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Family Compositae
Dila-dila
Elephantopus scaber Linn.
PRICKLY-LEAVED ELEPHANT'S FOOT
Ti Tan-t'ou

Scientific names Common names
Elephantopus carolinensis G.Mey. Dila-dila (Tag.)
Elephantopus scaber Linn. Kabkabron (Ilk.) 
Elephantopus sordidus Salisb. Tabatabakohan (Tag.) 
Scabiosa cochinchinensis Lour. Prickly-leaved elephant's foot (Engl.) 
Dila-dila is a shared common name by many different species of plants: (1) Onychium siliculosum: Buhok-virgin (Tag.); dila-dila (Tag) (2) Nopalea cochinellifera: Dila-dila (Ilk.); dilang baka (Tag.) (3) Elephantus scaber: Dila-dila (Tag.), kabkabron (Ilk.); prickly leaved elephant's food (Engl.) (4) Pseudoelephantopus spicatus: Dila-dila (Tag.); dilang-aso (Tag.) Kabkaron (Ilk.)
Other phonetic variations and use of "dila" for other local plant names further add to the confusion: Dila-dilag (Spilanthes acmella); Dilang aso (P. spicatus); Dilang-baka (N. Cochinellifera); Dilang-boaia, dilang-halo (Aloe vera); Dilang-butiki (Dentella repens); Dilang-butiki (Hedyotis philippensis); Dilang-usa (Trichodesma zeylanicum); and Diladila (Cordyline roxyburghiana).
Elephantopus scaber L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Hasti pod
CHINESE: Ku di dan, Di dan tou, Mo di dan, Lu er cao, Di dan cao, Di dan tou.
HINDI: Samduri, Ban-tambakhu
MALAYALAM: Anayatiyan.
MARATHI: Hastipata.
SANSKRIT: Gojivha.
SPANISH: Lengua de vaca.
TAMIL: ANASHOVADI.
TELUGI: Enugabira.

Botany
Dila-dila is a rather coarse, rigid, erect, more or less hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters high. Stems are forked, and the branches are few and stiff. Leaves are mostly in basal rosette, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 10 to 25 centimeters in length and often very much notched in the margins; those on the stems are few and much smaller. Flowering heads are borne in clusters at the ends of the branches, usually enclosed by three leaflike bracts which are ovate to oblong-ovate, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long and heart-shaped at the base. Flowering heads are many and crowded in each cluster; each head comprising about 4 flowers. Involucral bracts are 8 to 10 millimeters long. Corolla are 8 to 10 millimeters long. Fruits are achenes and ribbed. Pappus is 4 to 6 millimeters long, with rigid bristles.

Distribution
- In open grasslands and waste places, from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 meters.
- Common in La Union, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.

- Most likely introduced.
- Native of Mexico.
- Also found in the Marianne and Caroline Islands, India, Taiwan, and Borneo.

Constituents
- Study for essential oil revealed: hexadecanoic acid, 43.3%; isopropyl dimethyl tetrahydronaphthalelol, 14.1%; b-sesquiphellandrene, 8.3%; octadecadienoic acid, 5.5%; and phytol, 5.2%. (see study below) (1)
- Major sesquiterpene lactones isolated from E. scaber are deoxyelephantopin, Isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin, isoscabertopin, scabertopinol, 17,19-dihydrodeoxyelephantoopin, 11,13-dihydrodeoxyelephantopin, molephantinin, elescaberin, deacylcyanopicrin, glucozaluzanin-C, deacylcyanopicrin 3, and ß-glucopyranoside crepiside E. (25)
- Study of oil from stems, leaves, and roots showed percentage yield of 0.001%, 0.003%, and 0.04%, respectively. Major constituents for stem oil were pentacosane (12.3%), lupenyl acetate (11.7%), and fern-7-en-3ß-ol (11.0%); leaf oil yielded isooctyl phthalate (19.2%), hexadecanoic acid (15.0%), and a-linolenic acid (5.0%) and root oil yielded hemellitol (11.6%), octyl phthalate (6.0%), 1-nonadecanol (5.6%) and l-octadecanol (5.5%). (31)
- Study of roots isolated 13 compounds, including four sesquiterpenoids (5, 6, 7, 8), two phenols (1, 2), three triterpenoids (9,10,11), two caffeoylquinic acids (3, 4), one alkaloid (12), and one sterol (13). (34)
- Petroleum ether fraction yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compound, carbohydrates. (see study below) (39)

Properties
- Bitter, alterative, antipyretic, anti-infection, astringent, diuretic, mucilaginous, tonic.
- Flowers are astringent, ophthalmic, aphrodisiac and expectorant.
- Considered antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer.

Part utilized
· Leaves, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, decoction of roots and leaves used as diuretic, febrifuge and emollient.
· Upper respiratory afflictions: Colds, flu, tonsillitis, laryngopharyngitis, conjunctivitis.
· Snakebites, furuncle swellings, eczema, ulcer the lower limb.
· Nephritis, beriberi, edema, hepatitis, chest pains, fever. scabies.
· Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction.
· Pounded fresh material is applied as poultice for snakebites, furuncle swelling.
· Juice of pounded leaves applied to scalp to slow down hair loss.
· Decoction of fresh material is used as wash for eczema.
· Decoction of roots and leaves for dysuria, diarrhea, bronchitis, fevers.
· Decoction of root for hemorrhoids and coughs.
· Poultice of leaves for skin diseases.
· Flowers for liver problems, ophthalmopathy, bronchitis, cough.
· In Costa Rica, decoction is prescribed as specific for dysentery.
· In Antilles, decoction of plant is used as astringent.
· In the Malabar Coast, decoction of plant used for dysuria.
· In
Indo-China, plant is torrefied and as decoction used for increasing the discharge of urine.
·
Decoction of plant used as anthelmintic for round worms; also used for coughs.
· In Madagascar, used as diuretic and febrifuge.
· In Jamaica, used as vulnerary.
· In the French West Indies, used as tonic, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. Warm infusion used for dyspepsia, intermittent fevers, loss of appetite, and menstrual derangements due to colds.
· In Brazil, used as emollient and discutient in the form of decoction or poultice. Also, used as diuretic, to reduce fever, and eliminate bladder stones.


Studies
Essential Oil / Anti-Rhinoviral / Antioxidant:
Study of the chemical composition of the essential oil of Elephantopus scaber from Southern China identified 21 compounds. The major constituents were hexadecanoic acid (42.3%), isopropyl dimethyl tetrahyudronaphthalenol (14.1%), ß-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), octadecadienoic acid (5.5%) and phytol (5.2%). Results suggest B-sesquiphellandrene has anti-rhinoviral activity and tetrahydrocannabinol has hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activity. (1)
Anti-Diabetes:
Study of crude extract and fractions from E. Scaber on streptozotocin-diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic action and is a source of potent hypoglycemic compounds. (2) Effect of E. scaber leaf extract on STZ-induced diabetic rats showed the methanol extract exhibited better hyperglycemic action than the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. (3)
Anti-Diabetes: An acetone extract exhibited significant anti-diabetic activity by reducing blood glucose and restoring the insulin levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Anti-Diabetes / Roots and Leaves: Study of E. scaber roots and leaves extract exhibited antihyperglycemic effects and may alleviate damage of pancrease and liver in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-induced Liver Dysfunction:
Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of E. scaber on CCl4-induced chronic liver dysfunction in rats. The biochemical changes induced by CCl4 improved following treatment with E. scaber. (4) Study evaluated methanolic extract of roots of E. scaber in CCl4-induced liver damage in rats showed antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities attributed to free radical scavenging activity. (22)
Antitumor / Sesquiterpene Lactones: Study isolated four sesquiterpene lactones from E. scaber: scabertopin (ES-2), isoscabertopin (ES-3), deoxyelephantopin (ES-4), and isodeoxyelephantopin (ES-5). ES-2, ES-4, and ES-5 exhibited significant antitumor effect in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The antitumor effect of the studied sesquiterpene lactones may be due, at least in part, to induction of apoptosis in vitro. ES-4 also possess in vivo antitumor activity. (6)
Antitumor / Anti-Chemical Carcinogenesis: Study of E scaber on skin papillomas induced by DMBA and croton oil in mice showed tumor inhibitory activity of the active fraction against chemically induced tumors and an ability to inhibit the development of solid tumors.
Antibacterial / Novel Triterpenoid:
A Novel terpenoid from Elephantopus scaber showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and suggests that it can act as a drug for bacterial infections
. (7)
Antimicrobial Potential: Result of study confirmed the antimicrobial potential of the ethyl acetate extract of E. scaber. (8)
Antibacterial / Beta-Lactamase MRSA: Study showed strong in vitro antibacterial activity of terpenoid derivatives against ES beta-lactamase-producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (12)
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Extracts of E. scaber leaves, flowers, and root and H. colorata leaves and stem were studied for phytoconstituents and antibacterial activity. Screening yielded phenol, carbohydrates, steroids, saponins, coumarins, tannins
Anti-Inflammatory: 'Teng-Khia-U,' a Taiwanese folk medicine derived from E. scaber, E. mollis and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus was evaluated for its anti inflammatory activities. Results indicated pre-treatment with Teng-Khia-U significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced arthritis and suppressed the development of chronic arthritis induced. (9) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts of E. scaber aerial parts in acute, subacute, and chronic experimental models in albino rats by carrageenan induced hind paw edema and paw volume assays. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity with the higher dose of compound significantly reducing carrageenan induced pedal edema by 57% and formalin induced pedal edema by 58%. (42)
Antidiarrheal / Cardiotonic: Study showed the ethyl acetate extract with significant antidiarrheal activity. The petroleum extract showed significant cardiotonic activity on the hypodynamic frog heart. (13)
Sesquiterpene Lactones / Antiproliferative: Study of whole plant yielded the known sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, and isodeoxyelephantopin. Results showed the compounds to have antiproliferative properties, with a potential for use in regimens for treating tumors with extensive proliferative potencies.(16)
Antibacterial / Phytoconstituents / E. Scaber and H. colorata: Extracts of E. scaber leaves, flowers, and root and H. colorata leaves and stem were studied for phytoconstituents and antibacterial activity. Screening of various extracts yielded phenol, carbohydrates, steroids, saponins, coumarins, tannins, carboxylic acid and flavonoids, xanthoproteins and alkaloids. E. scaber ethanolic root extract showed the highest one of inhibition against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. (17)
Cytotoxicity / Human Breast Cancer Cells / Induced Apoptosis: Ethanol extract of E. scaber may be a potential anti-cancer agent for human breast cancer cells by the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. (18)
Antiasthmatic: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain showed antiasthmatic activity attributed to flavonoids and steroids via antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and mast-cell stabilizing properties. (19)
Hepatoprotective / Alcohol Liver Disease: Study showed the potential hepatoprotective effect of an extract of E. scaber in ethanol-induced liver damage with any oral acute toxicity effect. (20)
HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor: Study evaluated 22 selected Thai medicinal plants for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 RT. E. scaber was selected because it had no tannins. The water extract from leaves of E. scaber exhibited inhibitory effect higher than 70% ethanol. (22)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of E. scaber for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and P. vulgaris. Results showed significant antibacterial activity compared to chloramphenicol (30 µg/disc). (24)
Anticoagulant Activity / Leaves: Triterpenoid lupeol isolated from E. scaber leaves act as antagonist to platelet aggregation in vitro by blocking calcium channel blocking since Ca++ release activates the ERK2 for signaling in platelets. (25)
Memory Enhancing Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the memory enhancing potential of ethanolic extract of E. scaber leaves in aged Swiss albino mice. Results suggest EESL may exhibit memory enhancing activity in aged mice possibly due to an increase in anticholinesterase and caspase activity in mice brain. (26)
Hair Growth Promotive Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of E. scaber leaves for its role in hair growth in experimental rats. Minoxidil was used as reference standard. Extract formulation significantly (p<0.01) potentiated the hair growth initiation and completion time for dose-dependent improvement in skin biopsy, hair length, and hair weight. In vitro hair follicles showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in initiation of new hair follicles. (27)
Nephroprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of E. scaber for nephroprotective effect on albino rats with gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Results showed a nephroprotective effect attributed to flavonoid content and inherent antioxidant moieties in the extract. (28)
Lupeol / Anticancer Potential: Study evaluated the anticancer potentials of lupeol isolated from the leaves of Elephantopus scaber and its action on key cancer marker, Bcl-2. Lupeol induced effective change in cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 concentration of 80 µM. Induction of cell death, change in cell morphology and cancer cell population was observed. The compound effectively down-regulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expressions. (29)
Antimicrobial / Trace Elemental Analysis: Study showed antimicrobial activities to be higher in leaf extracts of E. scaber whereas no inhibition was found for root extracts. Elements such as Si, Ca, Cl, Mg, S, K, and P are more abundant in leaf than root whereas heavy metals are higher in roots than in leaves. Elements Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Br, and Pb are not found in both leaves and roots. (30)
Deoxyelephantopin (DET) / Inhibits HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth: Deoxyelephantopin (DET) is one of the major sesquiterpene lactones derived from Elephantopus scaber reported to possess numerous pharmacologic functions. Study showed DET induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through regulation of p53, cyclins, and cyclin dependent kinases proteins in HCT116 cells. Results suggest DET is worthy of further investigation as a potential colorectal cancer therapy. (32)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Roots and Aerial Parts: Study investigated the antimicrobial potential of various extracts of roots and aerial parts. Different solvents showed concentration dependent antibacterial activities against four gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus, M. luteus and B. cereus) and four gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, and S. typhi) bacteria and strong antifungal activities against C. albicans, A. niger and A. clavatus.
(32)
Lipoxygenase Inhibition / Anti-Inflammatory: A methanolic extract was shown to inhibit all three (5, 12, and 15) lipoxygenase enzymes (LO) in a mist competitive-non-competitive nature. In the study, the dual inhibition of 5 and 12/15 LO enzymes by the ME of E. scaber present great therapeutic implications on chronic inflammatory pathological conditions like asthma, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. E. scaber shows potential as a good source of bioactive molecules that could be employed for inflammation research.
(35)
Cytotoxicity Against Human Cervical Cancer (Hela) Cells: Study evaluated the active fraction of E. scaber as anticancer and the mode of cell death. Results showed the ES fraction possess cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines with IC50 of various fractions ranging from 42.46 to 650 µg/ml. The mode of cell death was apoptosis. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against HeLa.     
(36)
Isodeoxyelephantopin / Anticancer / Growth Inhibition T47D and A549 Cells: Study evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. Results showed inhibition of growth of A549 and T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 of 10.46 and 1.3 µg/mL, respectively. There was increase in numbers of apoptotic cells (p<0.0003). Cell death was associated with activated caspase-3-expression followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase.
  (37)
Apoptosis Mediated Cytotoxicity / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Study evaluated the cytotoxic effect of IDOE on human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells. IDOE exhibited apoptosis mediated cytotoxicity and inhibited viability of KB cells in a dose and time dependent manner.
(38)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions showed significant antioxidant activity. The DPPH radical scavenging and NO scavenging activity were higher for the ethanol fraction than the pet-ether and ascorbic acid.
(39)
Antimicrobial / Anthelmintic / Aerial Parts: Study screened the antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of E. scaber. The n-hexane, chloroform and methanolic extracts show concentration dependent and significant anthelmintic activity compared to piperazine citrate and albendazole and fluconazole for antimicrobial activity.
(40)
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitory Effect / Triterpenoid / Leaf: Study evaluated E. scaber for in vitro inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. The higher concentration of the triterpenoid compound exhibited higher antiplatelet activity than the lower concentration with IC50 inhibition % ranging from 60%-95%, The inhibition of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) pathway may contribute to the anti-platelet activity of lupeol. As consumption of ES products may help prevent thrombosis, it must be used with caution by patients with bleeding disorders.
(41)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Elephantopus scaber in Narshapur forest, AP W2 IMG 0829CC BY-SA 3.0 / J M GARG / 18/01/08 / PRICKLY-LEAVED ELEPHANT'S FOOT Elephantopus scaber in Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India / / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flower Macro/ Kadavoor / jeevan jose / PRICKLY-LEAVED ELEPHANT'S FOOT CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NonCommercial / flickr / Or click on image to go to source page
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Close-up of flowering head / File:Elephantopus scaber in Narshapur forest, AP W IMG 0835.jpg / PRICKLY-LEAVED ELEPHANT'S FOOT Elephantopus scaber in Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India / J M Garg / 18.10.08 / GNU Free Documentaion License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Elephantopus scaber from Southern China /
Li Wang, Shuguang Jian, Peng Nan, and Yang Zhong* / Z. Naturforsch. 59c, 327Ð329 (2004)
(2)
Effect of Crude Extract and Fractions from Elephantopus scaber on Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats / R Jasmine and P Daisy / International Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1(2): 111-116 (2007)
(3)
Comparative Studies on the Different Leaf Extracts of Elephantopus Scaber.L on STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats / Daisy P, Lily Vargese, Cecilia Edel Priya / European Journal of Scientific Research / ISSN 1450-216X Vol.32 No.3 (2009), pp.304-313
(4)
Hepatoprotection by Elephantopus scaber Linn. in CCl4-induced liver injury / Rajesh MG, Latha MS. / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;45(4):481-6.
(5)
Indian Medicinal Plants / Arya Vaidya Sala / Kottakkal, P. K. Warrier
(6)
Antitumor activities of the four sesquiterpene lactones f from m Elepephantopus scaber L. / G Xu, Q Liang et al / Exp Oncol 2006, 28, 2, 106–109
(7)
A Novel Terpenoid from Elephantopus Scaber – Antibacterial Activity on Staphylococcus Aureus: A Substantiate Computational Approach / P Daisy, Salu Mathew et al / September 2008 Vol. 4 No. 3 Int J Biomed S 196
(8)
A study of the antimicrobial activity of Elephantopus scaber
/ K Avani, S Neeta / ndian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2005 [cited 2009 Jul 15];37:126-7
(9)
Anti-inflammatory effects of Taiwan folk medicine ‘Teng-Khia-U’ on carrageenan- and adjuvant-induced paw edema in rats / Chin-Chuan Tsai and Chun-Ching Lin / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 64, Issue 1, 1 January 1998, Pages 85-89 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00108-1

(10)
A novel Steroid from Elephantopus scaber L. an Ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic activity / P Daisy et al / Phytomedicine, Vol 6, Issues 2-3, March 2009, pp 252-257 / doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.06.001
(11)
Evaluation of Elephantopus scaber on the inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis and tumor development in mice / Geetha B S et al / Pharmaceutical Biology (Formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy), Vol 48, Number 3, March 2010 , pp. 342-348(7)
(12)
Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Elephantopus scaber Extracts on Clinical Isolates of β-lactamase Producing Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from UTI Patients / R Jasmine, P Daisy and B N Selvakumar / Int. J. Pharmacol., 3: 165-169. / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2007.165.169
(13)
Anti-diarrhoeal and cardiotonic activity of extracts of Elephantopus scaber linn in experimental animals / P.MUTHUMANI, A.J.M.CHIRISTINA et al / RJPBCS Volume 1 Issue 3, July – Sept 2010
(14)
ELEPHANT FOOT / Common names / Flowers of India
(15)
Elephantopus scaber L. / Chinese Names / Catalogue of Life, China
(16)
Sesquiterpene Lactones Isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits Human Lymphocyte Proliferation and the Growth of Tumour Cell Lines and Induces Apoptosis / B. S. Geetha, Mangalam S. Nair, P. G. Latha, and P. Remani / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/721285
(17)
Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L. / Anitha VT, Antonisamy JM, Jeeva S. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Jan;5(1):52-7.
(18)
Elephantopus scaber induces cytotoxicity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via p53-induced apoptosis / Wan Yong Ho, Swee Keong Yeap, Chai Ling Ho, Abdul Rahim Raha, Abdul Aziz Suraini, and Noorjahan Banu Alitheen / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(24), pp. 5741–5749, 30 October, 2011
(19)
Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. leaves / Rakesh Sagar, HB Sahoo / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2012 | Vol 44, Issue 3, pp: 398-401.
(20)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Elephantopus scaber on Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice
/ Wan Yong Ho, Swee Keong Yeap, Chai Ling Ho, Raha Abdul Rahim, and Noorjahan Banu Alitheen / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/417953
(21)
Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic efficacy of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn in Wistar rats
/ Kannakuzhiyil Oommen Sheeba, Pallara Janardhanan Wills, Bhaskara Kurup Latha, Rajagopal Rajalekshmy, Mukalel, Sankunni Latha* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)
(22)
HIV- 1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors fromThai Medicinal Plants and Elephantopus scaber Linn. / C. Wiwat* and S. Kwantrairat / Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2013; 40 (3), 35-44
(23)
Elephantopus scaber / Synonyms / The Plant List
(24)
ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn / S. Suresh Kumar, P. Perumal, and B. Suresh / Anc Sci Life. 2004 Jan-Mar; 23(3): 6–8.
(25)
Phytopharmacological Profile of Elephantopus scaber / Farha Arakkaveettil Kabeer and Remani Prathapan / Pharmacologia, Volume 5 Issue 8, 2014 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2014.272.285
(26)
A new weapon for memory power: Elephantopus scaber (Linn.) / Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Pravat Kusum Mandal, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Amrita Bhaiji, Rakesh Sagar / International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, 2014, Vol 4, Issue 1, pp 64-68.
(27)
Preliminary study on the impact of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn. on hair growth promoting effect in rats / Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Amrita Bhaiji / Herba Polonica. Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 35–45 / DOI: 10.2478/hepo-2013-0010, April 2014
(28)
Nephroprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Elephantopus scaber Leaves on Albino Rats / Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan et al / IRJP 2012, 3(5)
(29)
In vitro evaluation of anticancer potentials of lupeol isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. on MCF-7 cell line / Daisy Pitchai, Anita Roy, Cybil Ignatius / Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 2014, Vol 5, Issue 4, pp 179-184 / DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.143037
(30)
Trace elemental analysis and antimicrobial activities of Elephantopus scaber L.
/ S. Santhosh Kumar*, A. Subramanian, C. Uma, R. Rengaiyan, K. Sambandan, K. G. Sekar, M. Sudarshan and A. Chakraborty / Journal of Phytology 2012, 4(4): 08-13
(31)
The Oils from Stems, Leaves and Roots of Elephantopus scaber Linn.
/ MOHD ALHAFIIZH ZAILANI* & FASIHUDDIN BADRUDDIN AHMAD / Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology (2016) 6(1): 46-49
(32)
Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Inhibits HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Growth through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest / Chim Kei Chan, Gomathi Chan, Khalijah Awang and Habsah Abdul Kadir / Molecules 2016, 21, 385 / doi:10.3390/molecules21030385
(33)
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Elephantopus scaber Linn.
/ Sachin M. Hiradeve* and Vinod D. Rangari / International Journal of Biomedical Research 2015; 6(05): 338-345. / Journal DOI: 10.7439/ijbr
(34)
Chemical constituents from the roots of Elephantopus scaber L. / Taizong Wu, Hui Cui, Bao Cheng, Sai Fang, Jun Xu, Qiong Gu* / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 54 (2014) 65–67
(35)
INHIBITION OF LIPOXYGENASE BY ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER EXTRACT AND DETERMINATION OF ITS INHIBITION PATTERN / Prakash Kumar B*, Anu P.Abhimannue, Mohind C.Mohan, Jenny Jacob, Bashi M.Babu / J Adv Sci Res, 2015, 6(1): 01-05
(36)
The Screening Of Cytotoxic Fraction From Elephantopus scaber Linn against Human Cervical Cancer (Hela) Cells / Nurkhasanah*, Kartika Candra Trisnamurti, Retty Dewi Gunaryanti, Trisna Widyastuti, Yeni Listyowati / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Vol 6, No 6. June 2015
(37)
Isodeoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber (Didancao) induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells / Kabeer, F.A., Sreedevi, G.B., Nair, M.S. et al. / Chinese Medicine, December 2014, 9:14 / doi:10.1186/1749-8546-9-14
(38)
APOPTOSIS MEDIATED CYTOTOXICITY INDUCED BY ISODEOXYELEPHANTOPIN ON NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA CELLS / FARHA A. K, GEETHA B. S, MANGALAM S. NAIR, DHANYA S.R, LATHA P. G AND REMANI P* / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 4, Issue 3 (2011)
(39)
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF ANNULAR AND SEASONAL AYURVEDIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER L. AND BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM DC. / A. Subramanian, S. Santhosh Kumar*, S. K. Suja, M. Sudarshan and A. Chakraborty / International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJPBCS), JAN-MAR 2014, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, 06-17
(40)
Evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of the aerial parts of Elephantopus scaber L. / Kanthal Lakshmi Kanta,*, Kiran B.V.V.S. Surya, Satyavathi K., Raju P. Bhoja, Sahoo Subhas /
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 3
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IN VITRO PLATELET AGGREGATION INHIBITORY EFFECT OF TRITERPENOID COMPOUND FROM THE LEAF OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER LINN / S SANKARANARAYANAN, P BAMA, J RAMACHANDRAN, R. JAYASIMMAN, P T KALAICHELVAN, M DECCARAMAN, M. VIJAYALAKSHIMI, M VISVESWARAN, C V CHITIBABU / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 2, Issue 2, 2010
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Antiinflammatory activity of Elephantopus scaber in albino rats / SANKAR V; KALIRAJAN R; SWEETLIN VIVIAN SALES F; RAGHURAMAN S / Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2001, Vol 63, No 6, pp. 523-525

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