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Family Compositae
Endiba
Cichorium endivia Linn .
ENDIVE

Ku ju

Scientific names Common names
Cichorium endivia Willd. Endiba (Tag.)
Cichorium casnia C. B. Clarke Endive (Engl.)
Cichorium crispum Mill. Ku ju (Chin.)
Cichorium esculentum Salisb.  

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Hindiba, Kasiniyah.
DANISH: Endivie.
ESTONIAN: Endiiviasigur.
FINNISH: Endiivi.
FRENCH: Chicorée blanche, Petite endive, Scarole..
GERMAN: Endivienwegwarte, Endivien, Endivie, Escariol.
ITALIAN: Indivia.
JAPANESE: Kiku jisha.
NEPALESE: Kassinii..
MALAY: Andewi.
POLISH: Endywia.
RUSSIAN: Endivij.
SWEDISH: Endiv.
TURKISH: Hindiba, Yaban marulu..

Botany
Endive is a cultivated plant consisting of a dense rosette of curly leaves arising from the base. Leaves are brittle, oblong, and lobed or cut. Flowers are purple, the upper ones passing into leafy bracts.

Distribution
- Cultivated around Manila and other large towns.
- Cultivated from imported seeds.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.

- Native of the Mediterranean region.

Constituents
- Excellent source of calcium and iron.
- Leaves contain inosit, a bitter principle, ceryl alcohol, d- and B-lactucerol and traces of urea.

Properties
- Considered resolvent and cooling.
- Roots considered tonic, demulcent, stimulant, and febrifuge.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Culinary
- Used for salads, like lettuce.
Folkloric
- Much valued by the Hakims as a resolvent and cooling medicine and prescribed in bilious complaints.
- Roots used for dyspepsia and fever, as a tonic and demulcent.
- Root considered warm stimulating, and febrifuge.
- Fruit is a cooling remedy for fevers, headaches and jaundice.


Studies
Phytochemicals:
Study of the roots isolated twelve known sesquiterpene lactones and a new gualanolid 10b-methoxy-1a,11b,13-tetrahydrolactucin with three known phenolic esters.
Photoprotection: Application of a root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Study suggests C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them potentially useful as sunscreens.
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of C. endivia extract. Results showed CEE significantly blocked oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by t-BPH in HepG2 cells. Phytochemical screening yielded five compounds: 2-furanmethanol-(5'→11)-1,3-cyclopentadiene-[5,4-c]-1H-cinnoline, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol, and adenosine. Results suggest CEE may be a valid safe remedy to cure liver disease.
Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer: The anticancer activity of root extract was examined on a breast cancer line MFC7 and compared with anticancer 5FU (5-fluorouracil). The expression of DNA markers was high both in cells treated with 5FU and root extract. Results show C. endivia contains a combination of phenolic compounds and presents as anticancer especially for breast cancer.
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an aqueous suspension of CE leaves powder in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated the role of oxidative stress in diabetes induction and showed a protective and/or ameliorative effect of CE, similar to glibenclamide.

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update October 2012

 
IMAGE SOURCE: Digitally modified and cropped / Pubic Domain (1) File:Cichorium endiva.jpg / Susan Boyer / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo id: 5287 - cultivated endive (Cichorium endivia) / Photo by Leo Michels. Usage: Public Domain / Foto visualizzata 13 volte / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from roots of Cichorium endivia var. crispum / Wanda Kisiel and Klaudia Michalska / Fitoterapia Volume 77, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 354-357 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.04.009 |
(2)
Photoprotection by Cichorium endivia Extracts: Prevention of UVB-Induced Erythema, Pyrimidine Dimer Formation and IL-6 Expression / C D Enk, M Hochberg et al / Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:1 (DOI:10.1159/000074056)
(3)
Sorting Cichorium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(4)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Cichorium endivia L. Extract and Its Chemical Constituents / Chao-Jie Chen , An-Jun Deng , Chang Liu, Rui Shi, Hai-Lin Qin, and Ai-Ping Wang / Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9049-9066; doi:10.3390/molecules16119049
(5)
Molecular and biochemical evaluation of anti- proliferative effect of (Cichorium endivia, L.) phenolic extracts on breast cancer cell line: MCF7 / Ali Alshehri* and Hafez E. Elsayed / E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 74-82, June 2012
(6)

Effect of Cichorium endivia Leaves on Some Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Zeinab H. Kamel, Iman Daw and Mohamed Marzouk / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(7): 387-396, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178


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