Guazuma is a tree growing to a height of 10 or more meters. Leaves are oblong to broadly ovate, 4 to 16 centimeters long, with pointed tip, rounded to heart-shaped base, and toothed margins. Flowers are small, yellowish-green or whitish, sweet-scented, and borne in axillary cymes. Fruit is a woody capsule, nearly spherical or oval, 2 to 4 centimeters long, covered with black tubercles resembling those of a mulberry, and imperfectly 5-valvate at the apex. Seeds are numerous in each cell.
- Recently introduced into the Philippines.
- Garden cultivation.
- Study yielded proanthocyanidins.
- Roots yielded a new dicoumarol, 3,3'-methylenebis(4,6-dihydroxycoumarin) along with known metabolites β-sitosteryl stearate, n-tetracosanoic acid, friedelin, friedel-1-en-3-one, β-sitosterol, 29-norcycloartanol, oleanolic acid, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid, 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxy coumarin, and methyl-3-acetyloleanolate.
- Studies for chemical constituents have yielded: acids (tartaric, kaurenoic, asparaginic), flavonoids (kaempferol, procyanidin B2, procyanidine B5, procyanidine C1), gums (xanthan gum), purines (theobromine, caffeine), tannins (catechins, colatannins), and others ( octacosanol, friedelin-3a, 3ß-ol, ß-sitosterol, friedelin, farnesol, taraxerol, colestin). (11)
- Ethanolic extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids. (see study below) (16)
- Study of fruit showed high dietary fiber (36.9%), and low moisture (10.0%). Pulp is sweet with high sucrose
content (16.3%) with attractive taste. Fruit yields proanthocyanidines and aglycones and glycosylated flavonoids. Procyanidin trimer C1 was the main soluble phenolic compound. Phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were the main bound phenolic compounds. (see study below) (24)
- Study of leaves, leaves with stems, stems, and fruits (%) respectively yielded crude fiber 25.77, 45.15, 49.91, and 49.21; crude protein 16.46, 14.46, 8.01, and 10.24; ash 11.65, 13.56, 15.88 and 8.38; lignin 16.91, 19.18, 25.57, and 23.24; gross energy 12.86, 15.02, 14.10, and 8.99 *kj/g); and in vitro digestibility 56.00, 54.84, 25.69, and 41.12. Tannins were found only in the leaves 0.125, leaves with stems 0.115, and stems 0.087. There was absence of saponins, cyanogenic glucosides, hemagglutinins or alkaloids in the samples. (see study below) (41)
- Bark is considered emollient, sudorific and astringent.
- Fruit is considered pectorant.
- Secondary metabolites have shown bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antidiarrheal and cardioprotective effect.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hypotensive, vasorelaxant, anti-leishmanial, wound healing, and anticancer properties.
Bark, fruit and other plant parts.
- Seeds are edible, fresh or cooked.
- In some parts of India, capsules reportedly eaten as famine food.
- Bark and other plant parts used for malaria, cutaneous and syphilitic affections, elephantiasis, afflictions of the chest and leprosy.
- In Martinique, infusion of the old bark is considered sudorific and used for chest and cutaneous diseases.
- In the West Indies, the inner bark is used for elephantiasis; also as a sudorific.
- In the Antilles, the bark is mucilaginous and used for astringent applications.
- Fruit is considered pectorant and used for bronchitis.
- Beverage of crushed seeds soaked in water used for diarrhea, dysentery, cold, coughs, contusions and venereal disease. Also, used as diuretic.
- Used as topical remedy for hair loss and baldness.
- Reported use by Latino healers in NYC for uterine fibroids.
- Leaves used for weight loss.
- In Indonesia, used as ingredient in a slimming tea mixture. Bark used for pneumonia, colds and cough, bronchitis and hemorrhoids.
- Leaf extracts used in the treatment of acne. (17)
- Leaves used for alopecia, dermatitis, fever, dysentery, asthma, wounds and ulcers. Seeds used for constipation. Fruit used for diarrhea, infection, uterine page, hemorrhage. (11)
- In Mexico, used for empirical treatment of type 2 diabetes. (12) Used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Decoction of bark, leaves or buds used for treatment of diarrhea. (20)
- Fodder: In many countries, an important source of livestock fodder. (see studies below) (38) (41)
- Wood: Used for posts, general carpentry, light construction and charcoal.
- Rope: Tough, fibrous bark and young stems used for making rope and twine.
• Anti-Diabetes: In a study in hyperglycemic rabbits of 28 medicinal plants, eight, including Guazuma ulmifolia, significantly decreased the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerance curve. (3) G. ulmifolia water extract showed antidiabetic effects by stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive (3T3-F442A adipocytes) and insulin-resistant adipocytes without inducing adipogenesis (Alonso-Castro and Salazar-Olivo 2008) (12)
• Gastroprotective Against NSAID Gastritis / Radical Scavenging / Anti-Inflammatory / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of an ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of G ulmifolia in a diclofenac-induced acute gastric ulcer model. Pretreatment with GU or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent manner. Results conclude the aerial parts of GU protect gastric mucosa from the injurious effects of NSAIDS mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. (4)
• Antibacterial: A study evaluated 21 extracts from 7 herbal drugs, including G ulmifolia bar, for their antibacterial properties against E coli, P aeruginosa, S aureus and E faecalis. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit growth of one or more bacterial strains, except that of E faecalis. (5)
• Proanthocyanidins: Proanthocyanidins from the bark has been shown to inhibit the activity of cholera toxin. (6)
• Hypotensive / Vasorelaxant: Study investigated the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular activity of a procyanidin fraction (PCF) from the acetone extract of G ulmifolia. Results conclude that G ulmifolia bark possesses long-lasting antihypertensive and vaso-relaxing properties linked to endothelium-related factors where nitric oxide is involved. (7)
• Effect of Leaf Extract on Renal Histopathology: Study evaluated the effect of oral administration of Jati Belanda leaves extract on histopathology of the kidney. Single dose treatment of leaves extract caused histopathological kidney changes including increased mesangial proliferation, congestion of renal blood vessels in the glomerulus or tubules, inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue necrosis. (13)
/ HeLa Cell Line: Study evaluated three South Sulawesi medicinal plant extracts (Gmelina arborea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Curculigo orchioides) in the treatment of HeLa cell line. Results showed dose-dependent cell growth inhibition with IC50 of 113.61±0.12 µg/ml, 174.90±1.22 µg/ml, and 126.05±2.43 µg/ml on HeLa cancer, respectively. (14)
• Anti-Leishmanial / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three Brazilian plant species. Ethanol extract of leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia showed significant antiparasitic inhibition against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Lesihmania infantum (95.23%) at 500 µg/ml. Its higher antilesihmanial activity may be due to the presence of quercetin, a known potent antileishmanial compound. (15)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of leaves for wound healing activity in albino Wistar rats in a chemically induced wound model. Results showed significant dose dependent wound healing activity with faster re-epithelization than control. (see constituents above) (16)
• Antihypercholesterolemic / Combination with Curcuma xanthorrhiza Rhizomes / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of mutamba leaves in combination with ethanol extract of java tumeric on serum lipid levels of Wistar rats. Results showed combination of water extract of mutamba leaves (25 mg/kbw) and ethanol extract of java tumeric rhizome (12.5 mg/kbw) decreased total blood cholesterol and significantly decreased LDL. Results were better compared to either drug alone. (18)
/ Root Heartwood: Study evaluated various fractions of root heartwood by GC-MS analysis. Dichlormethane fraction showed most effective antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging effect and FRAP total reduction capability. Results could be attributed to phenolic constituents. (19)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of Guazuma tomentosa against adult earthworm. Results showed dose dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworm. Anthelmintic activity may be due to the presence of tannins, flavanoids, and purines. Alcoholic and dichlormethane extracts were found to be potential sources of natural anthelminthic compounds. (21)
• Proanthocyanidins: Traditional uses of G. ulmifolia have been experimentally proven by in vitro and in vivo studies, in which bioactivities were associated with phytochemicals, mainly proanthocyanidins dimer B and trimer C (condensed tannins). Proanthocyanidins from stem bark show dual-activity, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. (22)
• Cardioprotective in Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity / Stem Bark: Doxorubicin, an efficient chemotherapeutiic agent, has limited clinical application because of cardiotoxicity associated with increased oxidative stress. Study evaluated chemical composition, antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of stem bark and leaves using DPPH, AAPH. pr DOX-induced lipid peroxidation inhibition in human blood cells and intracellular ROS quantification. Results showed free radical scavenging antioxidant activity, antihemolytic activity, and AAPH- and DOX-induced malondialdehyde content reduction in human erythrocytes. The stem bark extract showed intracellular ROS reduction without impairing chemotherapeutic activity of DOX in K562 cells or inducing leukocyte cell death but protected against DOC-induced cell death. The extracts present as natural alternatives to treat diseases associated with oxidative stress and may play a role as adjuvant in DOX chemotherapy. (23)
• Novel Source of Dietary Fibers and Phenolic Compounds: Study evaluated the fruit for proximate and phytochemical composition. It showed high content of dietary fiber (37%). Fruit yields proanthocyanidines and aglycones and glycosylated flavonoids. Procyanidin trimer C1 was the main soluble phenolic compound. Phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were the main bound phenolic compounds. The fruit can contribute to the intake of dietary fibers and bioactive phenolic compounds. (24)
• Anticholinesterase / Antibiotic-Modulating Antifungal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antifungal activity of G. ulmifolia ethanol extract of leaves. The extract showed antioxidant and significant anticholinesterase activity and potentiation of antifungal activity of fluconazole against Candida tropicalis. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids with recognized antioxidant potential. (25)
• Inhibition of [3H]-Angiotensin II Binding on Human AT1 Receptor / Proanthocyanidins / Bark: A bioassay-guided fractionation of a 70% acetone extract of bark on the inhibition of angiotensin II binding to the AT1 receptor led to the isolation and identification of bioactive oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins consisting mainly of (-)-epicatechin units. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor binding is a potentially interesting biological activity of proanthocyanidins contributing to a broad spectrum of biological activities on the condensed tannins. (26)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated an 80% methanolic crude extract of leaves for analgesic activity using hot plate and tail-clip methods and anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced paw edema tests in Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant dose-dependent reduction of pain in analgesia models (p<0.001) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in a dose dependent manner. (27)
• Anti-Diabetic / Stimulation of Glucose Uptake/ Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic mechanisms of G. ulmifolia. Results showed G. ulmifolia exerts its anti-diabetic effects by stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes without inducing adipogenesis. (28)
• Au Ag and AG/Au Alloy Nanoparticles / Anticancer / Bark: Study reports on the quick and green synthesis of Ag, Au, and Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles using the bark extract of G. ulmifolia. The NPs showed good catalytic activity reducing two organic dyes and good antimicrobial activity on 14 species of microbial pathogens. The NPs were studied on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using MTT assay. Results showed good potential for the bark synthesized NPs as cheap sources to develop novel and safer photocatalytic, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. (29)
• Antiviral Effect: Study evaluated crude extract and aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens for antiviral activity against poliovirus 1 (P-1) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in HEp-2 cultured cells. Results showed statistically significant positive results with both plants for both virus strains. G. ulmifolia showed highest percentage of viral inhibition by EtOAcF at 100% and 99% for BHV-1 and P-1 replication, respectively. Both blocked the synthesis of viral antigens in infected cell cultures. (30)
• Treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease: Study evaluated the activity of ethanol extract of jaiti belanda as protective agent on induced mesangial cells of SV40 MES 13 cell line (glomerular mesangial kidney, Mus musculus). Results showed EEJB (3.125 and 6.25 µg/mL) increased cell proliferation and viability in glucose-induced mesangial cells and significantly reduced the level of TGF-ß1, fibronectin, and ROS compared to positive control (glucose-induced cells), which correlates to diabetic glomerulosclerosis condition that leads to chronic kidney disease. (31)
• Antiobesity / Effect on Pancreatic Lipase Activity: Study evaluated the potency of Z. cassumunar rhizome, Guazuma ulmifolia and M. paniculata leaf extracts as antiobesity agent based on in vitro inhibition activity of the extracts on pancreatic lipase activity. Results suggest the ethanol extraction of ZC and CU and water extraction of MP had potency as antiobesity agent. (32)
• Natural Coagulant for Dairy Wastewater Treatment : Study showed C. ulmifolia stem bark stem bark yields large quantities of condensed tannins represented by groups C=C-C and C-O of pyran (flavonoid C-rings), which serves as bridges during coagulation. Results showed promising use of G. ulmifolia stem bark as source of a coagulating agent due to its novelty, efficacy, low-cost, and eco-friendly properties as an alternative treatment for dairy waste waters. (33)
• Herbal Mixture for Type 2 Diabetes / Clinical Trial: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effect of an herbarium mixture of Guazuma ulmifolia and Tecoma stans on the metabolic profile in 40 patients, aged aged 40-65 with type 2 type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMI, HbA1c, waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipids, kidney and liver functions were measured. Results showed the herbarium mixture improved the glycemic profile in patients with T2DM. (34)
• Inhibitory Potential on Adipogenesis and Obesity / Leaves: Obesity is a health problem characterized by an increase in number and size of adipocytes in adipose tissue. Ex vivo study evaluated the cytotoxic effects, antiobesity, and antiadipogenesis potential of ethanol extract of Detam 1 soybean seed (EEDS) and jati belanda leaves (EEJB) and their combination on 3T3-L1 cells. While both seed and leaves extract showed inhibitory activities, EEJB in the concentration of 50 µg/ml was the most active to inhibit G6PD, TG, and cholesterol activity with inhibition activities of 47.30%, 37.93%, and 73.91%, respectively. (35)
• Epifriedelanol / Natural Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the mechanism of antihyperlipidemic activity of epifriedelanol compounds from G. ulmifolia with three molecular targets. Molecular docking studies show that epifriedelanol from G. ulmifolia plant has a strong affinity and potential as an antihyperlipidemic through the mechanism of inhibiting LDM (Lanosterol 14a-demethylase) and SqS (Squalene Synthase) receptors. (36)
• Antiadipogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-adipogenic activity and identify the active compound of leaves of G. ulmifolia using primary cultures of Wistar strain white mouse preadipocytes. The isolated compound inhibited preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation. Spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis suggested molecular structure of a tiliroside. (37)
• Forage Quality and Potential / Chemical Composition: Study reviewed the available literature for information on presence, management, and forage quality of G. ulmifolia in production systems with domestic ruminants. Results suggest the species possess desirable characteristics as a forage tree. Its crude protein content, rusticity, resistance, persistence, and palatability make it an alternative source of protein for ruminant diets. Besides contributing to livestock diets, the presence of guacimo in pastures increases biodiversity, favors water conservation and soil fertility. (38) Results of study of leaves, leaves with stems, stems, and fruits suggest that due to chemical composition, in particular, protein content and energy value, and its availability in the dry tropics, it has potential as feed resource for ruminants. (see constituents above) (41)
• Flavanocoumarins / Affinity for STAT1 / Bark: Study of bark yielded the favanocoumarin epiphyllocoumarin (1) along with epiphyllocoumarin-[4ß->8]-(-)-epicatechin (2) and epiphyllocoumarin-[4ß->8]-(-)-epicatechin (3). Compounds a-3 showed affinity for STAT1, and flavanocoumarins 1-2 inhibited STAT1-DNA binding. (39)
• Antisecretory Activity Inhibition of Intestinal Chloride Secretion / Proanthocyanidin / Barks: Study evaluated the antisecretory activity of G. ulmifolia bark in rabbit distal colon mounted in an Ussing chamber. Chloride secretion was stimulated by cholera toxin and PGE2. The extract completely inhibited cholera toxin-induced secretion when the extract was added to the mucosal bath prior to the toxin. Results suggest an indirect antisecretory mechanism. Preliminary phytochemical study showed the most active fraction contains procyanidins with a degree of polymerisation higher than 8. (40)
• Tiliroside / Antiproliferative / T47D and MCF7 Cell Lines: One of the chemical markers of Guazuma ulmifolia is tiliroside. Study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of tiliroside of T47D and MCF7 and their mechanisms. Results showed antiproliferative effects of tiliroside, which were higher on T47D than MCF7 cancer cell lines. Molecular analysis suggests the antiproliferative mechanism was by apoptosis through extrinsic pathways. (42)
• Preserving Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Anticancer Properties of G. ulmifolia: Gamma irradiation has been used as alternative for preserving herbal plants from contamination during storage. Study evaluated the effect of Co-60 (0 and 7.5 kGy( gamma irradiation on G. ulmifolia plants on anti-cancer line properties (THP-1, K-562, and MCF-7). Results showed irradiation doses were very active in inhibiting K-562 cancer cell lines with IC50s of 10.94 and 16.74 µg/ml. Gamma irradiation can use in preserving medicinal plants without reducing the anticancer properties. (43)
• Effect on Thiamine on Production of Seedlings: Study evaluated the morphophysiological responses of three lots of tGuazuma ulmifolia seedlings at different doses of thiamine (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg plant) applied on the substrate. Results showed thiamine application at increasing doses up to 11.25 mg plant promotes gains in total leaf area, number of leaves, height, and dry mass of shoots, with a more pronounced effect on plants with greater vigor. (44)
• Antidiabetic / Herbal Combination / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of Andrographis paniculata and Guazuma ulmifolia in treating obesity integrated diabetic conditions in obese with insulin resistance mice model. Results showed APE alone, GUE alone, and the combination of the two could improve insulin sensitivity in obese with insulin resistance mice model. The combination of APE 2 g/kbw and GUE 0.5g/kbw showed the best activity. (45)
• HMG-CoA Inhibitory / Nrf2 Modulatory / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory and Nrf2 modulatory activities of G. ulmifolia leaves. A polyphenolic fraction showed fairly strong antioxidant activity (IC50 14.90) and inhibited HMG-CoA reductase actovoty by 69.10%, which was slightly lower than pravastatin (84.37%) and quercetin (83.25%). The polyphenolic fraction activated the Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway. Results showed the polyphenolic fraction could induce antioxidant genes via the Nrf2 /antioxidant regulatory elements pathway, and is a potential candidate as an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. (46)
• Sugar Syrup from Fruit Extract: Study reports on the elaboration of a sugary syrup from the use of Guacimo fruit extract using the leaching method (solid liquid), which can be used as a partial or total sugar substitute. The mixture that yielded the highest organoleptic acceptance was M2—50% guacimo sugar syrup and 50% table sugar, followed by M3—100% sugar guacimo syrup and 0% table sugar. Results suggest potential as alternative raw material for production of sugar syrups and other products for human consumption. (47)
Seeds, powders, teas, tinctures in the cybermarket.