Etymology / Gen
• Chocolate comes from the fruit of the kakaw tree. Kakaw's scientific name "Theobroma" means "food for the
gods," derived from the Greek words theo (god) and broma (drink). In the Aztec language, the drink was called chocolati. In pre-Columbian times, its bean was a major currency with
great trading value.
• The Aztecs regarded Xocoati
as a powerful aphrodisiac and stimulating tonic. Moctezuma, the 9th ruler of Tenochtitlan, is said to have indulged in a dose before entering the royal harem. (41)
• The current global production of cocoa beans is estimated at 3,520,000 tonnes while grinding is estimated at 3,678,000 tonnes for year 2008/09. Africa yields about 70% of cocoa production. Ivory Coast is the leader in cocoa production followed by Ghana and Indonesia. (12)
• Seeds are the most valuable part of the plant, providing source material for the production of chocolate. Trees start to produce fruit after five years and can live for over 200 years. However, they are considered commercially productive for only about 25 years. (41)
Kakaw is a small evergreen tree with a globose crown, growing
to 5 to 8 meters high Leaves are alternate, entire, oblong-ovate to oblong, 15 to 40
centimeters long, 5 to 20 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and rounded base. Flowers are solitary or fascicled on the trunk and branches; yellowish
or nearly white, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Fruit is oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, prominently wrinkled, yellow or purplish. Seeds are numerous and embedded in whitish pulp; when ripe they rattle in the capsule when shaken.
- Widely scattered in cultivation at low and medium altitudes.
- Cultivated for its seeds.
- Nowhere spontaneous in the Philippines.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Cocoa contains approximately 380 known chemicals and 10 psychoactive constituents.
contain fixed oil, 40-56 %; theobromine; glucose, saccharose;
vitamin A, 825-1400 I.U. per 100 gm; cellulose, 2.8-5.4%; water,
5-7%; ash, 3-5%; starch, 5% and a glucoside, cacarine.
- Seeds yield about 2% theobromine, 40 to 60% solid fat. Shell contains about 1 percent theobromine.
- Each seed yields a significant amount of fat (40-50% as cocoa butter) and polyphenols which make up 10% of the whole bean's dry weight.
- The mesocarp and seed contain theobromine and caffeine.
- The wall and pulp of the fruit contain arabinose and
-The flesh contain enzymes: protease, invertase, raffinase,
cesease and oxydase.
- Cacao is high in magnesium.
- High in antioxidants, approximately 40 times higher than blueberries.
- Possibly contains MAO inhibitors with effects on serotonin and
- Contains PEA (phenylethylamine) and anandamine.
- High in polyphenols, with three main groups: catechins (37%), anthocyanins (4%) and proanthocyanidins (58%). The main catechin is (-)-epicathechin with up to 35% of polyphenol content. (11)
- Studies have yielded various polyphenolic compounds, viz., simple phenols, benzoquinones, phenolic acids, acetophenones, phenylacetic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropenes, coumarines, chromones, naphthoquinones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthraquinones, flavonoids, lignans, and lignins. (11)
- Study of phytochemical constituents of coca fruit outer shell yielded fats and oils +, steroids ++ , alkaloids +. tannins +++, phenolic compounds +++, cardiac glycosides +, saponins ++, flavonoids +++, proteins +++, tyrosine +, carbohydrates +, reducing sugars +, tannic acids ++, gums +++. (29)
- Crude ethanol extract of stem bark yielded alkaloids, tannin, saponin, glycoside, phenol, flavonoid, and carboxylic acid. (see study below) (32)
- Nutrient values of dark chocolate, 70-85% cacao solids, per 100 g yield: (Proximates) water 1.37 g, energy 598 kcal, protein 7.79 g, total lipid (fat) 42.63 g, carbohydrate by difference 45.90 g, total dietary fiber 10.9 g, total sugars 23.99 g; (Minerals) calcium 73 mg, iron 11.90 mg, magnesium 228 mg, phosphorus 308 mg, potassium 715 mg, sodium 20 mg, zinc 3.31 mg; (Vitamins) thiamin 0.034 mg, riboflavin 0.078 mg, niacin 1.054 mg, vitamin B6 0.038 mg, vitamin B12 0.28 mg, vitamin A 2 µg, vitamin A 39 IU, vitamin E 0.59 mg, vitamin K 7.3 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 24.489 g, total monosaturated FA 12.781 g, total polyunsaturated FA 1.257 g, total trans FA 0.030 g, cholesterol 3 mg; (Others) caffeine 80 mg. (48)
- Considered emmenagogue and ecbolic.
- Emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutritive.
- Studies have suggested anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-ulcer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, immune modulating, anti-microbial, vasodilatory and analgesic properties.
- Theobromine resembles caffeine in action, with less powerful effects on the central nervous system.
- Rich source of polyphenols, reportedly with higher antioxidant activity than teas and red wines.
- Oil of Theobroma or cacao butter is a yellowish white solid, with odor resembling that of cocoa, tasting bland and agreeable.
- The feel good sensation with chocolate is attributed to the chemical phenylethylamine which might be partly responsible for the release and potentiation of brain dopamine. Higher concentrations of PEA are found in some cocoa beans and high quality cocoa powder.
Seed, roots, oil, bark, flower, fruit pulp, leaves.
Edibility / Culinary
- Cultivated for use in the manufacture of cacao, chocolate,
cacao butter, chocolate food, drink or fruit.
- Oil or cocoa butter is an excellent emollient, used to soften and protect chapped hands and lips.
Eczema, dry skin:
Roast 10-12 seeds and pound ; apply to affected areas as poultice after
a warm compress.
- Root decoction used as emmenagogue (promotes or stimulates
menstrual flow) and ecbolic (promotes labor by stimulating uterine contractions.
- Husk is traditionally used to treat the pains of pregnancy, fevers, and coughs. (29)
- Pod of T. cacao and shaft of Elaeis guinensis are burned together, poured into a water container, and used to bathe kids infected with craw-craw (itchy skin disease caused by
larvae of filarial worm causing onchocerciasis migrating to the subcutaneous tissues). (38)
- Cocoa butter:
Cacao butter (oil of theobroma) is an excellent emollient for use to prevent chapped
lips and hands. it is used in the manufacture of confections, toilet
articles and cosmetics; in pharmacy, used for pill coating and suppository
- Fuel: The wood--light, soft, and of low durability--is of little value. Occasionally used for making charcoal. The cocoa bean testa is used for fuel. (42)
- Ceremonial Food: Cacao was a tree and food most prized by ancient Maya and Aztec, consumed during rituals and offered as sacraments to the gods.
- Preparation: Cocoa is prepared by grinding the beans into a paste between hot rollers, then mixing it with sugar and starch, with part of the fat removed. Chocolate is prepared in the same way, with the fat retained. (18)
• Hypoglycemic / Polyphenol Rich:
Study showed that Malaysian cocoa polyphenol extract has a potential
of being an insulin-mimetic agent. Further studies are suggested to
elucidate on the underlying mechanisms for its glucose reduction and
insulin mimicking activities. (2) In an acute and chronic animal study, the administration of cocoa extract reduced overall blood glucose in normal, obese, obese diabetic and diabetic rats. The polyphenol rich content is believed to have contributed to the outcome. (34) Study evaluated the hypoglycemic properties of Malaysian cocoa polyphenols extract in-vivo and in-vitro. In-vivo study in diabetic rats showed significant reduction of plasma glucose. In-vitro study showed significantly increased insulin secretion compared to control. Results suggest a potential for the polyphenols to be utilized to lower plasma glucose and stimulate insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic patients. (36)
Effects of polyphenol substances derived from Theobroma cacao on gastric
mucosal lesion induced by ethanol:
Study suggests that the antiulcer mechanism of the polyphenols was from
radical scavenging and modulation of leukocyte function. (3)
• Immune Activity: Study evaluated the effect of (-)-epicatechin and cocoa extract on the activation of a lymphoid cell line. Extract down-modulated T lymphocyte activation and the acquired
immune response which could be important in immune system reactivity such as autoimmune or chronic inflammatory
• Flavonoids / Nitric Oxide / Endothelial
Function: (1) Study indicate flavanol-rich
foods provide extraordinary health benefits. In populations that no
longer consume large quantities of such foods, the risk of cardiac and
cancer deaths have significantly increased.
• Flavonoids / Decreased BP and LDL: Studies have suggested the antioxidants and flavonoids in dark chocolate with benefits of lowering effects on blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels.
• Epicatechin: Epicatechin,
one of the bioactive nutrients in cocoa can promote blood vessel relaxation
and the cardio-benefits might not be antioxidant dependent.
• Human Platelet Reactivity Modulation / Platelet Function Inhibition: Study sought to evaluate whether a 28-day supplementation with cocoa flavanols and related procyanidin oligomers would modulate human platelet reactivity and primary hemostasis and reduce oxidative markers in vivo. Results showed significant increase in plasma epicatechin and catechin concentrations and significantly decreased platelet function. (6)
• Antioxidative Polyphenols: Study isolated clovamide, deoxyclovamide, quercetin and its glucoside. In the bulk oil system, clovamide had the strongest antioxidative activity. Results suggest that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration due to the presence of these polyphenolic compounds. (7)
• Inhibition of NO Release / Cytokine Secretion Inhibition: Study shows that cocoa flavonoids not only inhibit NO release from macrophages but also down-regulate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (8)
• Polyphenols / Antioxidative Activity: Study showed the polyphenol content and its antioxidant capacity vary among a wide range of cocoa and chocolate products, with processing making a great impact on the level of polyphenols. (11) Dark chocolate with its high cocoa content (>35%) is considered to have the richest polyphenols content in the group of cocoa derivatives. (13)
• Hepatoprotective / Apoptosis Prevention / Autophagy Induction: Study shows that cocoa inhibits drug-triggered liver cytotoxicity and prevents apoptosis by inducing autophagy. Results suggest that cocoa can be added to the list of natural chemopreventive agents with a potential for hepatopathy prevention and therapy. (9)
• Antioxidant and Biologic Activities / Cocoa Hulls: A supercritical CO2 extraction method shows cocoa hulls by-product to be a matrix rich in fiber (pectin) and phenolics. A better characterization of the bioactivity of the phenolic pigments is suggested for its potential use in food technology as functional colorant ingredient or antioxidant complex extract. (12)
• Colon Cancer Benefits: Study evaluated cocoa's effect in colon cancer, both in-vivo and in-vitro. Several preclinical studies concluded that dietary polyphenols, in large amounts, can exert a desirable effect. Cocoa is a food rich in polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids). Its main flavonoids are flavan-3-ols, epicatechin, and catechin. Total polyphenols in raw cocoa is up to 60% in monomeric and oligomeric forms. In-vivo studies, demonstrated an antiproliferative effect of cocoa-rich diet. In-vitro studies were done on caco-2 cell line, considered as human epithelial colonic adenocarcinoma cells. Crude procyanidin and procynidin-enriched extracts showed an inhibitory effect on G2/M phase of cell cycle, leading to non-apoptotic cell death. Studies have shown potential inhibition on pro-inflammatory mediators on TNF-α-sensitized Caco-2 cells. Study concludes suggesting large scale, long term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. (14)
• Activated Carbon from Pod Husk / Arsenic Adsorption: Study showed cocoa pod husk material, a waste biomass, can be used to produce activated carbon by chemical activation and ZnCl2 showed to be the best chemical activation agent. The activated carbon can adsorb arsenic (As), up to removal levels of 80% in less than an hour. (15)
• Cacao and Cardiovascular Health: Review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, highlighting its potential clinical implications associated with consumption. Possible mechanisms of its protective effects include (1) endothelial Function and NO (2) antioxidant properties (3) platelet function (4) anti-hypertensive effect (5) antiatherogenic effects including effects on insulin resistance and blood lipids. (17)
• Phenylethylamine (PEA) / Pros and Cons: (1) Phenylethylamine is a natural alkaloid, related to amphetamines, functioning as a central nervous system neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. (2) The feel good sensation with chocolate is attributed to the chemical phenylethylamine which might be partly responsible for the release and potentiation of brain dopamine. Higher concentrations of PEA are found in some cocoa beans and high quality cocoa powder. (3) Depending on the type of chocolate, a 100 /day of chocolate consumption provides between 0.36-0.83 mg/day of Beta-PEA. (3) PEA is also believed to increase the release of AcH (acetylcholine), possibly with mood and cognitive benefits. (4) Although sold as dietary supplement, some believe oral PEA is ineffective because of extensive presystemic metabolism. (5) Synthetic Beta-PEA at doses of 0.63 to 1.35 mg/day has been reported to cause Parkinson's symptoms through by-passing of presystemic metabolism. (6) The concerns relate to synthetic PEA additives—hybrid or GMO—not naturally occurring PEA, escaping enzymatic metabolic action, reaching the brain in trace amounts. (6) When initial PEA level is low, enzyme inhibitors can raise it 1000-fold; 3 to 4-fold when initial concentration is high. Long-term effects of unmetabolized beta-PEA from daily ingestion are unknown. (18) (19)
• Cacao Flavonoids on Immune Activation of Lymphoid Cell Line: Study evaluated the effect of (—)-epicatechin and cocoa extract on activation of lymphoid cell line. There was dose-dependent reduction of IL-2Ra (CD25) expression on activated cells. There was also IL-2 secretion inhibition and 3 to 4.5-fold increase in IL-4 release. In summary, the extract down-modulated T lymphocyte activation and the acquired immune response, which suggests a potential use in immune system hyperactivity such as autoimmune of chronic inflammatory disease. (20)
• Antiproliferative / Leaf: Study evaluated the potential anticancer properties from non-edible parts of the cocoa plant, viz., leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, root, cherelle, and pith. The hexane partitioned fraction of cocoa leaf showed the highest anticancer activity with IC50 value about 66.7± 0.71 µg/ml and generated 10 major active compounds with synergistic effect against MCF-7. (21)
• Effect of Roasting on Contents of Cocoa Beans: Study evaluated the effect of roasting conditions on the content of fat, tocopherol, and phytosterol and antioxidant capacity of the lipid fraction from cocoa beans. Results showed roasting significantly affected phytochemical composition and lipophilic antioxidant activity. Roasting may cause significant degradation of α-tocopherol and phytosterols compared to raw cocoa beans. (22)
• Clovamide / Antioxidant Activity: Study identified the caffeoylated amino acid clovamide [( - )-N-[3'-4' -dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-dihydroxyphenylalanine] in the antioxidant polyphenolic fraction of cocoa and investigated the effect of roasting on its content in different samples of cocoa beans. Although roasting was found to be detrimental for the clovamide content, no correlation was found between clovamide concentration and overall antioxidant properties of the cocoa samples, suggesting clovamide is important but not critical for the antioxidant activity. (23)
• Bioactive Compounds for Skin Health: Cocoa is rich in bioactive compounds: polyphenols, theobromine and minerals. Lines of evidence support the role of cocoa in the promotion of human health, and a full understanding of the mechanisms of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as modulators of cell signaling is key to the evaluation of the potent biomolecules as anti-aging agents. (25)
• Effect of Cocoa Powder on Biologic and Hematological Parameters: Study evaluated the effect of consumption of cocoa powder on biochemical and hematological parameters in rat. Results showed significant reductions in total serum cholesterol levels, LDL-C and triglycerides with a significant increase in white blood cells. (26)
• Antioxidant / Cocoa Oil and Cake: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of cocoa oil and cake using DPPH, hydroxyl radical generated from H2O2, and peroxide oxidation by ferric thiocyanate method. Results showed significant antioxidant activity (P>0.05) compared to antioxidant standards of BHA, ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol. (27)
• Review on Cocoa and Chocolates: Study reports on the composition, bioavailability, and comparative analysis of other food products, and their implications for cardiovascular disease and the immune system. Chocolate contains a high amount of saturated fats; however, the two major fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, appear to have fewer implications for progression of coronary artery disease than other saturated fats. (28) Chocolates is considered the third highest contributor of antioxidants to the American diet: 100-107 mg/day compared to fruits (255 mg/day) and vegetables (233 mg/day). (13)
• Cacao Herb Drug Interactions: (1) Caffeine: Although cocoa contains small amounts of caffeine compared to other caffeine-containing herbs, when taken in sufficient quantities, cocoa can produce levels of caffeine sufficient to cause interactions. (2) Anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs: Cocoa flavanols might have antiplatelet effects, and may be additive with aspirin. (3) Antihypertensives: Dark chocolate may decrease blood pressure, although in large quantities, the caffeine in cocoa may have the opposite effect. (4) Iron: Cocoa may reduce the absorption of iron. (30)
• Antimicrobial / Pod Husk: Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract with antimicrobial activity. The CHE was found effect against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Subfractions showed strongest antibacterial activity against S. cholerasuis and S. epidermis. (31)
• Antibacterial / Stem Bark: Crude ethanol extract of stem bark yielded alkaloids, tannin, saponin, glycoside, phenol, flavonoid, and carboxylic acid. The crude extract showed antibacterial activity against four human pathogens viz., E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. (32)
• Cardiac Benefits / Decreased DNA Methylation of Leukocytes: Study concludes cocoa consumption decreases global DNA methylation of peripheral leucocytes in humans with CVD risk factors. (33)
• Immunomodulatory: In a study of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO, and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could be relevant not only for immune system restoration, but also in its contribution to mood elevation and improvement in quality of life. (36)
• Amelioration of Oxidative Stress, Hyperglycemia, and Dyslipidemia in T1DR: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of T. cacao bean extract for ameliorative effects in hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 1 diabetic rats. Short term administration of bean extract caused substantial reduction in blood glucose but did not obliterate hyperglycemia. In the study form and doses, the extract exhibited comparative limited capacities to reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate dyslipidemia in T1-DR. (37)
• Phenolic Compounds and
Cancer Cell Lines Tested: Review lists the phenolic compounds found in Theobroma cacao and the biological effects and cancer cell lines tested: (1) Polymer procyanidins / Caco-2 (colon) (2) Procyanidin B2 / Caco-2 (colon), HL-60 (leukemia) (3) Epicatechin / Caco-2 (colon), SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma), HepG3 (hepatoma), MCF-7 (breast) (4) 3'-O-methyl epicatechin / FEK4 (skin fibroblasts) and (5) Catechin / HepG2 (hepatoma), Caco-2 (colon), Int-407 (intestine). (40)
• Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Polyphenols / Seed: Study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic potentials of polyphenols extracted from fermented and unfermented Theobroma cacao seeds in Wistar rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Results showed anti-hyperglycemic effect--the 150 mg/kbw of fermented polyphenol was more potent and efficient in reducing activities of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. (43)
• Antimalarial Potential / Antiplasmodial / Leaves: Study evaluated
three plants viz. Persea americana, Theobroma cacao, and Tridax procumbens for phytochemistry and antiplasmodial activity. Aqueous extract of leaves showed antiplasmodial activity. The aqueous extract of Theobroma cacao was most active and was more active against W2 than 3D7 Plasmodium falcifarum. (44)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Seed, Leaf and Pod: Study evaluated cocoa leaf, seeds, and pod extracts for antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Seed extracts showed zone of inhibition against pathogens Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella dysenteriae. The extracts showed good amount of antioxidant activity. On cytotoxicity assay against MG63 osteosarcoma cell lines, all extracts showed deterioration in the cell lines, but the pods extract showed maximum inhibition. (45)
• Antitumor Activity
/ Antioxidant / Murine Lymphoma Model / Seeds: Study evaluated protein fractions of cacao seeds for antitumor activity on a lymphoma murine L5178Y model. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ABTS and ORAC-FL assays. The albumin fraction showed antitumoral activity as evidenced by a significant decrease (p<0.05) in ascitic fluid volume and packed cell volume. Highest antioxidant activity by radical scavenging was shown by the albumin and glutelin fraction in both methods assayed. (46)
• Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Cocoa and Green Tea: Study evaluated the phenols and flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity in cocoa and green tea. Results reveal that one serving of cocoa has higher amount of polyphenols than that of green tea. Cocoa yields 550 mg of total phenol (GAE) and 566 mg of flavonoids (ECE) compared to green tea with 168.8 mg of total phenol (GAE) and 353 mg of flavonoids (ECE). Percentage of oxidant scavenging capacity was significantly greater in cocoa than green tea. Study suggests cocoa has more beneficial effects for combating diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and for boosting the immune system. (47)
• Moderate Interactions: (1) Adenosine: The caffeine in cocoa might block the effects of adenosine (Adenocard), a drug often used in cardiac stress testing. Advise is to abstain from cocoa or other caffeine containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test. (2) Clozapine: Caffeine in cocoa may decrease the rate of break down of clozapine. (3) Dipyridamole (Persantine): Dipyridamole is used in cardiac stress testing. Stop the drug 24 hours before the stress test. (4) Ergotamine: Caffeine can increase the absorption of ergotamine. (5) Estrogen: Estrogen can decrease the breakdown of caffeine. (6) Lithium: Cocoa caffeine may increase the rate of lithium elimination. (7) MAO Inhibitors: Consumption of cocoa with MAO inhibitors (medications used for depression) might cause increased stimulation, increased heart rate, high blood pressure, nervousness, etc. (7) Hypoglycemics: By increasing blood sugar, cocoa might decrease the effectiveness of some antidiabetic medications. (8) Theophylline: Cocoa can decrease the rate of elimination of theophylline and augment its effects and increase its side effects.
• Minor Interactions: Minor interactions may occur with antibiotics, birth control pills, cimetidine, disulfiram (Antabuse), fluconazole, mesiletine, verapamil. (39)
- Extracts and oils in the cybermarket.