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Family Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth
La ba hua

Scientific names Common names
Batatas setosa (Ker Gawl.) Lindl.  Bulakan (Tag.)
Calonyction campanulatum Hallier f.  Kamokamotihan (Tag.)
Calonyction pavorii (Choisy) Hallier f.  Kaladanae (Hindus.)
Calonyction setosum (Ker Gawl.) Hallier f.  Ivy-leaf morning glory (Engl.)
Convolvulus hederaceus Linn.   
Convolvulus nil Linn.  
Convolvulus setosus (Ker Gawl.) Spreng.  
Convolvulus tomentosus Vell.  
Gomphipus setosus (Ker Gawl.) Raf.  
Ipomoea cuspidata Ruiz & Pav.  
Ipomoea desertorum House  
Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq.  
Ipomoea longicuspis Meisn.  
Ipomoea melanotricha Brandegee  
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth.  
Ipomoea pavonii Choisy  
Ipomoea scabra Forssk.  
Ipomoea setosa Ker Gawl.  
Ipomoea vaniotiana H, Lév,  
Pharbitis cuspidata (Ruiz & Pav.) G.Don  
Pharbitis githaginea Hochst.  
Pharbitis hederacea (L.) Choisy  
Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy  
Kamokamotihan is a common name shared by (1) Ipomoeae hederacea, ivy-leaf morning glory, and (2) Operculina turpethum, turpeth root
Ivy-leaf morning glory is a common names shared by (1) Ipomoea hederacea, and (2) Ipomoea carica
Morning glory is a common names shared by (1) Ipomoea hederacea (2) Ipomoea purpurea (3) Ipomoeae sidaefolia (4) Ipomoea tricolor, and (5) Ipomoeae violacea
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: La ba hua, Qian hiu hua, qian niu zi.
FRENCH: Liseron fleur bleue, Ipomée du Nil, Etoile du matin.
MYANMAR: Taung-kazun.
PAKISTANI: Habbun-nil, Kaladana.
PORTUGUESE: Campainha azul, Corda de viola, Corriola, Campainha, Jetirana.

Kamokamotihan is a twining, rather slender, herbaceous, more or less hairy, annual vine reaching a length of several meters. Leaves are prominently 3-lobed, subovate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base. Peduncles are solitary, shorter than the petioles, borne in the axils of leaves, each with 1 to 6 flowers. Calyx is green, very hairy at the base, and about 3 centimeters long. Corolla is pale blue, or the tube white within, turning purplish pink, about 5 centimeters long, with the limb shallowly 5-lobed. The capsules are ovoid, about 1 centimeter diameter, each containing 2 black and smooth seeds.

- Found in Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon, In thickets and waste places at low and medium altitudes.
- Some forms cultivated for their flowers.

- Native of tropical America, but pantropic in distribution.

• The active principle is the kalandana resin, called "Pharbitisin" in India. It is considered comparable to the resin of jalap or the convolvulin from Ipomoea purga.
• Phytochemical studies of various fractions yielded reducing sugars, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and tannins.
• Compositional analysis of seeds yielded oil (14.09), fiber (16.55). Major fatty acids were oleic acid and linoleic acid. (11)
• Seeds of Pharbitis nil yielded two new oleanene-type triterpene glycosides, pharbitosides A and B (1 and 2), together with ß-sitosterol, ß-sitosterol glucoside (daucosterol), caffeic acid, and methyl caffeate. (14)
• Study of stem extracts yielded saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Nutrient analysis yielded 1.2% lipids, 30% crude fiber, 7.0% crude protein, 57% carbohydrate, 2% moisture, 2.0% ash content, 0.5% sulphated ash. Non-nutrient analysis yielded 0.0004 mg/100g tannic acid,
0.0021 mg/100g oxalate, 0.0002 mg/100 g cyanogenic glycoside. (15)
• Analysis of seed and seed oil yielded 7.84% oil, 17.31% protein, 2.47& moisture, 1.83 unsaponifiable matter, 187.81 saponification value, 121.33 iodine value, 1.4769 refractive index. (18)
• Fatty acid composition of seed oil yield3ed 2.83% lauric acid, 2.31% myristic acid, 13.47% palmitic acid, 11.39% stearic acid, 23.16% oleic acid, 33.50% linoleic acid, 9.56% linolenic acid, 3.77% arachidic acid, 33.77 saturated fatty acids, 66.22 unsaturated FA, 43.06 polyunsaturated FA, and 1.275 P/S index. (18)
• Percent proximate composition of I. hederacea seeds yielded crude protein 23.36, total lipids 14.09, total carbohydrates 37.06, crude fiber 16.55, moisture 5.29, and ash 3.65. (19)
• Study of seeds for amino acids yielded isoleucine (5.03%), leucine (6.59%), lysine (4.25%), methionine (1.19%), phenylalanine (6.24%), threonine (3.07%), tryptophan (1.88%), valine (7.10%), arginine   (5.50%), histidine (3.55%), alanine (3.09%), aspartic acid (10.82%), cystine (0.90%), glutamic acid (22.71%), glycine (5.36%), proline (4.46%), serine (4.02%), and tyrosine (2.58%). (19)

• Resin has a nauseous and acrid taste with an unpleasant odor, especially when heated.
Seeds considered cathartic, analgesic, antiseptic, anticholinergic, diuretic, laxative, antifungal, anthelmintic.
Studies have shown antioxidant, nematicidal, hepatoprotective, antibacterial,

Part utilized

- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In India, besides the resin, the pharmacopoeia includes an extract, tincture and compound powder.
- Pounded plant used in hair wash for head lice.
- In many parts of India, roasted seeds are used as purgative; the powdered seeds used for constipation.
- In China, seeds are used as diuretic, antihelmintic, deobstruent; prescribed for constipation and dropsy, also to promote menstruation and as an abortifacient.

- In India, paste of seeds used cosmetically, applied topically for dry skin and to remove freckles. Seeds used for leucoderma and scabies, gout, cephalalgia, hepatopathy, and splenopathy. Seeds rubbed on male genitalia to treat erectile dysfunction. (19)
- In the Orissa district of India, dried, roasted and powdered seeds are applied with water to the scalp for treatment of dandruff, rinsed after 10-15 minutes, repeated three times in a week. (24)
- Superstition: In Nigeria, plant used as a love charm.

Study isolated five ecdysteroids (hederasterone A, hederasterone A-20,22 monoacetonide and hederasterone B) , two steroidal glycosides, one triterpene and two aromatic acids. One compound showed inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, another inhibited lypooxygenase. (1)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Ethanol extract of Ipomoea hederacea was shown to have hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (3)
Study of ethyl acetate extract of seeds in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity showed significant inhibition of serum marker enzymes comparable with standard silymarin. (13)
Antioxidant: Study of an ethyl acetate fraction yielded the highest phenolic content and highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. (5)
Nematicidal: Study evaluated the potential toxicity of selected medicinal plants against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp and Cephalobus litoralis. Ipomoea hederacea exhibited moderate activity. (6)
Antibacterial: In a study screening the antimicrobial activity of selected flora of Pakistan, Ipomoea heredacea showed highest activity against Bacillus subtilis and highest activity against the fungal strains. (7)
Seeds / Antibacterial: Various seed extracts were studied for antibacterial activity. The methanol extract was found to be more active than other extracts against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi. Chemical constituents like saponins and alkaloids were probably responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the crude drug. (8)
Toxicity Study/ Analgesic: Mice study evaluating the toxic and non-toxic profile of Ipomoea hederacea showed a starting lethal dose of 300 mg/kg with a calculated LD50 value of 229.2 mg/kg dose. Dose-dependent toxic behavior included convulsion, tremor, unsteady gait, respiratory distress to death. Hot plate analgesic activity exhibited analgesic potential. (9)
Seeds / Antimicrobial: A methanol extract of seed exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against E coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol and chloroform extracts showed moderate activity against Alternaria brassica, A. braceacola, and Aspergillus niger fungal strains. (10)
Acaricidal Activity / Seeds: Isolated fraction 8 (methyl linoleate) from seeds showed strong acaricidal activities against adult and egg of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Results suggest a potential of P. pupurea seeds as new resource of botanical acaricide. (16) Isolated fraction 8 from seeds showed a strong toxic effect on T. cinnabarinus through various degrees of inhibition of AChE, MAO, and ATPase related to nervous system, which can lead to blocking neurotransmission and death of mites. Results suggest potential for development of methyl linoleate as a new pesticide. (17)
• pH Indicator Property / Flowers: Study investigated the indicator property of aqueous extract of flower pigments and compared results with already existing synthetic indicators. Results suggest the flower pigments has potential as substitute to synthetic acid-based indicators. (20)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated successive petroleum ether and methanolic extracts different parts viz., leaves, stems, roots, and whole plant of Ipomea nil, I. batatas, and I pes-caprae for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The successive methanolic extract of selected Ipomoea plants showed potent ability to scavenge different types of free radicals generated by various in vitro assays. All methanolic extracts and free phenolics showed good cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cells line with CTC50 value in the range of 50-100 µg/mL. (21)
• Ecdysterone / Extraction / Seed: The phytoecdysteroids family is rapidly growing, with recent date showing over 250 ecdysteroid analogs. Plant extracts are a significant source of ecdysteroids for medicinal preparations that can increase the quality of human life. The pulverized seed of Ipomoea hederacea (I. nil) is an indigenous source of ecdysteroid, with a high content of 20E (20-hydroxyecdysone). Although ethyl acetate is not a common solvent for extraction of ecdysteroids, it has the advantage of avoiding the extraction of unwanted material. (22)
• Chalcone Isomerase-Like Protein / Enhancement of Flavonoid Production and Flower Pigmentation: Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathways is one of the best studied metabolic pathways. This study identified three mutations within a gene that resulted in pale-colored flowers. The gene was designated EFP (enhancer of flavonoid production). Study results conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation. (23)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Seeds and extracts in the cybermarket.

Updated June 2018 / August 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds /Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. - ivyleaf morning-glory IPHE /Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Poly(nitrification) Grafted Ipomoea Seed-Gums: A Renewable Reservoir to Industrial Gums / Vandana Singh et al / Biomacromolecules, 2005, 6 (1), pp 453–456 / DOI: 10.1021/bm049518b
HEPATOPROTECTIVITY AND AN ANTIOXIDANT STUDY OF IPOMOEA HEDERACEA ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HEPATOTOXIC RATS / Ruckmani Devi S, M. Chitra and P. Jayamathi / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2010, 2(11): 17-19
Induced responses in Ipomoea hederacea: simulated mammalian herbivory induces resistance and susceptibility to insect herbivores / Anna K Simonsen, John R Stinchcombe / ArthropodPlant Interactions (2007), Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Pages: 129-136 / DOI: 10.1007/s11829-007-9009-0
Ipomoea hederacea: an Imperative Source for Natural Antioxidants / Aziz-ur-Rehmana, Ansur Abbas, Tauheeda Riaz, Shargeel Ahmad et al / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SELECTED FLORA OF PAKISTAN / M. Zia-Ul-Haq et al / Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 63 (3), 691-695, 2011 DOI:10.2298/ABS1103691Z
Chemical Investigation of Seed of Ipomoea hederacea and its Biological Activity
/ B. P. Singh and Sandhya Singh / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(2):1441-1448
Determination of LD50 and ED50 by dose response relationship and assessment of toxicological and non toxicological behaviour of Ipomoea hederacea / Mansoor Ahmad, Mehjabeen, M. Zia-Ul-Haq, Noor Jahan / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 4, No 4 (2011)
Chemical Investigation of Seed of Ipomoea hederacea and its Biological Activity / B. P. Singh* and Sandhya Singh / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(2):1441-1448
Compositional study and antioxidant potential of Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds. /
Zia-Ul-Haq M, Ahmad S, Calani L, Mazzeo T, Del Rio D, Pellegrini N, De Feo V. / Molecules. 2012 Aug29; 17(9):10306-21. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910306.
Ipomoea nil / Synonyms / The Plant List
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF IPOMOEA NIL (L.) ROTH SEEDS ON RATS / BABU G*, DIVYA T, SHALIMA NK, DIVYA TA1, BIJU CR / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013; Vol 5, Suppl 4: pp 130-133
Triterpenoid Saponins from the Seeds of Pharbitis nil / Da Young JUNG, Hyekyung HA, Ho Young LEE, Chungsook KIM, Je-Hyun LEE, KiHwan BAE, Ju Sun KIM, and Sam Sik KANG / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 56(2) 203—206 (2008) 203
Phytochemical, Nutritional and Non Nutritional Analysis of Stem Extraction of Three Medicinal Ipomoe Species (Ipomoea Aquatica, Ipomoea Nil and Ipomoea Terbinata) From Allapuzha District of Kerala, India
/ Kannan R., Patharaj J., Kavya Kannan / International Journal of Research and Engineering, Vol 3, No 3 (2016).
Studies on Action Mechanism of Acrocidal Activity of Extracts of Pharbitis purpurea Seeds against Tetranychus cinnabarinus / Yan-Wang, Guang-lu Shi, Lan-qin Ma, Yu-bo Liu, You-nian Wang / Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Volume 134, pp 629-641
A Preliminary Study on Activity Mechanism and Identification of an Extract of Pharbitis Purpurea Seeds against Tetranychus Cinnabarinus / Juan Du, Lei Zhao, Lan-qing Ma, Yu-bo Liu, Guang-lu Shi, You-nian Wang, Bao-sheng Tong / Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Volume 134 of the series Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing pp 547-556
SCREENING OF SEED OILS FROM FOUR SPECIES OF GENUS IPOMOEA / Mohammed Taufeeque, Abdul Malik, M. R. K. Sherwani / Int J Cur Res Rev, Nov 2015; Vol 7, Issue 21
Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits / Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad Riaz  and Vincenzo De Feo* / Molecules 2012; 17(11): pp 13132-13145 / doi:10.3390/molecules171113132
A study on pH indicator property of flowers of Ipomea nil / Sajin Kattuvilakam Abbas* / Journal of Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Sciences, 2014; 1(2): pp 72-76
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Few Selected Ipomoea Species. / K.K. Parekh, A. M. Patel,  A. J. Modi  and H. R. Chandrashekhar / Pharmacologia, 2012; 3: pp 377-386 /
DOI: 10..5567/pharmacologia.2012.377.386
Extraction and Monitoring of Phytoecdysteroids Through HPLC / Dipankar Ghosh and K S Laddha / Journal of Chromatographic Science, Jan 2006; Vol 44
A chalcone isomerase‐like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation / Yasumasa Morita, Kyoko Takaqi, Masako Fukuchi-Mizutani, Kanako Ishiguro, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Eiji Nitasaka, Masayoshi Nakayama / The Plant Journal, April 2014; Vol 78 Issue 2: pp 294-304 / https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12469
Ethnomedicinal plants used by tribes of Kalahandi district, Orissa / Tribhubana Panda* & Rabindra N Padhy / Indian Journal Of Traditional Knowledge, April 2008; Vol. 7(2): pp. 242-249

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