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Family Asteracea
Damong-mabaho
Blumea lacera (Burm. f) DC.
MALAY BLUMEA

Scientific names Common names
Baccharis auriculata (Burm. f.) DC. Damong-mabaho (Tag.)
Blumea acrocephala Miq. Lamlampaka (Bon.)
Blumea bodinieri Vaniot Tubang-kabayo (Tag.)
Blumea cernua DC. Malay blumea (Engl.)
Blumea cinerascens DC. Blumea (Engl.)
Blumea commersonii Edgew. False-ox tongue (Engl.)
Blumea cuneifolia DC.  
Blumea dregeana DC.  
Blumea elongata DC.  
Blumea fontinalis Edgew.  
Blumea glandulosa DC.  
Blumea heyneana DC.  
Blumea hieraciifolia Hook.f. & Thomson  
Blumea holosericea DC.  
Blumea hymenophylla DC.  
Blumea lacera (Burm. f.) DC.  
Blumea lactucifolia DC.  
Blumea mucera DC.  
Blumea subcapitata DC.  
Blumea thyrsoidea Sch.Bip..  
Blumea trigona DC.  
Blumea velutina H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Blumea villosa Sch.Bip. ex Hook.f.  
Conyza acrocephala Miq.  
Conyza amoena Link  
Conyza dentata Blanco  
Conyza hamiltonii Steud.  
Conyza lacera Burm. f.  
Conyza natans Buch.-Ham. ex Hook.f.  
Conyza necessaria Burm.-Ham. ex DC.  
Conyza thyrsoidea Pers.  
Conyza velutina (H.Lév. & Vaniot) H.Lév.  
Enigeron exstipulatus Schumach. & Thonn.  
Senecio velutinus H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jian shuang huang.
BENGALI: Bara kukshima, Kukurmuta, Kukursunga, Shealmotra, Shealmoti, Fao ma (Marma).
GUJARATI: Kolhar.
HINDI: Jangli muli, Kukaraaundha.
MARATHI: Bhamurda, burando
TAMIL: Kattumullangi, Narakkarandai
TELUGU: Advimulangi, Karupogaku.
SANSKRIT: Kukkuradru, Kukundara, Mridu chhada, Tamrachuda.

Botany
Damong-mabaho is a hairy or glandular, foetid herb, erect, simple or branched, very leafy, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are obovate or oblanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide, smaller towards the top, stalked, and toothed or rarely lobulated at the margins. Flowering heads are about 8 millimeters across, borne on short axillary cymes, and collected in terminal, spikelike panicles. Involucre-bracts are narrow and hairy. Corolla is yellow and the pappus is white. Fruits are achenes, not ribbed, somewhat 4-angled and smooth.

Distribution
Widely distributed in open waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Also occurs in Tropical Africa, and in India to China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Study isolated two new glycosides, the triterpenoid glycoside 19α-hydroxyurs-12-ene-24,28-dioate and the phenol glycoside 2-isoprenyl-5-isopropylphenol from the whole plant of B. lacera.
- Essential oil contains cineol, fenchone.
- Leaves yield coniferyl alcohol derivatives, campesterol, and flavones.
- Ethanolic extract of aerial parts yields hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, α-amyrin, lupeol, and ß-sitosterol.
- Root and root bark yield triterpenes and sterols.
- Essential oil of leaves yielded thymoquinol dimethyl ether as main constituent, together with β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and E-β-farnesene. (9)
- Phytochemical characterization of the plant yielded alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (21)

Properties
- Astringent, anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, febrifuge.
- Essential oil considered analgesic, hypothermic and tranquilizing.
- In Ayurveda, considered bitter, astriingent, acrid, thermogenic, errhine, anti-inflammatory, styptic, ophthalmic, digestive, anthelmintic, tonic, expectorant, diuretic, deobstruent and stimulant.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-leukemic, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers.

Uses

Edibility
- Leaves cooked and eaten as vegetable.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, a decoction of fresh flowers is given before meals for bronchitis - 30 gm in 1 liter of water, boiled to half of its volume.
- Expressed juice of leaves used as anthelmintic, especially in cases of threadworm, either internally or applied locally. Used as a invaluable remedy for Tinea Tarsi.
- Expressed juice of leaves, mixed with black pepper, given for bleeding piles. Also, used as febrifuge and astringent.
- Dried herb used as febrifuge; as astringent in hemorrhages; as deobstruent and stimulant.
- Astringent eye lotion prepared from the leaves.
- Plant used as diuretic.
- Useful for catarrhal affections, wound healing.
- In West Africa, plant prescribed as antiscorbutic.
- In India, root kept in the mouth used for buccal diseases. Tincture used for bleeding piles.
- In Uttar Pradesh, India, fresh leaf juice used twice daily for a week to treat threadworms. (22)
Others
- Repellant: In the Konkan region of India, plant used to drive away fleas and other insects.


Studies
Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial:
Study of extract of air-dried leaves of Blumea lacera yielded α-pinene-7β-O-β-d-2,6-diacetylglucopyranoside, 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone, and 3,5,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against Candida albicans, low activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (2)
Cytotoxicity: Study of 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were studied for its cytotoxic effects. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines, including three human cancer-cell lines (gastric, colon and breast). (3)
Antibacterial: Study on the antibacterial activity of 5 indigenous plant species showed greater inhibitory effect against Gram-positive bacteria. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded against Bacillus subtilis with the leaf extract of Blumea lacera. (4)
Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity: A methanolic extract of B. lacera showed very good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase inhibitors may provide clues for the development of new insect control agents, food additives and whitening agents. (8)
Antidiarrheal: Study in experimental rats showed an ethanolic extract of root of B. lacera had more antidiarrheal activity than B. eriantha, although less effective compared with atropine sulfate. (10)
Antioxidant: Study of methanol extracts of four Bangladesh medicinal plants, including B. lacera, showed antioxidant activity. BL also showed toxic action in the cytotoxicity assay against MDCK cell line. (11)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Blumea lacera against Ascaris lumbricoides and Pheretima posthuma with piperazine citrate as standard. Results showed good dose dependent anthelmintic activity. (12)
Hypoglycemic: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of B. lacera leaves on Swiss albino mice, with glibenclamide as standard. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity supporting its traditional use. (13)
Antioxidant / Toxicological Study: Bangladesh study evaluated four plants--A. capillus-veneris, Blumea lacera, C. alata, and Cissus quadrangularis for antibacterial and antioxidant (DPPH assay) potentials, together with toxicological profile. Plants showed no antibacterial activity against test isolates. Significant antioxidant activity was demonstrated by the methanol extracts. Only C. quadrangularis was devoid of toxic action in the cytotoxicity assay. (14)
Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antispasmodic activity of leaves by contractile activity on guinea pig ileum. Results showed the hexane extract possessed antispasmodic activity. (15)
Cytotoxic Effects: Study evaluated 16 Bangladesh medicinal plants for cytotoxic effects against various human cancer cell lines (gastric, colon and breast). The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines. (16)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Bradykinin Activity: Study evaluated alcoholic extract of B. lacera on acute and chronic models of inflammation. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory effect against bradykinin induced edema, significant effect against carrageenan induced edema, and significant effect against granuloma pouch and cotton pellet implantation, although less potent than phenylbutazone and betamethasone. The anti-bradykinin activity may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. (17)
Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the repellent activity of B. lacera against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, with DEET as positive control. Results showed a potential as an effective mosquito repellent, with the a direct relationship with extract concentration and repellent activity. (18)
Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of a methanolic extract of B. lacera leaves on albino rats on a pyrexia induced Brewer's yeast model. Results showed an antipyretic effect at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. (19)
Antimicrobial: Crude extract of B. lacera was evaluated for antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, steroids, gums, and reducing sugar. Petroleum ether and methanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against two bacteria and a fungus. (20)
• Pharmacologic Activities: Study evaluated a crude methanol extract of whole plant for antidiarrheal using castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion method, anxiolytic activity using hold board and open field tests,membrane stabilizing activity by hypotonic solution induced hemolysis of human RBCs, antitherothrombosis using standard streptokinase, and antidiabetic activity using in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity. The crude extract showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity. Antimicrobial assay showed better activity against tested fungi compared to bacteria. The plant exhibited significant anxiolytic activity. In vitro anti-atherothrombosis test exhibited 46.71% clot lysis. Membrane stabilizing evaluation showed inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis of RBCs. Study also showed dose dependent digestion of carybohydrates by a-amylase inhibition. Results suggest potential for many pharmaceutical applications. (23)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Updated December 2018 / June 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Two images: Blumea lacera [Malay Blumea, False Ox Tongue / © www.NatureLoveYou.sg / Click on image to go to source page / NatureLoveYou
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Flower close-up / Photo 941319: Blumea lacera / © Satish Nikam / some rights reserved / / CC by NC-SA / click on image to go to source page / Naturalist

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
A Useful Weed Blumea lacera L. / Pankaj Oudhia / Botanical.com
(2)
Monoterpene glycoside and flavonoids from Blumea lacera
/ Consolacion Ragasa, Jeannie Wong and John Rideout / JOURNAL OF NATURAL MEDICINES, Vol 61, Number 4, 474-475 / DOI: 10.1007/s11418-007-0180-5
(3)
Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts / Shaikh Uddin, Darren Grice and Evelin Tiralongo / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2011 (2011) /
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep111
(4)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS / MJ Islam, S Barua, S Das et al / J.Soil.Nature. 2 (3):26-28 (December 2008)
(5)
Triterpenoid and prenylated phenol glycosides from Blumea lacera / Rashmi Agarwal, Rahul Singh et al /
Phytochemistry, Vol 38, Issue 4, March 1995, Pages 935-93 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)00747-H
(6)
Blumea lacera / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
(7)
Kakronda / Common names / Flowers of India
(8)
Comprative Evaluation of Blumea lacera var lacera and Blumea eriantha DC for Mushroom Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity / Singh Umesh Pratap and R. Parthasarathy / International Journal of Pharmacy and Drug Research. Volume 1, Number 1 (2012), pp. 1-8
(9)
Composition of the essential oil of Blumea lacera DC. (Asteraceae) leaves from Nigeria / I. Laakso1, T. Seppänen-Laakso, R. Hiltunen1, O. Ekundayo / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol 4, Issue 2, pages 73–75, June 1989 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.2730040208
(10)
Comparative antidiarrhoel activity of ethanolic extract of root of Blumea lacera var lacera and Blumea eriantha DC on experimental animals / Singh Umesh Pratap and R. Parthasarathy / JPBMS, 2012, 17 (16)
(11)
Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and toxicological activity of crude extracts of Adiantum capillus-veneris, Blumea lacera, Cassia alata, and Cissus quadrangularis from Faridpur, Bangladesh / Halder, Luke Donald
(12)
Phytochemistryical & Anthelmintic Studies on Blumea Lacera / Aditya M Pattewar*, A.B. Dawalbaja, D.M. Gundale, P.B. Pawar, P.G. Kavtikwar, P.P. Yerawar, T.M. Pandharkar, V.A. Patawar / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 2(4): 390-396
(13)
STUDY ON HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Blumea lacera (LOCAL NAME: BONOMULA) LEAVES ON SWISS ALBINO MICE / Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Zakirul Islam, Md. Faruk Miya, Mita Munshi, Afroza Rahman Nishi, S.M. Nur Alam, Md. Nazmul Hasan / Conference Paper / El XXII Congreso de la Sociedad Italo Latinoamericana de Etnomedicina "Hernán Arguedas Soto" fue patrocinado por:, At Puntarenas, Costarica, Volume: 1
(14)
Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and toxicological activity of crude extracts of Adiantum capillus-veneris, Blumea lacera, Cassia alata, and Cissus quadrangularis from Faridpur, Bangladesh / Halder, Luke Donald / BRAC University Institutional Repository
(15)
ANTISPASMODIC STUDIES ON LEAF AND ROOT EXTRACT OF BLUMEA LACERA
/ DIXIT, ASHISH; TIWARI, PAWAN; PARASHER, DEEPESH; BHARGAVA, SARVESH / International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences;Jan2014, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p116
(16)
Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts / Shaikh J. Uddin, I. Darren Grice, and Evelin Tiralongo* / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 578092. / doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep111
(17)
Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Blumea Lacera in Rat / NAG, B. N., DUTTA, M. K. and SIKDAR. S.
(18)
Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus / S.P. Singh and P.K. Mittal / International Journal of Mosquito Research 2014; 1 (1): 10-13
(19)
Antipyretic activity of Blumea lacera leaves in albino rats. / Verma, L. K.; Singh, A. K.; Pachade, V. R.; Koley, K. M.; Vadlamudi, V. P. / Exploratory Animal and Medical Research 2012 Vol. 2 No. 1 pp. 56-59
(20)
Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the mehanolic and petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera Burm.f in Bangladesh / Khurshid Jahan, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Md. Abdul Bake / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2014; 2 (6): pp 104-108
(21)
Phytochemical and pharmacognostical studies of Blumea lacera (Roxb.) DC. / Vijay Kumar Yadav, Raghuveer Irchhiaya, A. K. Ghosh /
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Jan-Mar 2018; 12(1) Suppl: S140
(22)
Folk medicinal use of Blumea lacera (BURM. F.) DC. To cure threadworms / Amit Tomar / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2017; 5(2): pp 336-337
(23)
Pharmacological Activities of Blumea lacera (Burm. f) DC: A Medicinal Plant of Bangladesh / Abdul Khair, Mohammed Ibrahim, Qamrul Ahsan, Mohammad A Rashid / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 4(13): pp 1677-1687 / DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3054.7206









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