- Called "hop bush" because the colorful fruits can be used as a substitute for hops in brewing.
Dodonaea derives from Rembert Dodoens, a 16th century Flemish botanist, royal physician, and professor, for whom the plant was named in honor of. Viscosa derives the the Latin, meaning sticky, referring to the texture of the leaves.
Kalapinai is an erect shrub or small tree growing to 5 meters high. Leaves are alternate, oblanceolate, 4.0 to 12 centimeters long, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, with entire margins, glabrous, sticky when young. Flowers are yellowish to greenish yellow, very small, borne on terminal short racemes. Sepals are 3 to 4, oblong. Petals are absent. Fruit is rounded, membranous, somewhat two-lobed, about 18 millimeters across, including the two wings. Wings are very thin, rounded, about 12 millimeters long. Seeds are dark brown or black.
- Throughout the Philippines, along the seashore and in regions subject to a pronounced dry season, extending inland and ascending to 2,000 meters.
- Also reported in China, Taiwan.
- Now Pantropic.
- The active principle is an acid resin.
- Leaves contain two acid resins, gum, albumen, tannin, and ash.
- Study of leaves yielded an carbohydrates, flavonoids, fixed oil, proteins and amino acids, saponins, steroids and sterols, tannins, and triterpenoids.
- Aqueous leaf extract yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins. (see study below)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded one flavanone: 5,7-dihydroxy flavanone (pinocembrin) (1) and eight flavones, viz., 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,4'-trimethoxyflavone (santin) (2), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy flavone (kaempferol 3-O-methyl ether) (3), 3,4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxy flavone (kaempferol 7-O-methyl ether) (4), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-flavone (quercetin 3'-O-methyl ether) (5), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin) (6), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone (7), 5,7-dihydroxy 3,6,3',4'-tetramethoxy flavone (8), and isorhamnetin-3-O-robinobioside (9). (see study below)
- Bark considered astringent, bitter; leaves, bitter and refrigerant.
- Considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, anti-ulcerogenic, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-microbial, hypotensive.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, wound healing, antifungal, anti-diarrheal, wound healing properties.
Bark, wood, leaves, fruits.
- In the Philippines, decoction of bark used as effective astringent for humid eczema and simple ulcers. Also considered a good febrifuge.
- Decoction of wood also used as febrifuge.
- In Reunion, infusion of leaves used for sudorific effect.
- In Ethiopia, used for skin diseases.
- In Peru, the sour and bitter leaves are chewed for its stimulant effect, like coca leaves.
- In Madras, leaves are used as poultice.
- In Martinique, the aromatic leaves and fruits are used in bath preparations; lotion used as astringent.
- Decoction used for flatulent colic and as purgative.
- In La Reunion, used for gout and rheumatism. Also, used in baths and fomentations.
- Powdered leaves are applied on wounds which would then heal without scars.
- Leaves are applied to burns and scalds.
- In India, used for headaches, backaches, stomach pains, piles and simple ulcers. Leaves used in treatment of rheumatism, gout, hemorrhoids, fractures, and snake bites.
- In Australia, used for wound healing.
- In Pakistan, leaves are
used for fevers and to reduce swelling. Fruit and bark used to treat diarrhea; externally, used to help wounds heal.
Australian aborigines chew leaves for relief of toothache. Chewed leaf pulp are used as binding wads for jelly fish and stonefish stings; juice from prepared wads used as antiseptic. Smoked leafy branches used for flu-like fever and body aches, and for loosening phlegm. (31)
- In Papua New Guinea, leaves used by women to become sterile; leaves rubbed over the womb after having eaten Colocacia antiquorum or Ipomoea batatas. Heated leaves made into a poultice for boils and sores. Bark decoction drunk to treat dysentery. (34)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed no inhibition of COX-2 and no effect on PGE2 production. Alternative mechanisms for anti-inflammatory activity is considered, such as the alternate arachidonic acid metabolite - 5-lipoxygenase.
• Antioxidant: The hot water extract showed the greatest antioxidant activity, followed by ethanol extracts. Activities were attributed to flavonoids and/or saponins.
• Wound Healing: Initial studies suggest extracts have a strong proliferative effect on fibroblast growth.
• Antifungal: Study showed solvent extracts of leaves and shoots of Dodonaea viscosa were effective against all tested fungi - Aspergillus niger, A flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Tricophyton rubrum. All crude extracts were effective against tested fungi, with the chloroform extract showing the stronger inhibition compared to ethanol, methanol, EA, and aqueous extracts. (2)
• Dermal Toxicity Studies: Study on dermatotoxicity showed that dermal application of D viscosa was not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects with data of a preclinical evidence of safety for clinical trials on the plant extracts. (3)
• Antibacterial: (1) Study showed promising antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and negative organisms. (2) Study of 16 selected plants from different localities in Yemen, the methanolic extract of D viscosa was one of eight that showed the highest antimicrobial activity and one of six with high free radical scavenging activity.
• Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant: Study water extract and polar fraction of ethanol extract of DV in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed dose-dependent reduction in glucose levels and restoration of altered lipid levels. Results suggest antioxidant effects might play a role in the observed antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities. (6)
• Anti-Diabetic: Results of study of DVW and DVE-4 in high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats showed pharmacologic evidence of DV in treatment of prediabetic conditions and the effects probably mediated by interacting multiple targets operative in diabetes mellitus - decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidants, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase, partial inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV. (7)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves in normal and STZ-diabetic rats indicated antidiabetic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats.
• Gastroprotective: Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, saponins, bitter principles and phenols. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The hexane extract decreased the total amount of total acid in gastric juice. Toxicity studies showed no toxicological signs in rats.
• Chemopreventive in Lead Poisoning: Treatment with the flavonoidal drug, D viscosa to lead-poisoned rats resulted in decrease levels of glycoproteins and sialic acid contents in liver and plasma. Plant flavonoids are considered natural antioxidants, providing protection against membrane damages during hepatic and renal toxicity. Results suggest the flavonoids rich D viscosa leaves attenuate lead acetate-induced alterations and offer a potential as chemopreventive agent against lead poison in rats. (8)
• Antifungal / Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells: DV var angustifolia inhibited the adherence of C albicans to oral epithelial cells, which is the initial step of colonization in the infection process. (9)
• Gastroprotective / Toxicity Study: A hexane extract dose-dependently inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Acute toxicity studies at higher doses did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. Phytochemicals showed flavonoids, saponins, bitter principles and phenols. (13)
• Hautriwaic Acid / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study identified bioactive diterpene substance identified as hautriwaic acid (HA). The diterpene exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity in TPA mice ear edema models. (17)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts for antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Candida albicans. Leaf extracts showed the highest inhibitory activity. (18)
• Anti-Diarrheal / Roots: Study evaluated alcohol and aqueous extracts of roots in castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. Results showed significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools. (19)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluate various leaf extracts for anti-diabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant anti-diabetic activity comparable with that of glibenclamide. (20)
• Antifertility Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds for anti-fertility activity in female albino rats. Ethanol extract and fractions showed significant anti-fertility activity which was reversible upon withdrawal of treatment. (21)
• Neuropharmacological Effects / Seeds: Study of an ethanolic extract of seeds showed neuropharmacological effects with potentiation of phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time, reduced locomotion without motor incoordination. (22)
• Hypoglycemic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (23)
• Wound Healing Activity / Ointment: Topical administration of a methanolic extract of Dodonaea viscosa ointment showed wound healing activity with facilitation of healing as evidenced by increase tensile strength in the incision model and faster epithelizaton and higher wound contraction in the excision model. (24)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Polyphenols and Flavonoids: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of D. viscosa in induction model of granulomatous tissue and the total polyphenols and flavonoid content. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with 54.46 ±3.99% inhibition of the formation of granulomatous tissue. The measurements of total polyphenols and flavonoids were 16.89±1.02% and 15.20±1.35%, compared to standards of gallic acid and rutin, respectively. (26)
• Toxicological Study / Leaves: Study investigated the toxicological effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Dodonaea viscosa in albino rats. Leaf extract produced significant (p<0.05) changes in AST, ALT, UBil and GLO. No deaths were reported in the acute toxicity test. At doses administered, the aqueous leaf extract of D. viscosa does not appear to be toxic. (see constituents above) (27)
• Flavones / Anti-Liver Fibrosis / Antioxidant: Study investigated the phytochemical constituents and activity against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Phytochemical analysis yielded one flavanone: 5,7-dihydroxy flavanone (pinocembrin) (1) and eight flavones. An ethanol extract and compounds 5, 6, and 7 exhibited strongest antioxidant activities. Treatment with extract and fractions attenuated the increments of MDA, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total protein, and increased GSH and SOD levels, with the ethanol extract showing the most potent effect. (see constituents above) (28)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study investigated a methanolic extract of leaves of D. viscosa and pods of Wrightia tinctoria for antidiabetic activity. Results showed D. viscosa extract enhanced the uptake of glucose by isolated rat hemi-diaphram significantly (p<0.01) more than W. tinctoria, and nearly as effective as insulin. (29)
• Topical Formulation as Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritis / Antioxidant: Study evaluated whether extracts of D. viscosa subsp. could provide for biologic activity in topical formulations for dermatitis and as anti-inflammatory and antiarthritis. Leaves extracted with ethanol provided sufficient flavonoid for therapeutic actions. It exhibited antioxidant activity by peroxyl trapping in vitro method. Ethanol extract of leaves stimulate human dermal fibroblast growth suggesting wound healing potential. Results suggest testing of formulations on humans in small clinical studies. (30)
• Wound Healing by Cell Proliferation Assay: Study investigated an ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction on a simplified in vitro wound healing study. The flavonoid-rich fraction induced significant cell proliferation after 48 hours exposure, with greater efficiency than the ethanol extract. The cell proliferation assay can be used as a platform for evaluating a plant's wound healing property. (32)
• Antibacterial / Inhibitory Effect on Cariogenic Oral Pathogens: Study investigated the effect of D. viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence property of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal diseases. DVA had no effect on acid production by S. mutans, but significantly inhibited acid production in planktonic cells. DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) by P. gingivalis (p≤0.01). Results suggest DVA has potential for use in controlling oral infections including dental caries and periodontal disease. (33)
• Female Antifertility Effects / Leaves: Study investigated antifertility efficacy of methanolic extract of leaves of Dodonaea viscosa in female rats. Results showed the extract administered by oral route significantly reduced (p,0.01) the number of litters in a dose-dependent manner. The extract showed early abortifacient activity and significantly prolonged anti-implantation. (35)
• Male Antifertility Effects / Leaves: Study revealed medicinal plants Melia azedarach and Dodonaea viscosa leaf extracts possess antifertility activity, with decrease sperm count, reproductive organ weights, and necrotic changes in the seminiferous tubules of testis. (36)
• Antinociceptive / Viscosine: In a study for potential analgesic components, the principal flavonoid component, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone (vicosine) was isolated. Vicosine, tested in acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate analgesic models, showed significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity in a dose dependent manner, probably through both central and peripheral mechanisms. (37)
- Seeds in the cybermarket.