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Family Sapindaceae
Kabatiti
Colubrina asiatica (Linn.) Brongn.
LATHERLEAF

She teng

Scientific names Common names
Ceanothus asiaticus Linn. Kabatiti (Tag.)
Ceanothus capsularis G.Forst. Kayaskas (Ilk.)
Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Paria (Bag.)
Colubrina capsularis G.Forst. Palialaut (Tag.)
Pomaderris capsularis (G.Forst.) G.Don Parid-la'ud (Sul.)
Rhamnus acuminata Colebr. ex Roxb. Uatitik (Tag., Bis.)
Rhamnus asiatica (L.) Lam. ex Poir. Asian snakewood (Engl.)
Rhamnus splendens Blume Asian nakedwood (Engl.)
Sageretia splendens (Blume) G. Don Asiatic colubrina (Engl.)
Tubanthera katapa Raf. Hoop withe (Engl.)
  Latherleaf (Engl.)
  Soapbush (Engl.)
  Wild coffee (Engl.)
Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ya zhou bin zao, She teng.
FIJI: Poro, Tartarmoana, Vera, Veravera, Vuso levu.
HAWAII: Vihoa, Anapanapa, Kauila anapanapa, Kauila kukuku, Kolokolo, Kukuku.
MALAYSIA: Peria pantal.
TONGA: Fiho'a.
SOCIETY ISLANDS: Arni, Tutu.

Botany
Kabatiti is a climbing, smooth shrub, reaching a height of 6 meters. Leaves are shining, ovate, 5 to 9 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide; with pointed tips, rounded bases and toothed margins. Three nerves arise from the base of the leaf. Flowers are yellowish green, about 4 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary, short inflorescences which are about 1 centimeter long. Fruit is somewhat rounded, 7 to 9 millimeters in diameter, and surrounded at the base by the calyx, green and fleshy, becoming dark brown with age, and contains three seeds.

Distribution
- Along the seashore and borders of tidal streams throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Africa, and through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Bark yields saponin.
- Plant extracts yield alkaloid, flavonoid, unsaturated sterol and triterpene, steroid glycoside, anthraquinone, saponin, tannin, phenols.
- Study yielded three new jujubogenin glycosides from the leaves of Colubrina asiatica, together with known colubrin, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. (1)
- Leaves yielded two saponins: jujubogenin-3-O-[2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-4-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrinoside) and jujubogenin-3-O- [2-O-acetyl -3-O- (2-O- beta -D- xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrin). (4)
- Study of C. asiatica isolated 16 compounds: six triterpene acids (1-6), five steroids (7-11), one benzoic acid derivative (12), two peptides (13 and 15), one sesquiterpenoid (15), and one jujubogenin (16).
(see study below) (11)

Properties
- Considered cooling and alterative.
- Studies have suggest antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Leaves and fruits.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of leaves use to alleviate skin irritation and treat a variety of skin diseases.
- Decoction of fruit used as abortifacient.
- In Polynesia, employed as tonic and cicatrizant for wounds.
- In India, juice used as tonic.
Others
- Fish poison: Fruit used as fish poison.
- Soap:
Leaves used as soap, lathering in water.


Studies
Jujubogenin Glycosides / Leaves:
Study yielded three new jujubogenin glycosides from the leaves of Colubrina asiatica, together with known colubrin, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. (1)
Antibacterial: Essential oils from six medicinal plants were studied for in vitro bacterial property against 15 pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial. The combination of essential oils of Litsea chinensis, Piper cubeba and Colubrina asiatica displayed maximum inhibitory response white the rest failed to show any synergistic or potentiating effect. (3)
Saponins / CNS Effects: Leaves yielded two saponins. Both inhibited spontaneous motility of mice and showed an antagonistic effect on amphetamine and a synergistic activity on chlordiazepoxide.
(see constituents above) (4)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in selected common traditional vegetables. C. asiatica exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The study found no relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents. (7)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Stems: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of crude aqueous extracts of leaves and stems. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, saponins, and total polyphenols. Total phenolic content of aqueous leaf extract was 12.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder in leaves and 0.867 in stem. Total flavonoid contents were 0.8 ± - and 2.8 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g extract in leaves and stems, respectively. Total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay in leaves was 137 ± 4.8 and 170 ± 38 µM Fe2+ in stem. (9)
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of C. asiatica. On various assays, the water extract showed powerful antioxidant activity, with effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities at same concentrations, compared to standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, BHT, BHA, gallic acid, and quercetin. Essential oil yielded 10 compounds with dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane highest at 17% and cubebene at 14%. (10)
• Antimalarial / Antimycobacterial / Cytotoxicity: Study of C. asiatica isolated 16 compounds: six triterpene acids (1-6), five steroids (7-11), one benzoic acid derivative (12), two peptides (13 and 15), one sesquiterpenoid (15), and one jujubogenin (16). Compounds 3 and 10 showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. Compound 5 showed antimycobacterial activity. Compounds 3,5,6,10 and 14 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against cancer cerll lines. (11)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated June 2019 / January 2016

IMAGE SOURCE (1) Creative Commons Attribution / File:Starr 061108-9754 Colubrina asiatica.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 8 Nov 2006 / Wikimedia Commons (2) File:Starr 061108-9752 Colubrina asiatica.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 8 Nov 2006 / Wikimedia Commons / Modifications by G. Stuart / Click on images to go to source page

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
New Jujubogenin Glycosides from Colubrina asiatica / Shoel-Sheng Lee, Wen-Chuan Chen and Hsiung Chen / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (11), pp 1580–1583 / DOI: 10.1021/np000225n
(2)
Ethnobotanical and phytochemical studies on beneficial flora of Marinduque / PCARRD Commodities
(3)
Antibacterial evaluation of some indigenous medicinal volatile oils / A Kar and S R Jain / PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION, Volume 20, Number 3, 231-237, DOI: 10.1007/BF01104967
(4)
Chemistry, 13C-NMR Study and Pharmacology of Two Saponins from Colubrina asiatica.
/ Wagner H, Ott S et al / Planta Med. 1983 Jul;48(7):136-41.

(5)
Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Colubrina asiatic / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(7)
Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Contents in Selected Traditional Vegetables / Erny Sabrina M N, Abdullah M Z, Nur Daliana Y, Rosali H, and Mohol Shukor N / 21st Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Natural Product Society, 22/11/2005
(8)
Colubrina asiatica / Synonyms / The Plant List
(9)
Phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activities of Colubrina asiatica Brong / Nivas Manohar Desai and Dattatraya Gaikwad / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014;  6(9): pp 282-288

(10)
In vitro Antioxidant Activities and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Asian Snakewood;Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brong./ Desa9i Nivas, U L Dethe. and F K Gaikwad / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2015; 9(7): pp 307-320 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2015.307.320 
(11)
Chemical constituents and biological activities from branches of Colubrina asiatica / Watchara Sangsopha, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul, Ratsami Lekphrom & Somdej Kanokmedhakul / Natural Product Research. 2018; 32(10) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1320787



It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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