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Family Convolvulaceae
Kamokamotihan
Ipomoea hederacea (Linn.) Jacg.
IVY-LEAF MORNING GLORY
La ba hua

Scientific names Common names
Convolvulus hederaceus Linn.  Bulakan (Tag.)
Convolvulus nil Linn. Kamokamotihan (Tag.)
Ipomoea nil Roth. Kaladanae (Hindus.)
Ipomoea hederacea (Linn.) Jacq. Ivy-leaf morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea barbigera Sweet  
Pharbitis hederacea Choisy   
Kamokamotihan is a common name shared by (1) Ipomoeae hederacea, ivy-leaf morning glory, and (2) Operculina turpethum, turpeth root
Ivy-leaf morning glory is a common names shared by (1) Ipomoea hederacea, and (2) Ipomoea carica
Morning glory is a common names shared by (1) Ipomoea hederacea (2) Ipomoea purpurea (3) Ipomoeae sidaefolia (4) Ipomoea tricolor, and (5) Ipomoeae violacea

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: La ba hua, Qian hiu hua.

Botany
Kamokamotihan is a twining, rather slender, herbaceous, more or less hairy, annual vine reaching a length of several meters. Leaves are prominently 3-lobed, subovate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base. Peduncles are solitary, shorter than the petioles, borne in the axils of leaves, each with 1 to 6 flowers. Calyx is green, very hairy at the base, and about 3 centimeters long. Corolla is pale blue, or the tube white within, turning purplish pink, about 5 centimeters long, with the limb shallowly 5-lobed. The capsules are ovoid, about 1 centimeter diameter, each containing 2 black and smooth seeds.

Distribution
- Found in Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon, In thickets and waste places at low and medium altitudes.
- Some forms cultivated for their flowers.

- Native of tropical America, but pantropic in distribution.

Constituents
• The active principle is the kalandana resin, called "Pharbitisin" in India. It is considered comparable to the resin of jalap or the convolvulin from Ipomoea purga.
• Phytochemical studies of various fractions yielded reducing sugars, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and tannins.
• Compositional analysis of seeds yielded oil (14.09), fiver (16.55). Major fatty acids were oleic acid and linoleic acid. (11)


Properties
• Resin has a nauseous and acrid taste with an unpleasant odor, especially when heated.
Seeds considered cathartic, analgesic, antiseptic.



Part utilized
Seeds

Uses
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In India, besides the resin, the pharmacopoeia includes an extract, tincture and compound powder.
- In many parts of India, roasted seeds are used as purgative; the powdered seeds used for constipation.
- In China, seeds are used as diuretic, antihelmintic, deobstruent; prescribed for constipation and dropsy, also to promote menstruation and as an abortifacient.



Studies
Phytochemicals:
Study isolated five ecdysteroids (hederasterone A, hederasterone A-20,22 monoacetonide and hederasterone B) , two steroidal glycosides, one triterpene and two aromatic acids. One compound showed inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, another inhibited lypooxygenase. (1)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Ethanol extract of Ipomoea hederacea was shown to have hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (3)
Antioxidant: Study of an ethyl acetate fraction yielded the highest phenolic content and highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. (5)
Nematicidal: Study evaluated the potential toxicity of selected medicinal plants against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp and Cephalobus litoralis. Ipomoea hederacea exhibited moderate activity. (6)
Antibacterial: In a study screening the antimicrobial activity of selected flora of Pakistan, Ipomoea heredacea showed highest activity against Bacillus subtilis and highest activity against the fungal strains. (7)
Seeds / Antibacterial: Various seed extracts were studied for antibacterial activity. The methanol extract was found to be more active than other extracts against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi. Chemical constituents like saponins and alkaloids were probably responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the crude drug. (8)
Toxicity Study/ Analgesic: Mice study evaluating the toxic and non-toxic profile of Ipomoea hederacea showed a starting lethal dose of 300 mg/kg with a calculated LD50 value of 229.2 mg/kg dose. Dose-dependent toxic behavior included convulsion, tremor, unsteady gait, respiratory distress to death. Hot plate analgesic activity exhibited analgesic potential. (9)
Seeds / Antimicrobial: A methanol extract of seed exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against E coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol and chloroform extracts showed moderate activity against Alternaria brassica, A. braceacola, and Aspergillus niger fungal strains. (10)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 
Seeds in the cybermarket.


Last Update January 2014

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds /Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. - ivyleaf morning-glory IPHE /Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
STUDIES IN THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF MURRAYA PANICULATA AND IPOMOEA HEDERACEA / Sumayya Saied / Thesis / Pakistan Research Repository /
(2)
Poly(acrylonitrile) Grafted Ipomoea Seed-Gums: A Renewable Reservoir to Industrial Gums / Vandana Singh et al / Biomacromolecules, 2005, 6 (1), pp 453–456 / DOI: 10.1021/bm049518b
(3)
HEPATOPROTECTIVITY AND AN ANTIOXIDANT STUDY OF IPOMOEA HEDERACEA ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HEPATOTOXIC RATS / Ruckmani Devi S, M. Chitra and P. Jayamathi / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2010, 2(11): 17-19
(4)
Induced responses in Ipomoea hederacea: simulated mammalian herbivory induces resistance and susceptibility to insect herbivores / Anna K Simonsen, John R Stinchcombe / ArthropodPlant Interactions (2007), Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Pages: 129-136 / DOI: 10.1007/s11829-007-9009-0
(5)
Ipomoea hederacea: an Imperative Source for Natural Antioxidants / Aziz-ur-Rehmana, Ansur Abbas, Tauheeda Riaz, Shargeel Ahmad et al / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research
(6)
NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED FLORA OF PAKISTAN / MUHAMMAD ZIA UL HAQ, MANSOOR AHMAD AND MUSSARAT AKHTER / Pak. J. Bot., 42(3): 2119-2123, 2010.
(7)
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SELECTED FLORA OF PAKISTAN / M. Zia-Ul-Haq et al / Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 63 (3), 691-695, 2011 DOI:10.2298/ABS1103691Z
(8)
Chemical Investigation of Seed of Ipomoea hederacea and its Biological Activity
/ B. P. Singh and Sandhya Singh / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(2):1441-1448
(9)
Determination of LD50 and ED50 by dose response relationship and assessment of toxicological and non toxicological behaviour of Ipomoea hederacea / Mansoor Ahmad, Mehjabeen, M. Zia-Ul-Haq, Noor Jahan / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 4, No 4 (2011)
(10)
Chemical Investigation of Seed of Ipomoea hederacea and its Biological Activity / B. P. Singh* and Sandhya Singh / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(2):1441-1448
(11)
Compositional study and antioxidant potential of Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds. /
Zia-Ul-Haq M, Ahmad S, Calani L, Mazzeo T, Del Rio D, Pellegrini N, De Feo V. / Molecules. 2012 Aug29; 17(9):10306-21. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910306.


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