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Family Alangiaceae
Guntapay
Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin
SAGE LEAF ALANGIUM
Ankol

Scientific names Common names
Alangium acuminatum Wight ex Steud [Invalid] Guntapay (Tag.)
Alangium decapetalum Lam. Sage leaf alangium (Engl.)
Alangium lamarckii Thwaites  
Alangium latifolium Miq. ex C.B.Clarke  
Alangium mohillae Tul.  
Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin  
Alangium tomentosum Lam.  
Greqia salvifolia L.f.  
Karangolum mohillae (Tul.) Kuntze  
Karangolum salvifolium (L.f..) Kuntze  
Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Akarkantha.
HINDI: Ankol, Ankul.
SANSKRIT: : Ankola, Kolaka, Rechi, Deerghakeelaka.

Botany
Alangium salvifolium is a small deciduous tree growing to a height of 10-15 m with a dense canopy and a short trunk. Leaves are simple, alternate, usually unequal, 12.5-17 cm long, 2.5-7.0 cm wide, oblong lanceolate or oblong-oval, acute or rounded at the base, more or less acuminate and obtuse at the apex with 3-6 pairs of very oblique veins, glabrous above and pubescent on veins above and beneath. Stunted branches end up with sharp end appearing thorn-like. Flowers are white or yellowish, fragrant and bisexual. with 4-10 linear petals and 4-10 small sepals, typically curling backwards to expose multiple stamens and linear stigma. Fruits are red spherically berries. The tree sheds its leaves completely when it flowers and leaves reappear when it begins to fruit. (3) (42)

Distribution
- Widely distributed in South East Asia, from India to China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. (3)
- Also found in Africa, Madagascar, Southern and Eastern Asia, tropical Australia, the western Pacific Ocean islands and New Caledonia. (3)

Constituents
- Phytochemical studies of roots yielded various primary metabolites like cephaeline, tubulosine, isotobulosine, psychotrine, and alangiside. Root barks yielded alkaloids A & B, alangicine, dimethylpsychotrine, marckine, marckidine, lamarckinine. Fruits have yielded alangimarkine, ankorine, deoxytobulosine, alangiside, alangine, sterols, and three triterpenoids cepheline, N-methylcephaeline, deoxytobulosine and alangside. Seeds have yielded alangimarine, alamanine, alangimaridine, emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine. (3)
- Aqueous extract of leaves yielded tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids. (see study below) (4)
- Phytochemical screening of various seed extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and tannins. (see study below) (8)
- Phytochemical screening of chloroform extract of flowers yielded alkaloids, tannins, phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and steroids. (see study below) (11)
- Phytochemical analysis of seeds and fruits yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, glycosides, tannins, oils and fats, saponins, and fatty acids, with absence of thios, resins, mucilage and gums. (19)
- Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of aerial parts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and proteins as secondary metabolites. (see study below) (22)

Properties
Studies have suggest antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, nephroprotective, hepatoprotedtive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, nootropic, anticholinesterase, larvicidal, pesticidal, mosquitocidal, wound healing, antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiarthritic, antidiarrheal, anticonvulsant. diuretic, cardioprotective properties.

Parts used
Roots, fruits, leaves, stems, bark, flowers..

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, roots and fruits used for treatment of rheumatism and hemorrhoids. (3)
- Almost all parts of the plant, roots, leaves, stems and bark are used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine. (3)
- In India, traditionally used as laxative, antiepileptic, astringent, antiulcer, anthelmintic. Used for the treatment of skin diseases, leprosy, scabies. (3)
- In Ayurveda, roots and fruits used for treatment of rheumatism, burning sensation and hemorrhages. Root bark used externally as antidote for bites of snakes, scorpion, rabbit, rats, and dogs. (3)
- In Comoros, Africa, whole plant decoction with fruit of coconut used for the treatment of boils. In China, leaves used in treatment of asthma. (3)
- Stem bark used as contraceptive and abortifacient. (12)
- In India, the Meena community in Rajasthan use the root extract and juice as abortifacient. (35)
In Ayurveda's agadatantra, ankola is the main herb used in the treatment of rabies.
Others
- Veterinary contraceptive: Used by Kerala tribes as contraceptive for pigs and cattle. (3)
- Toothbrush: Twigs used as toothbrush in India. (42)
- Pesticide: Mature fruits mixed with honey and roots of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) used as pesticide against pests of agricultural crops. (38)

- Wood: While wood is not durable and not advised for exterior construction, it is valued for making musical instruments and furniture, indoor beams and flooring, cabinetry, carving, inlaying, tool handles, walking stick and various other handicrafts. (38)


Studies
Acute Toxicity Study:
Acute toxicity study of A. salvifolium extract using OECD guidelines showed an LD50 of 1000 ,g/kbw.  (3)
Antimicrobial / Larvicidal / Pesticidal / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for antibacterial, antioxidant, larvicidal and pesticidal potency. Among extracts tested, the hexane extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes, while the chloroform extract showed maximum ZOI against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. typhi. The aqueous extract showed maximum activity against Vibrio cholerae. On larvicidal evaluation against Artemia salina, the chloroform and methanol extract showed 100% mortality at lowest level of concentration i.e., 0.25 ml/10ml v/v. Among four solvents of leaves tested for pesticidal activity against storage pest Sitophilus oryzae, the hexane extract showed 80% and 100% mortality at 24 and 48 hours. No antioxidant activity was recorded even at higher concentration of 15mg/ml with any of the extracts.    (4)
Selective COX-2 Inhibition / In Silico Approach: Study evaluated A. salvifolium derived analgesic compounds for therapeutic drug discovery by computational approach and In silico molecular docking analysis. After post docking analysis, salviifosides A was found to have interaction on COX-2 protein with a highest fitness score of 50.64. The molecular interaction suggests it could be a potent anti-inflammatory compound. (5)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of A. salvifolium leaves using incicion, excision, dead space (granulation) and hydroxyproline wound models in ether anesthetized albino rats. Results showed significant increase in skin breaking strength, granuloma breaking strength, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content and dry granuloma weight, along with decreased epithelization. Further study on granuloma tissue showed a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. The wound healing activity was attributed to free radical scavenging action of the plant and enhanced antioxidant enzymes in granuloma tissue. (6)
Antioxidant / Phenolic Content: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity) and phenolic content of five medicinal plants used for the treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh, India viz. Alangium salvifolium, A. heterophyllus, B. lanzan, S. grandiflora and W. tinctoria. All five showed antioxidant activity. Alangium salvifolium had a yield of 8.7 ± 0.7%, with total phenolic content of 17.41 ± 0.17 mg GAE/mg extract. Total antioxidant capacity was 0.466 ±0.009 BHT equivalents mg/mg. (7)
Pharmacologic Activities / Antidiabetic / Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study evaluated various seed extracts for phytoconstituemts and pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity study showed the seeds were not toxic at a fixed dose of 2000 mg/kbw. The ethanol extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the extract showed significant (p<0.01) increase in glucose tolerance. The chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts reduced glucose levels to normal, with the ethanol extract showing maximum effect. The effect may be through blockage of glucose absorption in the GIT, similar to acarbose, or through a cellular level by stimulating glucose reuptake and metabolism by specific cells. (see constituents above) (8)
Antidiabetic / Fruits / Bark: Study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic and antidiabetic potential of methanol extract of fruits of A. salvifolium in glucose loaded animals and alloxan induced diabetic animals. Results showed significant hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity in both models; however, the potency was less than standard drug metformin. (9) Study evaluated various bark extracts for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Aqueous and ethanol bark extracts exhibited significant (p<0.01) protection and lowering of blood glucose levels. (10)
Antitumor / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antitumor activities of A. savifolium flowers. The extract showed scavenging activity with IC50 of 182.31 ± 0.31 µg/ml in DPPH method. Against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) the flower extract showed antitumor effect as evidenced by significant (p<0.01) increase of survival times of 32.4 ± 0.77 days for the chloroform extract. (see constituents above) (11)|
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the methanolic extract of A. salvifolium roots for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Results showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Extract also showed marked analgesic activity. Acute toxicity study with mice showed no mortality up to 1 g/kbw when administered intraperitoneally. (13)
Antidiabetic / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the ethanol extracts of leaves and bark of Alangium savifolium against STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant lowering of blood glucose level. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. The extracts also lowered elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and increased the HDL. (14)
Anticholinesterase / Antioxidant / Roots: Study evaluated the phytochemical profile, antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects of various extracts of A. salvifolium roots. The chloroform root extract showed highest TPC (492.38±22.34 mg/g gallic acid). total flavonoid (276.25±17.23 mg/g quercetin) and total flavonol (332.92±7.07 mg/g quercetin). The chloroform extract also showed maximum antioxidant potential, including DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 11.26±1.29 µg/ml), FRAP and TAC. Ellman's assay was used to investigate acetylcholinesterse (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme inhibitory effect. The chloroform extract also showed potent AChE inhibitory effect. (15)
Larvicidal / Pesticidal / Spodoptera litura: Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium showed potential larvicidal activity against tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab as evidenced by significant mortality and decreased nutritional indices after treatment with A. salvifolium. Results showed the active fractions has potential as botanical alternative to synthetic pesticides against polyphagous pest like S. litura. (16)
Anti-Arthritic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated various stem barks extracts (ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol) of A. salvifolium for anti-arthritic activity in rats. All extracts showed significant anti-arthritic activity. Phytochemical screening of the extracts yielded steroids, onionskins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins. LD50 values of all the extracts were 1000 mg/kg. The potency of anti-arthritic activity follows the order standard > chloroform > ethyl acetate > aqueous > pet ether > methanol. (17)
Sub-Chronic Safety Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the sub-chronic toxicity of of aqueous extract of A. salvifolium leaves administered to test animals in doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kbw daily for 90 days. There were no changes in hematologic parameters. A significant decrease in glucose level was observed in intermediate- and high-dose group. Creatinine and urea levels were significantly increased in the high dose group. While there no structural damage on hh9istopathological organ examination, there was some tubular damage in kidneys of the high-dose group, along with mild signs of toxicity on kidney function tests. The extract also exhibited hypoglycemic potential. (18)
Anxiolytic / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of A. salvifolium seeds in anxiety on rat using elevated plus maze and light and dark models. Motor coordination activity was evaluated using actophotometer models in Wistar rats. Results showed the extracts significantly induced maximum increase in both number of entries and time spent in open arms compared to close-arm i the elevated plus maze model. In light-dark exploration test, the extracts induced significant increase in the time spent in light compartment compared to the dark compartment. Both extracts showed significant increase in locomotor activity, which means both extracts showed . anxiolytic activity without sedative effect. (20)
Antitumor / Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma / Seeds: Study evaluated A. salvifolium for antitumor activity against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma murine cell lines. Oral administration of the methanolic extract showed significant decrease in tumor volume, tumor weight, viable cells and increase nonviable cells, with return to normal values of hematological and biochemical parameters. The antitumor activity was attributed to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. Deoxytubulosine may be an important alkaloid with antitumor activity (21)
Antioxidant / Anticancer / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anticancer effect of aerial parts of methanolic extract \ of A. salvifolium subsp. hexapetalum. Free radical scavenging testing revealed good antioxidant activity. Using HT29 cell lines, treatment showed a dose-dependent inhibition with decrease of viable cells as concentration increased. Results showed promising antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, (22)
Anti-Arthritis / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated an various extracts of A. salvifolium leaves for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced edema and cotton pellet granuloma models and anti-arthritic activity using Freund's complete adjuvant (FC) model. Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts of leaves yielded flavonoids, tannins phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats, and carbohydrates. Eight fractions (F1-F8) were isolated from ethanol extracts of leaves. F6 and F7 revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. F6 and F7 exhibited moderate to high anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity, which was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. (23)
Antibacterial / Antidiarrheal / Flowers: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antidiarrheal potential of extract fraction of A. salvifolium flowers. Methanol extract and fractions were tested against six Gram-positive and six Gram-negative bacteria. The diethyl ether fraction (DEAS) was active against all tested microbial species, with highest activity against Proteus sp. The chloroform fraction showed significant activity against all strains except Bacillus megatherium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The <EAS and CAS were studied for antibacterial activity using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model in mice. Results showed reduced frequency and severity of diarrhea. (24)
Effect on Dexamethasone Induced Insulin Resistance / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of methanol extract of leaves of A. salvifolium on low dose dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in rats/ Co-administration with different doses of methanol extract significantly prevented the dexamethasone induced increase in all biochemical parameters. Effect was attributed to antioxidant and insulinotropic effect. (25)
Eco-Friendly Mosquitocidal / Dengue Vector Ae. aegypti / Leaves: Study reports on an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from A. salvifolium leaves against the dengue and Zika virus vector Aedes aegypti. The methanolic extract of leaves yielded eight main compounds with major peak area for hexadecanoic acid (21.74%). LC50 and LC90 values for Ae. aegypti fourth instar larvae were 104.80 and 269.15 ppm, respectively. The extract displayed significant repellent and adulticidal activity at 100 and 400 ppm, respectively. Biosafety assays on mosquito aquatic predator Tx. splendens showed the toxicity of the A. salvifolium extract was significantly lower than cypermethrin-based treatments. (26)
Antidiabetic / STZ-Nicotinamide Induced T2DM / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of alcoholic leaves extract of A. lamarckii on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed significantly decreased blood plasma glucose level (p<0.001) comparable to glibenclamide, restored lipid profile and improvement in liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in diabetic rats. (27)
Hepatoprotective / CC[4-Induced Toxicity / Bark: Study evaluated a methanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium for hepatoprotective activity in Swiss albino mice with CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. GC-MS analysis of bark extract yielded an abundance of alkaloids and steroidal compounds. Bark extract administration decreased levels of AST, ALT, and ALP, significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, activities of LDH and phase I enzymes and increased activities of SOD, CAT, and phase II enzymes. Histologic exam suggested a protective effect against CCl4 toxicity. (28)
Anticonvulsant / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of Alangium salvifolium stem barks in mice using maximum electroshock seizure (MES) test and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsion in albino mice. The extract had no effect on the MES test. However, the extract significantly and dose dependently delayed the onset of clonic convulsions induced by PTZ and inhibited lithium pilocarpine-induced convulsions. (29)
Antifungal / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds of A. salvifolium for in vitro antifungal properties against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum Cladosporium fulvum and Mucor racemosus. Methanol was the best solvent. Strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was against Aspergillus flavus; the weakest against C. fulvum. (30)
Neuropharmacological Effect / Stem Bark: Study evaluated aqueous extract of A. salvifolium stem bark for neuropharmacological effects in rats. Results showed significant prolongation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous motor activity and exploratory behavior. The extract prolonged onset of phases of seizure activity but did not protect rats against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. It also failed to affect motor coordination test. Results suggest neuropharmacological activity that is sedative in nature. (31)
Nootropic / Alzheimer Model / Leaves: Study evaluated the learning and memory enhancing activity of leaves of A. salvifolium in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significantly (p<0.05) improved abstraction short term abstraction, short-term memory and exceptional reduction in transfer latency. Results suggest significant memory enhancing effects. (32)
Anticholinesterase Effects Antioxidant / Pericarp: Study evaluated the anticholinesterase effects and antioxidant values of various extracts of A. salvifolium pericarp. Donepezil, a standard drug showed maximum inhibitory effect of AChE and BChE, followed by ethanol and aqueous extracts of pericarp. Among the extracts, the ethanol extract showed highest TPC. along with maximum antioxidant potential. The moderate to potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects suggest a potential candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's diseases. (33)
Larvicidal / Pupicidal / Smoke Toxic Activity / Cx. Mosquitoes / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of leaf extract of A. salvifolium as larvicide, pupicide, and smoke toxic agent against Culex vishnui group mosquitoes. Crude and chloroform extract of leaves were applied against each of four successive instars of larvae and pupae. First instar larvae showed 100% mortality, second instar with,86.67% and fourth instar larvae at 56.67%. The LC50 and LC90 values of solvent extract were 48.89 and 71.78 ppm. respectively. Another study evaluated the smoke toxicity effect of mosquito coils prepared from air-dried leaves of plant. The mosquito coil exhibited 32% mortality against adult mosquitoes within 3 hr, with no negative impact observed on non-target organisms. (34)
Diuretic / Root Bark: Study evaluated benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of root bark of Alangium salvifolium subsp. hexapetalum for diuretic activity. Furosemide was used as standard. Both extracts showed significant (p<0.05) diuretic activity, with the ethyl acetate extract showing more potency. (36)
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of A. salvifolium leaves in Swiss albino mice using modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Results showed period of immobility in both models which was indicative of depressant activity. The antidepressant effect was dose dependent. (37)
Cardioprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of A. salvifolium leaf extracts on isoprotereol-induced myocardial infarction in rats Results showed decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and free fatty acids, along with an increase in HDL Results suggest hypolipidemic and cardioprotective activity. (39)
Attenuation of Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity / Stem Bark: Study evaluated nephroprotective and nephrocurative effect of A. salvifolium ethanolic stem bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar male rats. Results showed curative and protective effects as evidenced by decrease in serum creatinine, BUN, and lipid peroxidation. (39)
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Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seeds and supplements in the cybermarket.

December 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Alangium salvifolium / Vinayaraj / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Alangium salvifolium: stunted branches with sharp ends giving impression of thorns / Vinayaraj / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Alangium salvifolium / Public domain / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Alangium salvifolium fruits / click on image to go to source page © Urancia / Amazon

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Alangium salvifolium / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Pharmacological and phytochemical studies of Alangium salvifolium Wang. - A review / Suresh Shravya, Balakrishnan Nair Vinod and Christudas Sunil / Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Dec 2017; 55(2): pp 217-222 / https://dpi.org/10.1016/j.bfopcu.2017.07.001
(4)
Studies on Antiicrobial, Antioxidant, Larvicidal, Pesticidal Activity and Phytochemistry of Leaves of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang. / N K Udaya Prakash, S Bhuvaneswari, S Preethy, N Rajalakshmi, M Saranya, Jasmine Ruth Anto and S Arokiyaraj / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, June 2013; 5(2): pp 86-89 / ISSN: 0975-1491
(5)
Evolution of selective COX-2 inhibitor from Alangium salvifolium: an in siilico approach / Raju Dash, Md Tanveer Ahsan,, S M Zahid Hosen, Md Golamur Rahman, Talha Bin Emran, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, April 2015; 5(4): pp 89-93
/ DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50415
(6)
Wound healing property of alcoholic extract of leaves of Alangium salvifolium / Inayathulla, Karigar A A, Shariff W R, Sikarwar M S / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2010; 3(2): pp 267-269 / ISSN: 0974-6943
(7)
Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Antiicancer Medicinal Plants from Chhattisgarh State, India. /Ritesh Jain, Sanmati Kumar Jain / Pharmacologyonline 2011; 2: pp 755-762
(8)
Pharmacological Studies on Seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn. / Ashish Kumar Sharma, Vipin Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar, ArumugamBalasubramaniam, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta / Acta PoloniaePharmaceutica, 2011; 68(6)" pp 897-904 / ISSN: 0001-6837
(9)
Antidiabetic Activity of Alangium salvifolium in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / Mishra Anurag, Garg Ganesh Prasad / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2011; 2(6): pp 101-105 / ISSN: 2230-8407
(10)
Antidiabetic Effect of Bark of Alangium salvifolium in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / Sharma A K, Agarwal V, Sharma S, Chauhan B, Sharma A D, Punia R / Journal of Global Pharma Technology, April 2011; 3(4): pp 26-32 / ISSN: 0975-8542
(11)
Antioxidant and antitumor activity of chloroform extract of Alangium salvifolium flowers / Laizuman Nahar, Ronok Zahan, Ashik Mosaddik, Saiful Islam, Anamul Haque, Abdul Fazal Mele Jesmin / Phytopharmacology, 2012; 2(1): pp 123-134
(12)
Medicinal plants with potential antifertility activity - A review of sixteen years of herbal medicine research (19942010) / Priya G, Saravanan K, and Renuka C / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Jan-Mar 2012; 4(1): pp 481-494 / ISSN: 0974-4304
(13)
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Alangium salvifolium / E Porchezhian, S H Ansari, and Sarfaraz Ahmad / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2001; 39(1) / https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi/39.1.65.5947
(14)
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Leaves and Barks of Alangium salvifolium in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Meenakshi Ratra, Rajesh Gupta / Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal / ISSN: 2582-0540 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/1920510/ukjpb/3/i3/89390
(15)
Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase effects of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang root extracts / M Nasrullah, A Haque, Z Yasmin et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Nov 2015; 9(42): pp 1060-1069 / https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2015.5921
(16)
Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptea litura Fab / Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Venkatraman Pradeepa et al / Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Jan 2016; Vol 126; pp 92-101 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.08.003
(17)
Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bark Extracts of Alangium salvifolium Wang / S Jubie, N Jahawar. Ruby Koshy, B Gowramma, V Murugan, and B Suresh / RJC: Rasayan J Chem., 2008; 1(3): pp 433-436
(18)
Sub-chronic safety evaluation of aqueous extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin leaves in rats / Bhupinder Kapoor,Gagandeep Kaur, Mukta Gupta, and Reena Gupta / Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Techbnology & Research, Jul-Sept 2017; 8(3): pp 108-113 / DOI: 19.4103/japtr.JAPTR_69_17 / PMID: 28795025
PMCID: PMC5527696
(19)
Phytochemical analysis of fruits and seeds of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin / Prathyusha P, Subramanian M S / Plant Archives, 2010; 10(2): pp 881-882 / ISSN: 0972-5210
(20)
Anxiolytic and Motor Coordination Activity of Alangium salvifolium Linn. Seeds in Rats / Jasvir Kaur,, Rajmeet Singh, Jaswinder Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Jaspreet Kaur / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Innovation, 2020, 13(: pp 1-10
(21)
Antitumor activity of Alangium salvifolium against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma / R Venkateshwarlu, Yerragunta Venu Gopal, akondi Butchi Raju, K Bhanu Prasad / Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Discovery, 2012; 3(2): pp 122-133
(22)
In vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Alangium salvifolium subsp. hexapetalum (Wangerin) / H Seena, NB Kannappan, P Manoj Kumar /
(23)
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritis Activity of Active Constituents Present in Alangium salvifolium Leaves Extract / Sunil Kumar Prajapati, Ashish Manigauha, Balkrishna Dubey / IJRPB: Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, March 2019; 7(2) / https://doi.org/10.31426/ijrpb.2019.7.2.7112 / eISSN:2320-3471
(24)
Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Activity of Alangium salvifolium Wang Flowers / Ronok Zahan M Ashik Mosaddiik, Ranjan Kumar Barman, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed, M Ekramul Haque / Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, 2012; 2(1): pp 34-43
(25)
Effect of Alangium salvifolium (Alangiaceae) on Dexamethasone Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats / Rahul P Kshirsagar, Sneha S Darade, Vinod Takale / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2010; 3(11): pp 2714-2716 / ISSN: 0974-6943
(26)
Development of an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from Alangium salvifolium against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and its biosafety on the aquatic predator / Annamalai Thanigaivel, PrabhakaranVasantha-Srinivasan, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan et al / Emvironmental Science and Pollution Research /
(27)
Antidiabetic activity of alcohlic leaves extract of Alangium lamarckii Thwaites on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats / Rajesh Kumar, Dinesh Kumar Pate, Satyendra Kuldip Prasad, Kirshnamurthy Sairam, Siva Hemalatha / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Nov 2011; 4(11): pp 904-909 / https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60216-2
(28)
A novel hepatoprotective activity of Alangium salvifolium in mouse model / Preeti Dhruve, Mohd Nauman, Raosaheb K Kale and Rana P Singh / Drug and Chemical Toxicology / https://doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1733593
(29)
Anticonvulsant activity of Alangium salvifolium stem bark / Parida N K, Bal S K, Panda P K / Hamdard Medicus, 2010; 53(4): pp 15-20
(30)
Antifungal Activity of Seeds of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin (Alangiaceae) / P Prathyusha and M S Subramaniian / Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 2011; 8(2)
(31)
Neuropharmacological screening of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) stem bark extract in rats / Parida N K, Debata P C, Panda P K / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2010l 22(10): pp 7507-7512
(32)
Nootropic Activity of ethanolic extract of Alangium salvifolium leaves on scopolamine mouse model of Alzheimer's disease / Parameshwari K, Shashi Kumar, Priyadharshini Bai G, Prathima C, Neetha C / National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy, and Pharmacology, 2018; 8(12): pp 1625-1630 / DOI: 1o.5455/njppp.2018.8.0928322092018
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Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang Pericarp Extracts with their Phytochemical and Antioxidant Values / Md Nasrullah, Anamul Haque, Saeed Ahmed Alzahrani, Mohammad Ashraf Uddin, Zerina Yasmin, Md Sahab Uddin, Yaaser Q Almulaiky, Abudukadeer Kuerban / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 2017; 19(5): pp 1-11 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JPRI/2017/37887
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Larvicidal, Pupicidal, and Smoke Toxicity Activity of Alangium salvifolium Leaf Extracts against Culex vishnui Group Mosquitoes / Papiya Ghosh, Rajendra Mondal, Koyel Mallick Haldar, Goutam Chandra / Journal of Mosquito Research, 2016; 6(2) / DOI: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0002 / ISSN: 1927-646X
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Folk herbal medicines used by the Meena community in Rajasthan / Ajay Kumar Meena, M M Rao / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicine, 2010; 5(1)
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Diuretic activity of Alangium salvifolium subsp. hexapetalum / V Rajamanickam, A Rajasekaran, S Quine, M Jesupillai, R Sabitha / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine, 2008; 8(1)
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Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin in Swiss Albino Mice / Shashikumara, Prathima C and Mohammed Sibgatullah / Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal / DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bpj/1125
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Alangium salvifolium / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Databasre / Useful Tropical Plants
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The Cardioprotective Activity of alangium salvifoliu L. Wang on lipids profile and histological changes in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats / Gowtham P, Dr Nithya Devil / IJAR: Indian Journal of Applied Research, Dec 2019; 9(12) / mISSN: 2249-555X
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Ethanolic extract of Alangium salvifolium stem bark attenuates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats / Karra Geetha, Nadendla Rama Rao / International Journal of Pharmacy / mISSN: 2249-1848
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Alangium salvifolium / Healing Herbs
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Alangium salvifolium / Wikipedia

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