- Tetrastigma is a genus of plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. The plants are lianas that climb with tendrils and have palmately compound leaves. Species of this genus are notable as being the sole hosts of parasitic plants in the family Rafflesiaceae, one of which, Rafflesia arnoldii, produces the largest single flower in the world. (3)
- Etymology: The genus name Tetrastigma is derived from Greek, meaning 'four stigmas', referring to its four-lobed stigma. (3)
Tetrastigma papillosum is a climbing, dioecious liana, 10-15 m long; stems terete or flattened, densely studded with long spine-like corky excrescences; tendrils simple, leaf-opposed. Leaves digitately 3-foliolate; petiole 3.3-7.5 cm long; blade of terminal leaflet elliptical, 8.2-9.7 cm × 3.6-4.8 cm, base obtuse, apex acuminate. Inflorescence a corymbose cyme, often borne on old wood, widely branched, frequently long-peduncled; flowers unisexual, 4-merous, pedicellate. Fruit a berry, pyriform when dry, about 9 mm long, 3-4-seeded, red. Seed convex-carinate, about 5 mm × 4 mm. (1)
- Native to the Philippines.
- Occurs on the margins of dipterocarp forest, rarely on limestone hills, up to 1200 m altitude. (1)
- Also native to Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand.
- Phytochemical screening of crude ethanolic extract of roots yielded alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, terpenoid and saponin, with absence of steroid; TPC was 431.52 mg GAE/g. Stem extract yielded alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, saponin, and steroid, with absence of terpenoid; TPC was 271.38 mg GAE/g. (see study below) (4)
- Study suggested antioxidant and cytotoxic properties.
- Nothing found on edibility for this particular species.
- No reported folkloric medicinal used in the Philippines.
- In Indonesia, aerial roots and leaves ground and applied to stimulate hair growth in children. (1)
- Rope: Stems are used for tying, i.e., in making footbridges and in fencing, as rope for hedges and stables; strong and said to last longer than rattan. Difficult to bend, they have to be soaked in water before use. (1)
• Antioxidant / Root and Stem: Study evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of Rhizanthes deceptor and its host, Tetrastigma papillosum for phytochemical properties and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. Results showed high level of total phenolic content from the extracts, 431.52, 323.93 and 271.38 mg GAE/g from bud extract of R. deceptor, root and stem of T. papillosum, respectively. DPPH assay showed fairly high antioxidant activity with IC50s of 32, 22, and 35 µg/mL from bud extract of R. deceptor and root and stem of T. papillosum, respectively. Results suggest natural sources of antioxidants. (4)
• Cytotoxicity by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test / Root and Stem: Results of toxicity test with BSLT showed all samples tested were toxic. An extract is toxic if it is capable of killing Artemia salina more than 50% over 24 h. At 500 and 1000 µg/mL, stems showed 98 and 100% mortality, respectively. LC50 was 277.65 ± 10.71. (see constituents above) (4)