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Family Loganiaceae / Gentianaceae
Kabal
Fagraea racemosa Jack
FALSE COFFEE TREE

Scientific names Common names
Fagraea racemosa Jack Baagu (Bag.)
Fagraea morindaefolia Blume Bagontapai (Mbo.)
Fagraea volubilis Jack Bakau (Tag.)
Fagraea scholaris Blume Bogosala (S. L. Bis.)
Fagraea congestiflora Elm. Bulobuaya (P. Bis.)
Kuhlia morindaefolia Blume Himbubuya (P. Bis.)
  Kabal (Tag.)
  Kukodmon (Bik.)
  Lambuaya (P. Bis.)
  Libakan (Tag.)
  Magusayak (Sul.)
  Makatiguga (Sub.)
  Malabuaya (P. Bis.)
  Poñgabu (Mbo.)
  Sinalas (Sub.)
  Talob-anak (Tag.)
  False coffee tree (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
INDONESIAN: Taji ayam, Melingu.
JAVANESE: Engkudug blang.
MALAY: Setabal.
THAI: Phawa nam.

Botany
Kabal is a tree growing about 6 meters or more in height. Leaves are opposite, very leathery, oblong ovate or ovate, 15 to 33 centimeters in length, 8 to 18 centimeters in width, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and pointed at the tip. Stipules form a cup around the stem on which the leaves are borne. Flowers are borne in clusters on terminal inflorescences which are often 20 to 30 centimeters in length. Corolla is white, funnel-shaped, about 2.5 to 3 centimeters in diameter, with 5 prominent lobes. Fruit is a broadly ovoid or rounded berry, about 1 centimeter in diameter, containing many seeds and borne in good sized bunches.

Distribution
- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Common in Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindanao, Palawan, Balabac, Polilo, Biliran, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Mindanao and Basilan.
- Also occurs in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, throughout most of the Malaysian area, to northern Australia.

Constituents
- Study isolated lignans of (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and (+)-isolariciresinol together with phenols syringaldehyde and 7,8-dihydro-7-oxy-coniferyl alcohol. (See study below) (2)
- Study yield an unusual new terpene alkaloid fagraeoside. (6)

Properties
- Antidote, febrifuge, tonic.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Bark, flowers, leaves, roots.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark and flowers are used as antidote for snake bites.
- Decoction of roots used as tonic after fever, for pains in the loins, and for coughs.
- Compound of decoction of leaves with santol leaves (Sandoricum koetjape), drunk as a tonic.
- Pounded roots used for poulticing ulcerations in the nose.
- Decoction of leaves used as medicinal bath for fevers in children.
- Boiled leaves used for dropsy.
- Leaf fomentation used for rheumatism.
- Bark used as application for pains associated with miscarriages.
- In India, root-bark used as febrifuge.
- In Malaysia, preparation of fresh roots used to relieve pain.
Others
- Fuel: Wood used as firewood.
- Timber:
Used for general construction and combs. (4)
- Wood tar used to blacken teeth.
- In Papua New Guinea, leaves used for sealing ovens and for wrapping food. (4)
- Used as live fence.



Studies
Fagraeoside / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study of stem bark isolated a new terpene alkaloid, fagraeoside, along with secologanoside. Fagraeoside inhibited the production of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) in murine fibroblasts. It also showed low to moderate activity in anti-acetylcholinesterase screening. (1)
Analgesic / Vasorelaxant: Study showed relaxation effect on norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction in rat aortic strips. The lignan (+)-pinoresinol showed dose-dependent analgesic effect on writhing symptoms in mice. (2)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective ability of F. racemosa methanolic leaf extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed FR leaves methanolic extract can protect the liver from free radicals generated by CCl4. (5)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update March 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. Derek D. Cabactulan / Flowering twig / Copyright © 2013 by  Alma P. Gamil (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL75188] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fagraea racemosa / flower closeup / Photo by Dolores Fugina / click on photo to see source image / Top Tropicals

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Phytochemical Study of Fagraea spp. Uncovers a New Terpene Alkaloid with Anti-Inflammatory Properties / Suciati, Lynette K. Lambert, Benjamin P. Ross, Myrna A. Deseo, Mary J. Garson / Australian Journal of Chemistry, Vol 64, No 4, 2011/ DOI 10.1071/CH10421
(2)
Pharmacologically active components of todopon puok (Fagraea racemosa), a medicinal plant from Borneo / Okuyama,E., Suzumura,K.,Yamazaki,M./ Chem Pharm Bull 43:2200-2204,1995.
(3)
Plants with central analgesic activity / R N Almeida, D S Navarro, J M Barbosa-Filho / Phytomedicine 8(4): 310-322, 2001
(4)
Fagraea racemosa / Common names / World Agroforestry
(5)
Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats / Eva Rachmi, Yudanti Riastiti / Health Science Journal of Indonesia, Vol 2, No 1 Apr (2011) > Rachmi
(6)
New chemistry from South East Asian medicinal plants / Rudiyansyah , Suciati, LK Lambert, BP Ross, MJ Garson / Planta Med 2009; 75 - L2 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234236

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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