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Family Flacourtiaceae
Dudoa
Hydnocarpus alcalae C. DC.

Scientific names Common names
Hydnocarpus alcalae C. DC. Dudoa (Bik.)
  Dudu-dudu (Bik.)

Botany
Dudoa is a small tree reaching a height of 5 meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate or oblong, 20 to 25 centimeters long, 9 to 11 centimeters wide, entire and smooth, with pointed tip and somewhat rounded base. Flowers are yellowish, about 3 centimeters across, borne on simple racemes on the trunks and branches which are about 50 centimeters long. Sepals are five, ovate, about 1.2 centimeters long, and smooth. Petals are five, elliptical, about 0.8 centimeter long, and hairy on the margins. Fruit is large, hard, woody, brownish, smooth, obovoid, 20 to 25 centimeters long, and 10 to 14.5 centimeters wide, containing 80 to 90 oblong-elliptic or ovoid seeds which are dull brown with gray longitudinal stripes, which are about 3 centimeters long and embedded in whitish pulp.

Distribution
- An endemic species in forests at low altitudes in Albay Province, Luzon.
- Cultivated in Laguna and other provinces.

Constituents
- Seeds yield 65.5% fixed oil.
- More than 90% of the free acids consists of chaulmoogric acid, with palmitic acid making up most of the remaining portion, with only traces of oleic acid.
- Seed coat yields 3.73% of resin acid.

- Study yielded two naphthol esters of chaulmoogric acid and 2 chaulmoogryl naphthlamines.
- Study of nuts and oil yielded: average weight of fruit 420 gms; hulls 59.68%; seeds, do 40.32; moisture in seeds, do 60.50; oil in dry seeds, do 65.50, melting point, 52 degrees; specific gravity at 30° C, 0.9502; iodine value (Hanus) 93.10; saponification value, 188.90. (4)
- Study of freed acids of the oil yielded: melting point, 59°; specific gravity at 30°m 0.9342; iodine value (Hanus) 98.6; acid value cc. 0.1N alkali 37.4; saponification value 193.0. (4)

Properties
- Irritating property of the oil may come from the resins.
- Wound healing.

Parts used
Oil.

Uses

Folkloric
- Hydnocarpus oil and its derivatives were once used extensively used for the cure of leprosy.
- Oil extracted from seeds used for wound healing.


Studies
Chaul-moogryl Derivatives:
Chaulmoogra oil obtained from Hydnocarpus alcalae yielded double esters chaulmogrul methyl lactate, chaulmoogruyl ethyl lactate, chaulmoogrul n-butyl salicylate.. The double esters decomposed in hot weather, needling cool storage. (1)
Oil of Hydnocarpus / Antileprotic / Wound Healing / Incision Wound and Dead Space: Anecdotal reports have claimed that leprosy patients who used hydrocarpus oil capsules exhibited more rapid wound healing. Study evaluated the effect of oil of hydnocarpus in wounds experimentally inflicted on male Wistar rats. In the incision model, there was a significant increase in body weight and strength of scar tissue, while in the dead space model there was increased strength of collagen tissue and hydroxyproline content. Results showed oil of hydnocarpus, besides antileprotic activity, may have adjunctive benefits in wound healing in leprosy patients. (2)
Effect of Hydnocarpus Oil on Excision Wounds: Study concluded the use of oil in the excision wound model topically (alone or as a paste) or administered orally promoted epithelization without affecting wound contraction. (3)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

October 2013
Last Update March 2015


IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Flacourtiaceae : Hydnocarpus alcalae / Flower / Copyright © 2014 by Danilo Tandang(contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL81226] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / 00114654.tif © Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany / Oct 18, 2012 / Supplier: National Museum of Natural History Image Collection / Creator: Ingrid P. Lin / Location Created: Darago., Luzon, Hundred Islands, Albay, Philippines, Asia-Tropical/ EOL

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chaul-moogryl derivatives of lactates and salicylates / West, A. P. / Philippine Jour Sci: 405-409, 1928
(2)
Effect of oil of hydnocarpus on wound healing. / Oommen ST, Rao M, Raju CV. / Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1999 Jun;67(2):154-8.
(3)
The Effect of Oil of Hydnocarpus on Excision Wounds / T. Oommen, B.Sc., M.D. / International Journal of Leprosy
(4)
A CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SEEDS OF PANGIUM EDULE AND OF HYDNOCARPUS ALCALDE l / By Harvey C. Brill

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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