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Family Bignoniaceae
Flame flower
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.

Pao zhang hua

Scientific names  Common names
Bignonia ignea Vell. Chinese cracker flower (Engl.)
Bignonia tecomiflora Rusby Flower vine (Engl.)
Bignonia tubulosa Klotzsch Flame flower (Engl.)
Bignonia venusta Ker Gawl. Flame vine (Engl.)
Jacaranda echinata Spreng. Flaming trumpet vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia amabilis Miers      [Invalid] Golden shower (Engl.)
Pyrostegia dichotoma Miers ex K.Schum.  Orange trumpet creeper(Engl.)
Pyrostegia ignea (Vell.) C Presl  Orange trumpet vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia ornata Miers  [Invalid] Pahu-pahu (Hawaii)
Pyrostegia pallida Miers Venusta vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia parviflora Miers  
Pyrostegia puberula Miers  
Pyrostegia reticulata Miers  
Pyrostegia tecomiflora (Rusby) K.Schum ex Urb.  
Pyrostegia tubulosa (Klotzsch) Bureau & K.Schum.  
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.  
Tecoma venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Lem.  
Tynanthus igneus (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.  
Pyrostegia venusta (Vell.) Barb.Rodr.  
Golden shower is an English common name shared by (1) Spectacular cassia, Cassia spectabilis (2) Flame flower, Pyrostegia venusta (3) Kuisia, Glaphimia glauca (4) Kanya pistula, pudding pipe tree, Cassia fistula
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Cipo-de-sao-joao, Belas.
CHINESE: Pao zhang hua.

"Pyrostegia" is Greek derived: pyro meaning 'fire' and stege meaning 'covering.' names: Species name venusta means 'pleasing.'

Flame flower is a climbing shrub with 6 to 8 ribbed branchlets. Leaves are compound, with 2 or 3 leaflets, bearing 3-parted terminal tendrils. Leaflets are ovate, acuminate, up to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are reddish orange, in terminal panicled cymes, up to 5 centimeters long with reflexed corolla lobes. Fruit is a capsule, up to 30 centimeters long.

- Recently introduced.
- Grows well in the Baguio area.

- Native to Brazil and Paraguay.

- Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins.
- Phytochemical studies yield chemical constituents from the roots: allantoin, beta-sitosterol, 3b-O-beta-D glupyranosylsitosterol and hesperidin.

- Considered antimicrobial, antioxidant, tonic, and vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic, hyperpigmentant, antibacterial, antifungal properties.

Parts used
Roots, flowers.

• No recorded folkloric use in the Philippines.
• In Iracambi, used as a tonic and antidiarrheal.

• In Brazil, used as general tonic; also for diarrhea, dysentery, leucoderma and vitiligo, and common diseases of the respiratory tract, such as bronchitis, flu, and cold.

Phytochemical screening of P venusta showed the presence of carotenoids, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones in pet ether extract and flavonoids and tannins in the methanolic extracts. Results showed antioxidant activity due to the flavonoids and b-carotene, and a potential source of natural antioxidation. (1)
Antioxidant / Flowers and Roots:
Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of P. venusta using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Results showed P. venusta is a natural source of antioxidants. The extracts of flowers and roots contained significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties to serve as inhibitors or scavengers of free radicals. (
ACE Inhibition:
One of the plant extracts studied for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. (3)
Attenuation of Behavior Changes Induced by Lipopolysaccharide:
Extract of P. venusta attenuated the depressive-live and exploratory behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharide. Results support the usefulness of the plant in traditional therapies for disorders like flu and cold, that induce sickness behaviors. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Flowers:
Study of a hydroethanolic extract in Swiss mice demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. PvHE reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity. Extracts showed antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory actions were attributed to the presence of acacetin-7-O-B-glucopyranoside. (6)
Antimicrobial / Wound Healing:
Study of extract showed potent wound healing capacity as shown by wound contraction and increased tensile strength. Induction in cytokine production may be one of the mechanisms involved in the wound healing acceleration. A PvE also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against B subtilis, S epidermis, S pyogenes, S aureus, E coli, M luteus, P aeruginosa, C albicans among others. (7)
Genotoxicity Evaluation:
Study evaluated the genotoxic effect of extracts of P. venusta in mice using micronucleus (MN) and chromosone aberration (CA) tests.
Pyrostegia venusta did not show genotoxicity activity. (10)
Hyperpigmentant Activity for Vitiligo / Melanogenic / Flowers and Leaves: Study evaluated the melanogenic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from leaves and flowers of P. venusta on B16F10 melanoma cells. Results showed both extracts stimulated B16F10 melanogenesis at very low concentrations. Findings support the folk medicine use of P. venusta on the treatment of hypopigmentation diseases, such as vitiligo. (11)
Vitiligo Treatment / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and hyperpigmented activities of hydroethanolic extract of leaves in Swiss mice model of vitiligo induced by croton oil and monobenzone. Only tropical treatment with HE extract of P. venusta altered melanin specific marker in hair follicles. Topical and oral administration of P. venusta showed significant anti-inflammatory and hyperpigmented effects demonstrated topical and systemic effects in two animal models. (12)
Prevention of Dental Biofilm / Dental Caries: Study evaluated the antibacterial and biological activities of P. venusta in the treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease. Crude extracts, ethyl actetate, and n-butanol fractions showed antibacterial activity. The EA fraction showed the highest inhibition against adherence of S. mutans and C. albicans. Results suggest a potential for the prophylaxis and treatment of caries or periodontal disease. (13)
Anthelmintic: Study of chloroform and methanol extracts of P. venusta showed anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate was used as standard reference. The chloroform extract showed more effective anthelmintic action compared to the methanol extract. (14)
Antitumor Activity / Apoptosis Induction: Study investigated the antitumor activity of P. venusta extracts against melanoma.
The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in in-vivo and in-vitro models. Results showed components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma cells in vitro and promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. (15)
Anticandidal / Antioxidant: Study of flower extracts for in vitro anticandidal and antioxidant activities yielded one flavonoid (quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside) and two phenylpropanoid glycosides (verbascoside and isoverbascoside). The extracts were evaluated against five Candida strains viz., C. albicans, C. krusei ATCC 6258, and clinical isolates strains of Candida sp: C albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilhermondii. Semi-purified fraction and verbascoside showed similar activity to amphotericin B. (1

- Ornamental cultivation.

Last Updated October 2016

Photo / Content ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flower Close Up/ Pyrostegia venusta growing in Barlovento, La Palma, Canary Islands / File:Pyrostegia venusta (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg / Frank Vincentz / 12 April 2008 / GNU Free Documentation License/ Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Teor de flavonóides e fenóis totais em folhas de Pyrostegia venusta Miers. de mata e de cerrado
Validation of a colorimetric assay for the in vitro screening of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from plant extracts
Preliminary study of the antioxidant properties of flowers and roots of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers
/ Purabi Roy, Sarika Amdekar, Avnish Kumar and Vinod Singh / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:69 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-69
Pyrostegia venusta attenuate the sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. / Veloso CC, Bitencourt AD, Cabral LD, Franqui LS, Dias DF, dos Santos MH, Soncini R, Giusti-Paiva A. /
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Oct 28;132(1):355-8. Epub 2010 Aug 18.
Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the flowers of Pyrostegia venusta in mice / Clarice C. VelosoI; Layla D. M. CabralI; Andressa D. BitencourtI et al / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.1 Curitiba Jan./Feb. 2012 Epub Nov 21, 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000209
In vivo antioxidative property, antimicrobial and wound healing activity of flower extracts of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers / Roy P, Amdekar S, Kumar A, Singh R, Sharma P, Singh V / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012, January 14. / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.008 /
Pyrostegia venusta / Synonyms / The Plant List
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers: A Botanical, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Review
/ Nada M Mostafa, Omayma El-Dahshan and Abdel Nasser B Singab* / Med Aromat Plants 2:123. / doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000123
The Evaluation of the genotoxic potency of the Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, Bignoneaceae, crude extract on bone marrow of mice / Eduardo A. Magalhães; Gabriel J. Silva Júnior; Thiago Augusto de Campos; Luciana P. Silva; Regildo M. G. Silva* / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.20 no.1 Curitiba Jan./Mar. 2010 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2010000100014
Hyperpigmentant activity of leaves and flowers extracts of Pyrostegia venusta on murine B16F10 melanoma / Camila G. Moreira, Cintia D.S. Horinouchi, Claudio S. Souza-Filho, Francinete R. Campos, Andersson Barison, Daniela A. Cabrini, Michel F. Otuki / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 141, Issue 3, 14 June 2012, Pages 1005–1011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.04
Pre-clinical evidences of Pyrostegia venusta in the treatment of vitiligo. / Moreira CG, Carrenho LZ, Pawloski PL, Soley BS, Cabrini DA, Otuki MF / J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Jun 20;168:315-25. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.080. Epub 2015 Apr 8.
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers Crude Extract and Fractions: Prevention of Dental Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Capacity / Mayara Brito de Sousa, José Otávio Carrera Silva Júnior, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa, Erika da Silva Valério, Andriele da Mata Lima, Marlon Heggdorne de Araújo, Michelle Frazão Muzitano, Celso Vataru Nakamura, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, and Francisco Martins Teixeira / Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 May; 12(Suppl 2) / doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.182150
Anthelmintic activity of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma / P.V. Nisha, N. Shruti, K. Sweta Swamy, Meera Kumari, A. B. Vedamurthy, V. Krishna, Joy H. Hoskeri* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2012; 4(3): 205-208
Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo / Carlos R Figueiredo, Alisson L Matsuo, Felipe V Pereira, Aline N Rabaca, Camyla F Farias, Natalia Girola, Mariana H Massaoka, Ricardo A Azevedo, Jorge A.B Scutti, Denise C Arruda, Luciana P Silva, Elaine G Rodrigues, João Henrique G Lago3, Luiz R Travassos1, Regildo M.G Silva / Pharmacognosy Magazine (2014) Vol10, Issue 38, pp 363-376 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133284
Anticandidal and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions and Isolated Compounds of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers / AMS Pereira, C Hernandes, SIV Pereira, BW Bertoni, SC França, PS Pereira, SH Taleb-Contini / Planta Med 2013; 79 - P7 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1336449


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