Dampalit is a sprawling perennial herb growing up to 30 centimeters high. Stems are thick, smooth, up to 1 meter long. Leaves are green, fleshy, smooth, linear or lanceolate, 1to 7 centimeters long and 2 to 15 millimeters wide. Flowers are pink to purple.
- Found along the beach, around fishpond and in estuarine and salt marshes.
- Native to Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America.
- A rich source of ecdysterone. (see study below) (20)
Analysis of leaves yielded a fatty acid composition of palmitic acid (31.18%), oleic acid (21.15%), linolenic acid (14.18%) linoleic acid (10.63%), myristic acid (6.91%) and behenic acid (2.42%). Saturated fatty acids were higher than unsaturated fatty acids. (see study below) (1)
- Ethanolic extract yielded 22, 23-dihydrostigmasterol, benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-(Gallic acid), (2R,3R)-(-) -epicatechin and capsaicin. (see study below)
- Leaf ethanol extract yielded hexadecanoic acid, phytol, 9,12,15- Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)-, oleic acid, squalene, vitamin E, 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. (4)
- Ethanol stem extract yielded benzoic acid, 4-ethoxy-, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 1-docosanol, ethyl iso-allocholate, and rhodopin. (4)
- Analysis of leaf essential oil yielded alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, alpha-terpinene, O-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinene, bornyl acetate, tridecane, trans-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene. (5)
- Phytochemical screening of leaf yielded alkaloid, catechin, coumarin, flavonoid, phenol, steroid, tannins, terpenoid, xanthoprotein and sugar
in methanol and ethanol extracts. (see study below) (14)
- Considered antibacterial, antifungal, febrifuge.
- Reported to be a rich source of echysterone.
- Raw, imparts a salty and bitter taste.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, cholinesterase inhibitory, antiproliferative properties.
Leaves, essential oil, stems.
- It is prepared as salad or made into pickles (achara).
- Used as salty potherb.
- The salty and bitter when raw is diminished by cooking.
- Stems eaten raw or pickled.
- In Zimbabwe and South Africa, plant used to treat various infections and kidney problems.(5Zimbabwe)
- Used as remedy for fever and scurvy.
- In Haiti, used internally or externally for fever.
- In India, used by traditional healers for kidney problems and fever.
- In Tamil, India, the women of north coastal Andhra Pradesh use the color change in Sesuvium portulacastrum as an indicator of the salinity of water in their hamlet. If the plant turns deep pink it color, it warns that there has been sea water intrusion.
(7) (also see study below) (8)
- Also used as forage, for landscaping, soil covering and dune fixation, bioreclamation of saline soil, phytoremediation and carbon sequestration. (18)
- Enhancement of physical performance: 20-Hydroxyecdysone is an ingredient of some supplements that aim to enhance physical performance. In humans, it binds to the estrogen receptor beta (ERß) protein-coding gene.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Fatty Acid Composition / Leaves: Study evaluated the fatty acid methyl esters from Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves for fatty acid composition and antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic microorganisms. Analysis yielded the presence of palmitic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid and behenic acid. The FAME extract (free fatty acid methyl extract) showed the highest antibacterial and anti-candidal activities and moderate antifungal activities against tested organisms. (see constituents above) (1)
• Antimicrobial: Compared to aqueous and dichlormethane extract, the ethanolic extract showed better antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Ethanolic extract yielded 22, 23-dihydrostigmasterol, benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-(Gallic acid), (2R,3R)-(-) -epicatechin and capsaicin, assumed to be responsible for its antimicrobial property.
• Essential Oil / Leaves / Antibacterial / Antifungal / Antioxidant: Essential oil from fresh leaves exhibited antibacterial activity against Acetobacter calcoacetica, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum. On antioxidant testing, the essential oil showed antioxidant activity threshold of 15.9 mm mean zone of color retention.
• Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / CCl4-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of mangroves as alternative medicine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Of nine plants screened R. lamarckii, S. monica, A. officinalis, and Sesuvium portulacastrum showed 50% inhibitory activity to both TChE (total cholinesterase) and BChE (butyryl cholinesterase). The activity might be correlated to the alkaloid content.
• Remediation of Saline Soils: Salinity is a rising problem causing tremendous yield loses. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. Study evaluated the potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils. Sesuvium portulacastrum has exhibited greater accumulation of salt in their tissues and higher reduction of salts from saline land. Study has shown S. portulacastrum, an obligate halophyte, decreased the soil salinity and acidity. (8)
• EDTA-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Study evaluated the Pb extraction by halophyte S. portulacastrum in relation to impact of EDTA application. Results showed S. portulacastrum is a promising species for decontamination of Pb(2+)-contaminated soil and its phytoextraction potential was significantly enhanced by addition of EDTA to the polluted soil. (9)
• Pb-Phytoextraction: Study evaluated the Pb-phytoextraction potential of halophyte Sesuvium portulaceum in comparison to Brassica juncea. Lead strongly inhibited the growth of B. juncea without any impact on S. portulacastrum. Lead preferentially accumulated in the roots of both species. Results suggested S. portulacastrum is more efficient to extract Pb than B. juncea. (11)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / CCl4-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of methanol extract of whole plant on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. S. portulacastrum exhibited a significant effect showing increased levels of SOD, CAT, GP, GSH, and GRD by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. (12)
• Toxicity Screening: Sesuvium portulacastrum extracts were subjected to toxicity screening. Brine Shrimp Lethality assay showed the plant extract was toxic. At 36 mg/mL and 60 mg/mL, the extract from maceration was most toxic. Allium cepa Chromosome Aberration Assay showed the plant possesses genotoxic activity as evidenced by the presence of bridges , fragments, laggards, and vagrants. Plant extract from maceration showed 100% inhibitory effect at 60 mg/mL concentration, with most number of aberrations and least number of dividing cells. (13)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of various extracts of leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum. The extracts demonstrated a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (see constituents above) (14)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the phytochemical contents, phenolic and flavonoid compounds of various extracts of dried powder of S. portulacastrum. Phytochemical screening yielded major classes of phytochemicals. Total phenolic content (TPC) expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE) ranged from 22.03-56.70 mg QE/g DW. Antioxidant activity by various assays was highest in the diethyl ether extract. A positive correlation was found between TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS, and H2O2 scavenging assays. (15)
• Antiproliferative / Apoptosis-Inducing Potential: Study evaluated various extracts of whole plant of Sesuvium portulacastrum for antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines. Among five extracts, diethyl ether extract showed highest activity with IC50 of 288.69 ± 6.53 µg/ml for MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells) and 231.01 ±6.31 µg/ml for IMR-32 (human neuroblastoma cell line), and 182.86 ± 4.29 µg/ml for HCT-116 (human colon cancer cell line). (16)
• Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study evaluated the antitumor activity of methanolic extract of whole plant of Sesuvium portulacastrum on EAC model in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest significant antitumor activity as evidenced by decrease in tumor volume and cell viability. Hb decreased in EAC treated mice showed increase to near normal levels. (17)
• Potential Yields for Cultivation in Coastal Salt Marshes: Study showed Sesuvium can tolerate and grow under extremely high salinity concentrations of up to 68.0 ds m. Highest yield was 12.o t/ha with 8% protein content. The Na content in shoots was 10 times higher than found for K and P. (18)
• Ecdysterone: Ecdysterone has been isolated from the following plants: Achyranthes aspera, Gomphrena celosioides, Tiranthema portulacastrum, and Sesuvium portulacastrum, the latter being one of the best sources for ecdysterone. (19) Studies suggest that the anabolic effect of ecdysterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone claimed to enhance physical performance, is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Compared to prohibited anabolic agents (metandienone and others), ecdysterone showed to be more effective in recent studies performed in rats. (20) Study reports on the incorporation of mevalonic acid and cholesterol into ecdysone and ecdysterone and conversion of ecdysone into ecdysterone in the plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum. (21)
• Ecdysterone on Human Sport Exercise: Study investigated the effects of ecdysterone-containing products on human sport exercise. Results showed significantly higher increases in muscle mass in participants dosed with ecdysterone. The same hypertrophic effects were detected in vitro in C2C12 myotubes. There was significantly more pronounced increases in one-repetition bench press performance. There were no increase in liver or kidney markers to suggest toxicity. Data underline effectivity of ecdysterone supplementation with respect to sports performance. Study suggests the inclusion of ecdysterone in the list of prohibited substances and methods in sports. (20)