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Family Lauracea
Cinnamomum mindanense Elm.

Yin xiang

Scientific names Common names
Cinnamomum mindanense Elm. Kaliñgag (Mbo.)
Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T.Nees) Blume Kami (Bag.)
Laurus burmannii Nees & T.Nees Indonesian cassia (Engl.)
  Mindanao cinnamon (Engl.)
  Padang cinnamon (Engl.)
Quisumbing's compilation lists four cinnamomum species: C. iners (namog), C, mercadoi (C. zeylanicum F.-Vill, kalingag), C. mindanense (kami) and C. zeylanicum Blume (canela).
Kaliñgag is a shared common name by two Cinnamomum species: C. zeylanicum and C. mindanense (nami).
Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer is a synonym of Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees) Blume The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiang jiao ye, Shan rou gui, Yin xiang.
DANISH: Indonesisk kanel.
DUTCH: Indonesische kaneel, Korintje-cassia.
FINNISH: Jaavankaneli.
FRENCH: Cannelle de Padang, Cannelle de Java, Cannelier de Malaisie, Cannelier de Padang.
GERMAN: Birmazimt, Birmazimtbaum, Indonesisches Zimt, Padangzimt, Padang-Zimt, Padangzimtbaum.
HUNGARIAN: Indonéz fahéj, Jávai kasszia.
JAPANESE: Jawa nikkei, Kinamomumu burumanii.
KOREAN: Jyaba gyepi.
MALAY: Kayu manis padang.
POLISH: Cynamonowiec burmański.
PORTUGUESE: Falsa-canforeira.
RUSSIAN: Indoneziiskaya koritsa, Korichnik Burmana, Korichnik iavanskaia, Koritsa indonneziiskaia.
SPANISH: Canela de Java.
THAI: Op choei chawa, Op choei thai, Suramarit.
VIETNAMESE: Quế rành, Quế trèn.


Kami is a medium-sized tree, about 10 meters in height. Leaves are opposite or subopposite, smooth, leathery, oblong with the smaller ones sometimes lanceolate, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, on petioles less than 1 centimeter long. Inflorescence is about 15 centimeters long, bearing 1 to 2 small, greenish flowers at its end, about 5 millimeters long. Fruit is obovately ellipsoid, about 1.25 centimeters long and 7.5 millimeters wide, lucid green with minute whitist spots when unripe and a shinning steel blue when ripe.

- In the Philippines, only in Surigao, Davao, and Zamboanga Provinces in Mindanao.
- In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes.

- Study has suggested the bark to be closely allied to Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and the bark, in appearance, taste and odor, is just like the cinnamon of commerce.
- The oil does not agree very closely with Ceylon cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
- Bark contains 60% cinnamic aldehyde.

- Constituent studies on C. burmannii have yielded cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils, together with sugar, protein, crude fates, and pectin among others. (3)
- Study isolated a pigment from the peel of C. burmannii, scarcely soluble in water and all common organic solvents, and soluble only in alkaline aqueous and DMSO. (7)

- Leaves considered stimulant and carminative.
- Bark considered stomachic.
- Studies on Cinnamomum burmannii have demonstrated analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, antifungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, anti-tumor activities.

Parts used

- Bark used in the same manner as Ceylon cinnamon.
- Dried inner bark of C. burmannii used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, etc. In Mexico, used for brewing chocolate and flavoring confectionary and liquors.
- Bark decoction described as very agreeable and hygienic drink.
- Bark decoction with ginger, star anise (Illicium anisatum) and sugar as a stomachic beverage.
- Powdered bark used for treatment of nausea, flatulent dyspepsia, coughs, diarrhea, gripe and malaria.
• Bark used in soap and perfume manufacturing.
• Bark sold in commerce as cinnamon; considered the best cinnamon bark produced in the Philippines by a wild species.

Studies were done on Cinnamomum burmannii
C. burmannii extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity against five common food-borne pathogenic bacteria viz. B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella anatum. Results showed significant antibacterial activity possibly significantly contributed to by (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated 20 different Indonesian medicinal herbs for anti-inflammatory activity using soybean lipoxygenase (SLO). The ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of bark of C. burmannii showed the highest level of SLO inhibitory activity. (3)
Antimicrobial / Synergism of Essential Oil and Cinnamaldehyde: Study clarified the crucial role of cinnamaldehyde as a potent antimicrobial compound of the C. burmannii's essential oil. (4)
Synergism of TCE (Trans-cinnamaldehyde) and Cisplatin on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Study investigated the effects of methanol extract stem bark and its main constituent, TCA, on human NPC cell lines. TCA showed an ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Results suggested a potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC. (5)
Gastroprotection / DLBS2411 / Anti-Secretory: Study evaluated the gastric antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from C. burmannii. Results showed the fraction exhibited gastroprotective and antioxidant activity through hydrogen potassium ATP activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression, suggesting a promising agent for the management of dyspepsia and gastric diseases requiring gastroprotection. (8)

- Wild-crafted.
- Essential oils in the cybermarket.

November 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / Kayu Manis ( Cinnamomum burmanni ) / NonComercial Use / © Tropical Plants / click on image to go to source page / SaschiraBlogspot
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Cinnamomum burmanni (C mindanaense, IT) L35730/ filibot.web / Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer / The Plant List
Sorting Cinnamomum names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii / Bandar E. Al-Dhubiab / Pharmacogn Rev. 2101 Jul-Dec; 6(12): 125-131
Antimicrobial Activity and Synergic Effect of Cinnamomum burmannii's Essential Oil & its isolated compound (Cinnamaldehyde) / Anis Fadhlina Izyani Binti Awang, Deny Susanti*, and Muhammad Taher / International Conference on Chemical, Agricultural and Medical Sciences (CAMS-2013) Dec. 29-30, 2013 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin / Maelinda Daker, Voon Yee Lin, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Mun Fei Yam, Mariam Ahmad / Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine / DOI: 10.3892/etm.2013.1041
Antibacterial Properties and Major Bioactive Components of Cinnamon Stick (Cinnamomum burmannii):  Activity against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria / Bin Shan, Yi-Zhong Cai, John D. Brooks, and Harold Corke / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (14), pp 5484–5490 / DOI: 10.1021/jf070424d
Isolation and characterization of pigment from Cinnamomum burmannii' peel / Ming-xiong Tan, Dian-hua Gan, Liu-xin Wei, Ying-ming Pan, Shao-qing Tang, Heng-shan Wang / Food Research International , 2011 , 44 , 7 , 2289-2294
Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells / Tjandrawinata RR, Nailufar F, Arifin PF / Drug Design, Development and Therapy, Sept 2013; 6: pp:807-815 / DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S50134

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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