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Family Loranthaceae
Dapong-kahoi
Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.
Yuan jiang guo ji sheng

Scientific names Common names
Loranthus ferrugineus Jack Dapong-kahoi (Tag.)
Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.  
Taxillus ferrugineus (Jack) B  
Note: Quisumbing's compilation has a confusing list of scientific names and synonyms for Dapong-kahoi. Many in Quisumbing's list are listed as separate species in other compilations. I will retain the studies on Loranthus ferrugineus.
Quisumbing's synonyms for Loranthus furrugineus: Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb., Loranthus ferrugineus Jack, Loranthus cryanthus DC., Loranthus chrysanthoides Korth., Dendrophthoe chrysanthoides Miq., Dendrophthoe ferrugineus G. Don., Dendrophthoe cryanthus G. Don., Etubila ferrugineus Rafin., Cichlanthus ferrugineus Van Tiegh., Cichlanthus chrysanthus Van Tiegh., Scurrula chrysanthoides Danser, Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser.
Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is an accepted name The Plant List
Some sources consider Scurrula ferruginea a synonym of Loranthus ferrugineus while other sources consider it a separate species.
Loranthus ferrugineus Jack is an synonym of Taxillus ferrugineus (Jack) Ban The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiu mao li guo ji sheng, Dian nan ji sheng, Yuan jiang li guo ji sheng.

Botany
Dapong-kahoi is a bushy parasitic shrub. Branchlets and leaves beneath are densely covered with a tomentum of long- and short-branched hairs. Leaves are opposite, and shortly petioled, usually roundish-elliptical, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, and smooth above when old. Inflorescence is usually 2- to 5-flowered. Flowers are 1.2 to 2.5 centimeters long, in axillary, stalkless or short-peduncled fascicles. Calyx tube is obovate or pear-shaped, 2.5 to 3.5 millimeters long, with the limb entire. Corolla is slender, 7 to 17 millimeters long, with the tube split, and with 4 lobes. Fruit is clavate, 8 to 10 millimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters thick, and hairy.

Distribution
- A parasitic on miscellaneous trees in many islands, in open forests only a low altitudes in Palawan.
- Also occurs in the China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam.

Constituents
- Ethyl acetate fraction of Scurrula ferruginea yielded an unusual flavanol, glycoside 4"-O-acetyl-quercitrin, together with quercetin and quercitrin.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- Plant decoction used for malaria.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and snake bites.
- Decoction of leaves used as protective medicine after childbirth.
- In Malaysia, used as postpartum protective remedy; also to treat malaria, wounds and snakebites.


Studies
Vascular Relaxation / Anti-Hypertensive:
Study of n-butanol fraction of methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus showed it induced vascular relaxation by stimulating muscarinic receptors, activating the endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway, promoting prostacyclin release. Results support its traditional use as anti-hypertensive agent. (1)
Cholinomimetic Effect: Study of a methanol extract of L. ferrugineus in isolated guinea pig ileum showed a spasmogenic effect probably mediated through a direct action on intestinal muscarinic receptors. (2)
Antihypertensive / Vasoconstriction Modulation: Study investigated the mode by which LF methanol extract antagonizes or modulates norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in rat aortic rings. Results showed LF ME exerted its vascular effect by reversible noncompetitive antagonism of norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction, providing a mechanism for its antihypertensive effect. (3)
Antiviral / Cytotoxic: Extracts of Scurrula ferruginea have been found to have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus and poliovirus. Extracts were also cytotoxic against murine Lewis lung carcinoma, mouse lymphocytic leukemia (LI210), human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562), human glioblastoma (U251), human prostatic carcinoma (DU145) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells. (5)
Flavonols / Cytotoxicity: Ethyl acetate fraction of Scurrula ferruginea yielded an unusual flavonol glycoside 4"-O-acetyl- quercitrin, together with quercetin and quercitrin. On cytotoxic evaluation on four human cancer lines, quercetin was the most active with an IC50 of 35 µm on U251 (human glioblastoma cells). (6)
Vasorelaxant / Blood Pressure Lowering Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of aerial parts for blood pressure lowering activity in in vitro and in vivo animal models. Results showed the methanol extract to be most active in blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized normotensive Sprague Dawley rats. The hypotensive effect was dose dependent which could be due to vasodilation mechanism and attributable to the high polyphenolic content of the plant. (7)
Cardiovascular Effects: Study evaluated active fractions of L. ferrugineus and mechanisms of cardiovascular effects. Results suggest L. ferrugineus induced cardiovascular effects by stimulating muscarinic receptors, activating endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway, promoting prostacyclin release and/or possibly through lengthening of NO half life. (8)
Cardiovascular Effect / Vascular Relaxant and Hypotensive Effect: Study showed an n-butanol fraction of a methanol extract of L. ferrugineus was the most potent fraction in producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose dependent blood pressure lowering effect in vivo. The effects are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content. (10)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015


IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTOGRAPH / Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. / © Pharmacopuncture / Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench / click on image to go to source page / Journal.Ac
IMAGE SOURCE: ILLUSTRATION: 60207 Loranthus ferrugineus Jack / Loranthaceae / W.J. Hooker, Botanical miscellany, vol. 1, t. 59 (1830)
W.J. Hooker/ Public Domain / Click to go to source image / www.plantgenera.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the vascular activities of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. in rat thoracic aorta / Mohammad Jamshed A. Siddiqui, Mun F. Yam, Raghava N. Sriramaneni et al /

Journ of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 127, Issue 1, 8 Jan 2010, Pages 19-25 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.057
(2)
In Vitro Cholinomimetic Effect of Loranthus Ferrugineus in Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum / Omar Ziad Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad Siddiqui et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 2, Issue 4 , Pages 288-293, December 2009
(3)
In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Profile of Loranthus ferrugineus: Evidence for Noncompetitive Antagonism of Norepinephrine-induced Vascular Contraction / Omar Z Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 3, Issue 4 , Pages 272-282, December 2010
(4)
Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(5)
Medicinal Plants of China and Its Neighborhood: Bioresources for Tomorrow's / Christophe Wiart / Google Books
(6)
Flavonols from Scurrula ferruginea Danser (Loranthaceae) / Francoise Loheziic-Le Devejat, Sophie Tomasi, Didier Fontanel and Joe ̈l Boustie / Z. Naturforsch. 57c, 1092Ð1095 (2002)
(7)
Vasorelaxant Properties of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. Methanolic Extract / Ameer, O. Z.; Salman, I. M.; Yam, M. F.; Abd Allah, H. H.; Abdulla, M. H.; Shah, A. M.; Sadikun, A.; Asmawi, M. Z. /International Journal of Pharmacology;2009, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p44
(8)
CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITIES OF LORANTHUS FERRUGINEUS ROXB. METHANOL EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS / OMAR ZIAD AMEER / Thesis /UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 2009
(9)
Review article: Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench / Ameer Omar Z.*, Salman Ibrahim M., Quek Ko Jin, Asmawi Mohd. Z. / Journal of Pharmacopuncture
(10)
Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. / O.Z. Ameer, I.M. Salman, M.J.A. Siddiqui, M.F. Yam, R.N. Sriramaneni, A. Sadikun, Z. Ismail, A.M. Shah and M.Z. Asmawi / Braz J Med Biol Res, February 2010, Volume 43(2) 186-194

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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