Polygonum perfoliatum is a perennial glaucous, twining herb that may grow 3 to 3.5 meters in length. Roots are fibrous and shallow. Stems are angled, red-violet
in color with hooked spines. Leaves are light green, reddish when young, alternate, distinctly triangular, 3 to 10 centimeters long; petiole peltately
attached. Flowers have 5 corolla lobes, white or bluish-violet in color,
oblong, gradually enlarging during fruiting time. Stamens are 8. Inflorescences are
few-flowered, blooming during summer, borne on the upper part of the
leaf axils. Fruits are achenes, almost globose, 3 millimeters in diameter, black when
ripe, shiny; the entire infructescence enclosing the fleshy calyx.
- Sprawling over thickets in ravinesIn
high altitude areas throughout the Philippines, 1,300 to 1,600 m. -
the Mountain province, Benguet, Ifugao in Luzon and Budkidnon in Mindanao.
- Native to a wide area of east Asia, from Japan to the Philippines.
In some countries, considered an invasive weed specie with "pest-status"
that threatens forest regeneration. (Link)
- Study of whole plant yielded five diferuloyl esters of sucrose, 6‘-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (helonioside B) (1); 2‘,4‘,6‘-triacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (2); 1,2‘,4‘,6‘-tetraacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (3); 1,2‘,6‘-triacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4); and 2‘,6‘-diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), along with the 1,3,6-tri-p-coumaroyl-6‘-feruloylsucroses, vanicoside A and vanicoside B. (3)
- Study yielded four neoflavonoids.
- Study isolated
and elucidated 10 compounds identified as 5-hydroxymethyl2-furaldehyde (1), methyl caffeoate (2), protocatechuic aldehyde (3), quercetin (4), pinocernbrin (5), catechin (6), taxifolin (7), taxifolin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (8),13-epitorulosal (9), coumarin-7-O-β-D-glucose glycosidic (10). (8)
- Ethyl acetate extract yielded four compounds: pentacosanoic acid(Ⅱ), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Ⅲ), Quercetin (Ⅳ), 8-oxo-pinoresinol (Ⅴ).
Ethanol fractions yielded quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronide (VI) and rutin (VIII). (see study below) (8)
- Chemical analysis yielded the presence of phenolic compound, organic acid, alkaloid, amino acids, saponin, tannin, flavone and flavonoids, anthraquinone and glucoside, cardiotonic glycoside, sugar, plant sterols, triterpenes, etc. (see study below) (10)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract yielded ten compounds identified as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (1), methyl caffeoate (2), protocatechuic aldehyde (3), quercetin (4), pinocernbrin (5), catechin (6), taxifolin (7), taxifolin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), 13-epitorulosal (9), coumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucose glycosidic (10).
- Methanol extract of tubers yielded a new lignan—8-oxopinoresinol—together with 5 known compounds viz., 3',5-dihydroxy-3,4',5',7-tetramethoxy-flavone (2), catechin (3), quercetin (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (5) and rutin (6). (see study below) (12)
- Study of Polygonum perfoliatum yielded four neoflavonoids, 3,4-dihydro-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (1), 3,4-dihydro-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)coumarin (2), 3,4-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxycoumarin (3), and 3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-4-
(4'-methoxyphenyl)coumarin (4). (4)
- Acidic tasting, cooling natured, antifebrile,
carminative, anti-infective, anti-dermatosis, depurative, diuretic.
· Entire plant.
Culinary / Edibility
- Leaves and seeds are edible.
- Seeds, raw or cooked.
- High potassium content.
- Used for colds and fever,
enteritis-diarrhea, infected wounds, and snakebites.
- Used for hematuria.
- Decoction: Use15 to 30 gms dried material.
- May use decoction as wash for or sprinkle dried powdered material
over burns, dermatitis, eczema.
- Juice of leaves for backache.
In Chinese medicine, used for relief of fever, jaundice, dysentery, inflammation, cough, edema, tonsilitis, herpes zoster, nephritis, snake bites, abscesses, parotitis, otitis media.
• Quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronide-methyl Ester: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronide-methyl ester from Polygonum perfoliatum in in vivo models of acute inflammation. Results suggest a potent anti-inflammatory function in acute inflammation with a significant dose-related inhibition in xylene-induced ear swelling and acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. (7)
• Anti-Tumor / Antioxidant: Study of evaluated n-butanol extract and ethanol fractions of Polygonum perfoliatum. Flavonoids showed strong antioxidant activity on DPPH free radical scavenging assay. In vitro testing by MTT method, compound IV showed moderate anti-tumor activity against human prostate carcinoma (PC3) while compound V showed inhibition effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC7721). (see constituents above) (8)
• Decreased Expression of Leptin / Anti-Hepatic Fibrosis / Antioxidant: Study in a hepatic fibrosis model in rats showed Polygonum perfoliatum has a good curative anti-hepatic fibrosis effect, possibly through an effect on metabolism of extracellular matrix by decreasing the expression level of leptin. (9)
• Antibacterial: Study of water extracts showed P. perfoliatum had stronger bacteriostatic effects to Staphylococcus aureus, Pasturella, Stretococcus, Salmonella, and E. coli. (see constituents above) (10)
• Cytotoxicity / Anti-Cancer / Tubers: Methanol extract of tubers yielded a new lignan: 8-oxopinoresinol (1), together with 5 known compounds. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against human mammary carcinoma (Bcap-37), human colon carcinoma (RKO), human hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), human prostate carcinoma (PC3) and human erythroleukaemia (K562) cells. (see constituents above) (12)
• Anti-HBV Effect: Study evaluated an alcohol extract of Polygonum perfoliatum on the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells. Results showed an inhibitory effect on the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAb, with a dose-response relationship between concentration and effect. (13)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Viral / Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide: Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide, isolated from Polygonum perfoliatum L. was evaluated by antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in mouse. In an in vivo study, oral administration of quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide significantly suppressed ear edema induced by dimethyl benzene and peritoneal permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. It also showed inhibitory activity against influenza A virus (FLUAV). (14)
- Supplements, teas in the cybermarket.