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Family Oleaceae
Jasmin
Jasminum grandiflorum Linn.
JASMINE

Su xin hua

Scientific names Common names
Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. Jasmin (Tag., Span.)
Jasminum officinale L.var. grandiflorum L. Jasmine (Engl.)
  Royal jasmine (Engl.)
  Spanish jasmine (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Su xin hua, Mo li hua.
SPANISH: Jasmin.
PAKISTAN: Chambeli, Yasmin.

Botany
Jasmin is a smooth, woody vine, reaching a length of 8 meters, often with pendulous branches. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 6 to 9 centimeters long, with 7 to 9 leaflets. Lower leaflets are shortly stalked, while the upper ones are stalkless and often somewhat fused; both are ovate, 1 to 2 centimeters long, and pointed at the tip. Flowers are white with faint, pinkish streaks or a purplish tinge outside, delightfully fragrant, and borne in lax, terminal inflorescences. Calyx-teeth are very slender, about 7 millimeters long. Corolla is white, with a slender tube nearly 2 centimeters long; the spreading lobes about 1.5 centimeters long.

Distribution
- Cultivated in Manila and other large towns for its very fragrant flowers.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
- Native of India.

Constituents
- Flowers contain a volatile oil, jasminol, and indol.
- Essence also contains benzyl-acetate, linalol, indol, and a ketone called jasmone.
- Ethereal extract from the leaves yield an alkaloid, jasminine.
- Study reports salicylic acid and an astringent principle in the leaves.

- Study yielded moderate phenols and abundant flavonoids and terpenoids.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoid, triterpenes, saponins, tannin, resin, and salicylic acid.

Properties
- Plant considered deobstruent, anthelmintic, diuretic, emmenagogue.
-
Considered anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anticarcinogenic.
- In China, oil considered tonic.
- Considered aphrodisiac.

- Tea considered calming and helpful for nervous debility.

Trivia
To extract 2.2 lb of jasmine essence, 2,200 lbs of fresh flowers are needed.

Parts used
Flowers, leaves, oil.

Uses

Edibility
- Flowers used for tea.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, water in which the flowers were macerated the night before used as eyewash.
- Flowers macerated in oil or alcohol extract used for rheumatism.
- Cataplasm of flowers used as poultice to prevent the flow of milk.
- Leaves used in t
reating ulcerative stomatitis, ulcers, and wounds.
- Hindu physicians use the leaves as a remedy for skin diseases, ulcers of the mouth, and otorrhea.
- Fresh juice of leaves used to soften corns; oil prepared with it used for otorrhea.
- In Bhavaprakasa, the leaves are chewed for ulcerations of the mucous membranes of the mouth.
- In Ayurveda, used for skin diseases and wound healing.
- Plaster of flowers applied to the loins and pubes as an aphrodisiac.
- In south China, used for treatment of hepatitis.
- In China, oil used as tonic.
- Leaves used in preventing and treating cancers.
- In Thailand, infusion of flowers used as cosmetic after bathing.

Others
- Cosmetics: In Siam, infusion of flowers used as cosmetic after bathing. Extracts used in facial moisturizing products, bleaching, anti-aging, lotions, sprays and shampoos.
-
Flowers used in biotherapy, aromatherapy and perfumery.

Studies
Flower Chemical Constituents / Secoiridois:
Study isolated six secoiridoids from the flowers of J officinale: jasgranoside, jaspolyoside, 8-epi-kingiside, 10-hydroxy-oleuropein, 10-hydroxy-ligstroside, oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester. (1)
Antifertility: Study of aqueous extract of JO on female fertility in rats showed a dose-dependent significant anti-implantation effect, but failed to produce complete infertility. Treatment from day 8 to day 20 of pregnancy did not produce any significant abortifacient activity. A significant decrease in serum progesterone on day 5 of pregnancy may be responsible for the antiimplantation effect. (2)
Oleuropein / Anti-Hepatitis B: Oleuropein, derived from the flowers of Jasminum officinale effectively blocks HBsAg secretion in HepG cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks. (3)
Glycosides: Study isolated 7 glycosides from the flower of J officinale var grandiflorum. (4)
Antibacterial: In a study on the antibacterial activity of extracts of J. grandiflorum and J. sambac, both showed effective activity against tested pathogens. J. grandiflorum scored highest with Salmonella typhi and lowest with Proteus mirabilis. (
6)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves in pyloric-ligated and aspirin-induced ulcer models in rats showed significant dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index compared to the standard drug Omeprazole. The reduction in gastric fluid volume, free acid, total acid and increase in pH in rats proved an antisecretory and potential antiulcer activity of leaves of J. grandiflorum. (
7)
Antioxidant / Anti-Ulcer: Study of 70% ethanolic extract of leaves in rat showed dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index in 3 ulcer models. The free radical scavenging activities of JGLE was dependent on concentration and the antiulcer activity may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action. (8)
Antifungal: Study exhibited antimycotic activity against fungi causing onychomycosis in cancer patients. without significant side effects. It significant retarded the growth of fungi Alternaria sp. (9)
Chemopreventive / Anti-Lipid Peroxidative Potential: Study of an ethanol extract of Jg flowers on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis showed potent chemopreventive efficacy. It also exerted significant anti-lipid peroxidative effect and improved the antioxidant defense system in DMBA-treated rats. (10)
Antihelmintic: Study of various extracts of Jg leaves against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma showed the methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts to show better anthelmintic activity compared with the standard drug albendazole. (11)
Antibacterial / Fruits: Study evaluated fruit extracts of Jasminum grandiflorum for antibacterial activity. A methanol extract showed significant inhibitory effect against X. campestris and A. hydrophila, and suggests biocontrol purposes against bacterial infection in plants and animals. Aeromonas hydrophilia is one of the causative agents for diarrheal infections in children and immune compromised patients. Phytochemical analysis yielded steroids, sugars, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolioc compounds and tannins. (12)
Antinociceptive / Anticonvulsant / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves showed analgesic activity in the tail flick and acetic acid-induced writhing method and anticonvulsant activities by MES and PTZ method in rats and mice. (13)
Protease Activity / Wound Healing / Floral Extract: Study evaluated a flower extract for protease activity. The floral extract showed higher protease activity when extracted at pH 4.0, and was maximum in stamens. Results suggest the protease activity may be responsible for the wound healing property of the flowers. (14)
Protective Effect on DBMA-Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Bone Marrow: Study investigated the protective effects of J. grandiflorum flowers and leaves in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow in female wistar rats. Oral pretreatment with flower and leaf extracts significantly reduced the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow, decreased the percentage of aberrant cells and the number of chromatic and chromosomal breaks. (15)
Wound Healing Activity / Flowers: Study evaluated a flower extract for wound healing activity using excision and dead space wound models in rats. Results showed significantly increased hydroxyproline content in the dead space wound model. There was 65% reduction in wound area, and faster epithelization, and increased rate of wound contraction. (16)
Genotoxic / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of petroleum ether and aqueous leaf extracts of J. officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The aqueous extract exhibited slightly higher chromosomal abnormal cells. Results showed the crude compound of leaf extracts is safer to use in ayurvedic preparation of the drug. (17)
Hepatoprotective / INH-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves in isoniazid (INH) induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Pretreatment of rats with JG showed hepatoprotective activity, with significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased antioxidant activities. (18)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study screened various JG extracts for in vitro antibacterial activity. Results showed the petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts were effective against all four test microorganisms, viz., S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (19)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent extracts of leaves for antimicrobial activity. Results showed broad specrtrum of activity for aqueous extracts, however, with comparatively higher concentrations. Fractionation of chloroform extract yielded two new antimicrobial compounds namely 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethuyl-hexanoic acid 4-hydroxy-phenyl ester (JHF-1) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-3-methyl-butric acid phenyl ester (JHF-2). (20)
Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study evaluated leaf extract for protective effects in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Results showed significant nephroprotective activity attributed to inherent antioxidant property and free radical scavenging principle contained in the extract. (21)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Oil, teas, extracts in the cybermarket.


Last Update January 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / File:Jasminum grandiflorum-2.jpg / KANAGS /2 January 2011/ Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / File:Jasmines officinale - Bot. Mag. 31, 1787.jpg / Botanical Magazine / 1787/ Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum / Zhao GQ, Yin ZF, Dong JX /
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2008 May;43(5):513-7.
(2)
Antifertility activity of the floral buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum in rats / M Iqbal, A K M Ghosh, A K Saluja / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 7, Issue 1, pages 5–8, January/February 1993 / Publ OnLine 18 Jan 2006
(3)
Antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus replication of oleuropein isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum / Guiqin Zhao, Zhifeng Yin and Junxing Dong /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 125, Issue 2, 7 September 2009, Pages 265-268 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.06.030
(4)
Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum / Zhao GQ. Xia JJ, Dong JX / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Oct;42(10):1066-9.
(5)
Jasmine / Live&Feel
(6)
Anti-Bacterial Activity Studies of Jasminum grandiflorum and Jasminum sambac / Priya Joy and Patric Raja / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 481-483. 2008 /
(7)
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM L /
MAHAJAN NILESH, DR. SAKARKAR DINESH, SANGHAI DHIRENDRA / Int. J. Ph. Sci., Sept-December 2009, Vol. 1, No 2, Pp 247-249.
(8)
Antiulcer and in vitro antioxidant activities of Jasminum grandiflorum L. / Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K, Rathidevi R, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 4;110(3):464-70. Epub 2006 Oct 21.
(9)
Screening of Some Plant Extracts against Alternaria sp. Isolated from Foot Infections in Cancer Patients / Mishra Alka, Shrivastava A. and Jain S.K. / International Journal of PharmTech Research, IJPRIF ISSN : 0974-4304 Vol.2, No.2, pp 1165-1170, April-June 2010
(10)
Chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. / Kolanjiappan K, Manoharan S. / Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;19(6):687-93.
(11)
ANTHELIMINTIC ACTIVITY OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM LINN LEAVES / Sandeep, Padmaa M Paarakh, Usha Gavani / Pharmacologyonline, 1: 153-156 (2009)
(12)
EFFICACY OF FRUITS OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM LINN. AGAINST PLANT AND ANIMAL PATHOGENS / A. JOHN DE BRITTO*, D. HERIN SHEEBA GRACELIN / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol. 4, Issue 4, 2011
(13)
Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum (jasmine) leaves in experimental animals / Rajesh K. Gupta and Pooja S. Reddy / Pharmacognosy Res. 2013 Oct-Dec; 5(4): 286–290. / doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.118813
(14)
Protease Activity of Floral Extracts of Jasminum grandiflorum L., a Wound Healing Herb / A. Vidyalakshmi, S. Esaki Selvi / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2013, Volume 1, Issue 4
(15)
Protective Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. On DMBA-induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Bone Marrow of Wistar Rats / Sasikumar Dhanarasu et al / Int Journal Pharmacol., 2(4):406-410, 2006
(16)
INFLUENCE OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF JASMINUM GRANDFLORUM LINN FLOWER ON WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY IN RATS / B. S. NAYAK1,2* AND KRISHNA MOHAN / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007; 51 (2) : 189–194
(17)
CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC POTENTIAL ASSESMENT OF LEAF EXTRACT OF JASMINUM OFFICINALE L. VAR. GRANDIFLORUM L. / Ghurde, M.U., Deshmukh, V.R., Pulate P. V. and Malode S. N. / International Journal of Innovations in Bio-Sciences, Vol. 2 (3), 2012 pp.112-117
(18)
Evaluation Of Jasminum Grandiflorum For Hepatoprotective Activity In Isoniazid Induced Liver Damage / Shrikant Pawar et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
(19)
Antibacterial activity of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn leaves / Padmaa. M. Paarakh / JPR: BioMedRx: An International Journal, Vol 2, No 7 (2009)
(20)
Identification and Characterization of Two Novel Antimicrobial Compunds from Jasminum grandiflorum L
. / J. D. Bhosale et al / World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (1): 47-51, 2011
(21)
EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM LINN LEAVES ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS / G.Venkataiah*, C. Praveen Kumar, D. Sudharshan Reddy, Marry Rejeena. / IAJPR. 2013; 3(11): 7462-7467

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