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Family Rubiaceae

Gusokan
Pavetta indica Linn.
WHITE PAVETTA

Scientific names Common names
Pavetta indica Linn. Bohunan-ug-puso (C. Bis.)
Pavetta barnesii Elm. Galauan (Buk.)
Pavetta crassicaulis Gesges (Neg.)
Pavetta tomentosa Roxb. ex Smith Gusokan (C. Bis.)
Ixora indica (L.) Kuntze Kaiut-karaban (Bag.)
  Kotbu (Ig.)
  Lankuilan (P. Bis.)
  Pangapatolen (Ilk)
  Pitak (Ig.)
  Tamayan (C. Bis.)
  Tandaluli (Bag.)
  Bride's bush (Engl.)
  Christmas bush (Engl.)
  White pavetta (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
AFRICAN: Bruidsboom, bruidsbos, kers(mis)bos
BENGALI: Jui
FRENCH: Bois de pintade
HINDI: Kankara
INDONESIAN: Soka
MALAYSIAN: Jarum-jarum, nyarum-nyarum, gading-gading
MARATHI: Papat
MALAYALAM: Malikamutti
SANSKRIT: Kakachdi
SRI LANKAN: Pawatta
THAILAND: Khem paa
VIETNAM: Thanh t[as]o r[uwf]ng


Botany
Gusokan is an erect, nearly smooth or somewhat hairy shrub, growing to a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long and pointed at both ends. Flowers are white, fragrant, borne in considerable numbers in hairy terminal panicles, 6 to 10 centimeters long. Calyx segments are very small and toothed. Corolla-tube is slender, about 1.5 centimeters long, with obtuse lobes about half the length of the tube. Fruit is black when dry, rounded, about 6 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- From Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces and often common in primary forests, at low and medium altitudes.
- Also reported from India to China and through Malaya to tropical Australia.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves.

Constituents
• Roots contain a green resin, starch, an organic acid, a bitter glucoside resembling salicin.
• Stems contain essential oil, resin, alkaloid, tannin and a pectic principle.

• Petroleum ether and methanol extracts have yielded glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids.
• Phytochemical studies of leaves isolated linoleic acid, (9z, 12z, 15z)-octadeca- 9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, proanthocyanadin, epicatachein and fercilic acid.
(9)

Properties
• Bitter roots considered aperient.
• Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic.

Uses
Folkloric
• Bark, pulverized or in decoction, is used for visceral obstructions.
• Leaves and roots used in poultices for boils and itches.
• Decoction of leaves used externally for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Bitter roots used for constipation.
• Roots, pulverized and mixed with ginger and rice water, used for dropsy.
• A local fomentation of leaves used for hemorrhoidal pains.
• Roots used for urinary complaints.
• Root used as anticephalagic.
• Fruits used as anthelmintic.
• Decoction of stem used as febrifuge.
• Bark decoction used for arthritis.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanol extract of Pavetta indica on several models of inflammation showed activity in the proliferative phase of the inflammatory process in an effect comparable to the standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. (1)
Analgesic: Study of the ethanolic leaf extract of P indica showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of pain response induced by thermal and mechanical stimuli. Results showed promising potential use of the crude extract in the treatment of pain. (2)
Antipyretic: Study of the methanol extract of P indica reduced the pyrexia induced by yeast, found statistically significant, and indicates a potential for the extract's use as an agent against pyrexia. (3)
Diuretic: Study of petroleum and ether extracts of leaves of Pavetta indica exhibited significant diuretic activity. Effect was attributed to the presence of flavonoids. Results support its use as a diuretic agent. (4)
Essential Oil: Study yielded 24 compounds. The major constituents of the oil were ß-pinene (25.45%), ß-eudesmol (7.06%) and tricyclene (5.74%). Oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were minor components. (5)
Hepatoprotective: Study of an aqueous leaf extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed hepatoprotective activity as measured by reduction in biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. (7)
Antioxidants / Nutrients / Minerals: Study showed the leaves to be a good source of antioxidants such as ß-carotene, vitamin C and phenolics. Leaves showed to be rich in nutrients such as crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and minerals like Na, K, Ca, S, P, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. (8)
Antihelmintic / Enterobium vermicularis Infestation: Treatment with P. indica decoction caused partial or complete reduction of symptoms and absence of ova of E. vermicularis. Study show decoction of P. indica can be an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). (10)
Antidiabetic: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of Pavetta indica in alloxan-induced Wistar albino diabetic rats significantly reduced blood sugar. (11)
Antibacterial: Study tested aqueous and organic solvent extracts of leaves of Pavetta indica against B. subtilis, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the leaf extracts showed activity against B. subtilis.; none showed activity against E. coli and S. cerevisiae. (12)
Anticorrosive Property: Study evaluated the anticorrosive nature of P. indica leaf extract on mild steel corrosion in HCl and HxSO4 media. Results showed the extracts could inhibit mild steel corrosion. (13)
none showed activity against E. coli and S. cerevisiae. (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Pavetta crassicaulis in Ananthagiri forest, AP W IMG 9205.jpg / J. M. Garg / 27 June 2009 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Pavetta indica Linn. leaf extract (family: Rubiaceae) in rats / Subhash C Mandal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 17 Issue 7, Pages 817 - 820 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1095
(2)
Analgesic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Pavetta Indica / Golwala D K et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2009; 1(2): 119-120

(3)
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF Pavetta Indica Linn. (RUBIACEAE) LEAF EXTRACT / Laksmi S, Mohana et al / Selected issues in ethnopharmacology / Division of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India. / subhashmandal@yahoo.com, asok_kenny@yahoo.com.
(4)
Physio- Phytochemical screening and Diuretic activity of leaves of Pavetta indica Linn / Ramamoorthy, J / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Aug 1, 2010
(5)
Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Pavetta indica L. Leaves / K Prasad, K Moulekhi and G Bisht / Research Journ of Phytochemistry, 2010
(6)
Pavetta indica / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(7)
THE EFFECT OF Pavetta indica IN CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
/ N Bidyananda Singh and N Saravanan / Pharmacie Globale (IJCP) 2012, 6 (04)
(8)
Evaluation of Nutritive, Antioxidant and Mineral Composition of Pavetta indica Leaves / K. Prasad and G. Bisht / Research Journ of Phytochemistry 5(1):54-59, 2011
(9)
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF PAVETTA INDICA / J. RAAMA MURTHY, S. VENKATARAMAN, R. MEERA, SATKAR PRASAD and A, P. DEVI / Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 9(1), 2011, 397-402
(10)
Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation. / Ediriweera ER1, Rajapaksha RP2, Rathnayaka RL3, Premakeerthi WM3, Premathilaka S / Ayu. 2013 Jul;34(3):254-8. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.123110.
(11)
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PAVETTA INDICA LINN IN DIABETIC RATS
/ NATARAJAN, P.; THANGATHIRUPATHI, A.; RAMARAJAN, S.; JAYA, S.; HAREESH, BELLAMKONDA; LAXMINARAYANA, GOLLAPALLI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research;Jan2013 Supplement, p131
(12)
Antimicrobial activity of Pavetta indica leaves / Vinod Kumar Gupta, Charanjeet Kaur, Aritra Simlai and Amit Roy* / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 (04), pp. 078-082, April, 2013 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.3414
(13)
Inhibitory Action of Pavetta Indica Leaf Extracts on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Media / V. N. SHEEJA and S. SUBHASHINI / Chemical Science Transactions, 2014, 3(1), 240-254 / DOI:10.7598/cst2014.698


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