraya koenigii, a plant of many biologic activities, focuses on its hair growth pronmoting property attributed to its high beta-carotene and protein content, which are instrumental in preventing hair loss and hair thinning. The amino acid content that strengthens hair fiber is also high in curry leaves. The review compiles the well-known phamacology, phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the plant. (95)
• Drying Methods for Leaves for Antidiabetic and Anti-Ageing Effect: Study compared the anti-diabetic and anti-ageing effect of Murraya koenigii leaves by using drying method of convective hot-air drying (40, 50, and 60°C) and two hybrid drying methods through microwave vacuum-drying (6, 9, 12 W/g) and convective hot-air pre-drying followed by microwabe vacuum finishing-drying (50°C followed by 9 W/g), with freeze-drying as control. Results showed that microwave vacuum-drying is the recommended drying method due to promising results obtained for the inhibition of α-glucosidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). (97)
• Wound Healing / Formulation of Extract and Olive Oil: Study evaluated the wound healing effect of a medicinal oil (MO) formulation prepared from M. koenigii leaves extract incorporated in olive oil. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly reduced after treatment with the MO formulation. Results showed excellent wound healing effect and the wound healing effect of MO was better compared to povidone iodine treated standard group. (98)
• Antidiabetic Human Clinical Trials: Clinical trials have been done to assess efficacy of M. koenigii leaves in reducing blood glucose: (1) In 60 T2 diabetic patients, 10 g of leaf powder for 14 days showed a significant variance betweennt pre- and post-prandial blood glucose. (2) Leaf juice,100 ml twice daily for 7 days showed significant (p<0.00003) reduction in blood sugar level in 20 experimental group patients. (3) Administration of leaves powder showed significant difference in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose at 5% significance level among diabetic patients. (4) Some studies attribute the anti-diabetic potency to carbazole alkaloid. (99)
• Carbazole Alkaloids and Coumarins / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Murraya koenigii stem bark and root and Aegle marmelos stem bark and leaves using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, and linoleic acid/ß-carotene assays. The chloroform extract of M. koenigii stem bark showed the highest antioxidant activity in CUPRAC (1490.89 mg TE/g extract). The bioactive compound mahanimbine isolated from the stem bark of M. koenigii was the most active antioxidant agent with TEAC of 927.73 and 1649.31 mg TE/g in ABTS and CUPRAC assays, respectively, as well as good lipid peroxidase inhibitory activity with inhibitory percentage of 70.95%. (100)
Seeds in the cybermarket.