HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Dipterocarpaceae
Guijo
Shorea guiso (Blco.) Blume
RED BALAN

Scientific names Common names
Anisoptera guiso (Blanco) A. DC. Guiso (Tag.)
Dipterocarpus guiso Blanco Red balan (Engl.)
Mocanera guiso Blanco                       Unresolved Red balau (Engl.)
Shorea guiso (Blco.) Blume Red selangan (Engl.)
Shorea guiso Blume is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Balau rouge.
INDONESIA: Balau merah, Membatu, Selangan batu.
KHMER: Chor chong.
MALAY: Balau, Beraja (Indonesia), Selangan Batu Merah (Sabah).
SPANISH: Guijo.
THAI: Lan ton, Saraya daeng, Saya daeng, Teng tani.

Botany
Guijo is a large, medium-sized tree, reaching a height of 50 to 60 meters, with a trunk diameter of about 175 centimeters, with dark colored branchlets. Tree has a strongly buttressed hole at the lower portion of the trunk. Leaves are alternate, simple, entire, and ovate-oblong, 8 to 10 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, with a rounded base and tapering tip. Flowers are short-stalked, developing into 3 long- and 2 short-winged fruits which are expanded at the base. Petals are 9 times as long as the sepals. Stamens are in clusters of 20 to 40 in three groups, with filaments dilated at the base.

Distribution
- Found in primary forests throughout the Philippines.
- Critically endangered.
- Also found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam.
- In the Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Tropical Forest Products, guijo was considered on of the most useful timbers of the Philippines. (8) Today, the tree is classified as 'Critically endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2010). (9)

Constituents
- Species provide a hard resin, which coagulate on the trunk and main branch, then drop down. (6)
- Plant yielded flavanol aglycones, condensed and hydrolysable tannins. (10)


Uses

Folkloric
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
Others
Timber: Wood used for flooring, boat building, carpentry, furniture, cooperage, musical instruments. (1)
Papermaking:
Study showed Shorea guiso can be used in a mixture of sawdust pulp as filler in the production of printing and writing papers.
(4)
Resin:
A dammar resin, known as "huille de bios" is obtained from the tree. Commercially, it is an ingredient of inks, lacquers, oil paints, varnishes, etc, and used as glazing agent in foods. (7) Value of hard resin similar to liquid resin, the good quality is 2000-2500 riel/kg. (6)


Studies
Shoreic Acid / Antimicrobial:
Study of dichlormethane extract of air-dried leaves of Shorea guiso yielded shoreic acid which exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. It also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (2)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated June 2017 / August 2014
May 2013


IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Shorea (Shorea guiso) / click on image to go to source page / © Angela Hijjas  / ARKIVE

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Balau (Shorea guiso) / Woodsourcing
(2)
An Antimicrobial Triterpene from Shorea guiso / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Agnes B. Alimboyoguen, John A. Rideout / Kimika, Journal of the Kapisanang Kimika ng Pilipinas, VOL 23, NO 1 (2010)
(3)
Sorting Shorea names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(4)
Sawdust pulp for paper manufacture. / Zerrudo, J. V.; Escolano, JO. et al / Philippine Lumberman 1970 Vol. 16 No. 11 pp. 10, 12, 14
(5)
Shorea guiso / The Plant List
(6)
The Potential Non-Timber Forest Products for Trading in Cambodia / ITTO—International Tropical Timber Organization
(7)
Shorea guiso / Useful Tropical Plants
(8)
The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Tropical Forest Products / Wikisource
(9)
Shorea guiso / The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
(10)
The utility of leaf flavonoids as taxonomic markers for some Malaysian species of the tribe Shoreae (Dipterocarpaceae)  / Noraaini Talip et al. / Bot J Linn Soc (2008) 157 (4): 755-762. / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00833.x

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT