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Family Malvaceae
Dalupang
Kulotan / Mangkit
Urena lobata Linn.
CAESAR WEED

Di tao hua

Scientific names  Common names 
Urena lobata Linn.   Afulut (Gad.) 
Urena lobata var. americana (L. f.) Gurke   Anonongkot (Bik.) 
Urena americana L. f.   Bagouan (If.) 
Urena grandiflora DC.   Baranggot (Bik.) 
Urena trilobata Vell.   Batikil (If.) 
  Dalupang (P. Bis., Tag., Pamp.) 
  Daupang (Sul.)
  Dopong (Sul.) 
  Kolokot (Ting.) 
  Kollokollot (Ilk.) 
  Kulot (Pang.) 
  Kulit (Pang.) 
  Kulotan (Tag., Bis.) 
  Kullukullut (Ilk.) 
  Kulut-kulutan (Tag.) 
  Mangkit (Ig.) 
  Molopolo (Tag., Pamp.) 
  Palisin (Tag.) 
  Poot-si-nuang (Is.) 
  Pirikit (Neg.)
  Saligut (Bon.)
  Supang (Sub.)
  Tapanding (Mag.) 
  Caesar weed (Engl.)
  Bur mallow (Engl.)
  Congo jute (Engl.)
  Di tao hua (Chin.)
Mangkit is a shared common names for (1) Dikit-dikit (Desmodium gangeticum Linn.) and (2) Dalupang (Urena Lobata Linn.) and (3) Tayam (Desmodium heterocarpus Linn) also called mankit-parang.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiao fan tian hua, Ye mian hua, Tian fu rong, Cao mai fan tia hua, Xiao feng cao, Qian chui cao.
FRENCH: Cousin urène (Caribbean), Grand mahot-cousin (Caribbean), Jute Africain, Jute de Cuba, Jute du Congo, Jute paka, Uréna, Uréna du Brésil.
GERMAN: Kongojute.
HINDI: Bachita, Lapetua, Paka, Pathia, Unga.
MALAYALAM: Vatturam, Uthiram.
PORTUGUESE: Aguaxima (Brazil), Carrapicho-de-lavadeira (Brazil), Carrapicho-redondo (Brazil), Embira (Brazil), Guaxima, Guaxima-rósea (Brazil), Malvaísco (Brazil), Malva-de-embira (Brazil), Malva-rósea (Brazil), Uaicima.
RUSSIAN: Kongolezskij dzhut, Madagaskarskij dzhut, Urena lopastnaia.
SPANISH: Aramina, Cadillo (Cuba), Malva blanca (Cuba).
VIETNAMESE: Ke hoa dao.

Botany
Dalupang erect, branched shrub 0.6 to 2.5 meters high. Plant is exceedingly variable and more or less hairy, stems often with reddish branches. Leaves are pale beneath, ovate to suborbicular, 3 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, more or less toothed or somewhat lobed or angled, the lobes not exceeding beyond the middle of the leaf and the sinuses being usually broad and acute.
Flowers are pink or purplish, about 1.7 millimeters in diameter and borne singly in the axils of the leaves, or somewhat in panicles. Petals are 5, free above, connate below and adnate to staminal tube; staminal tube truncate or minutely toothed, anthers many. Ovary is 5-celled, branches of stigma 10. Fruits are rounded but flattened and about 7 millimeters in diameter, with the 5 carpels covered with short, barbed spines.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines In open places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 meters.

- Polymorphous in vegetative characters.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
- Nutrient root analysis yielded carbohydrate 33%, protein 1.9%, fat 1.8%, fiber 51.7%, moisture 6.6%, and ash 5%.

- Preliminary phythochemical analysis of methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. (see study below) (18)
- Study of ethyl acetate portion and n-butanol portion of a 95% ethanol extract of branches and leaves yielded ten flavonoid compounds, viz. kaempferol (1), rutin (2), quercetin (3), afzelin (4), astragalin (5), tiliroside (6), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glycopyranoside -7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (8), kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside-4'-O -β-D-glycopyranoside (9) and crenuloside (10). (24)

Properties
- Sweet tasting, slightly cooling, mucilaginous.
- Antirheumatic, antipyretic,
stomachic, vermifuge.

Parts utilized
· Roots, leaves; preferably fresh.

Uses
Edibility
· In Africa, leaves and flowers are eaten as famine food.
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, root decoction used to relieve colic.
· Infusion of root used internally as emollient and refrigerant, and externally for skin diseases associated with pain and inflammation.
· Decoction of 30-60 gms of dried roots used for enteritis and dysentery, rheumatic pains,
tonsillitis.
· Boiled and pounded leaves used as poultice for bladder and intestinal inflammations.
· Decoction of roots and leaves used to soften the skin.
· In Tahiti, the plant used as emollient, and the flowers used as expectorant.
· Root used externally for lumbago and rheumatism.
· Decoction of seeds taken internally a vermifuge.
· Poultice of fresh leaves for snake bites, sprains, and bruises.
·
Flowers used as expectorant; given for dry and inveterate coughs. Roots used as diuretic; also used externally for rheumatism.
· In
Brazil, decoction of stem and root used for severe colic.
· In
Nigeria used to treat diabetes.
· In Malaysia, extracts of leaves and roots used to treat abdominal colic, malaria, gonorrhea, fever, wounds, toothaches and rheumatism.
· In Malaysia, used for intestinal inflammation and as an emollient.
Livestock
· In the Congo, part of a herbal concoction used for abdominal inflation associated with schistosomiasis, dysentery and diarrhea. For alopecia, skin lesions and dermatoses, rubbed with the ground leaves of Lantana camara on the body.
Others
· Fiber / Paper: Bast fiber of the plant is of the jute type, more easily extracted than jute. Rope made from the fiber is fairly strong. In India, Japan and other countries, it is used as cordage material. It is a favored fiber in the manufacture of
coffee bags because it has does not affect the aroma of the coffee. Aramina fiber and Congo jute are produced in Brazil from the Urena lobata. The fiber also makes a strong paper, and said to be twice as strong as "Bank of England note pulp."


Studies
Antioxidant: Effects of Irvingia grandifolia, Urena lobata and Carica papaya on the Oxidative Status of Normal Rabbits: With recognized therapeutic effects, the plants were studied for toxic side-effects. Results showed no evidence of oxidative damage on liver and pancreatic MDA levels on rabbits, and even seemed to provide protection against lipid peroxidation. (1)
Phytochemical / Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: The study of UL leaf extract isolated 3 compounds: kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside which showed strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia. The study supports the traditional use of the plant for treatment of infectious diseases. (2)
Antidiarrheal / Seed Extract: A study reports the antidiarrheal potential of seed extracts of L dealbata and Urena lobata used in the traditional medicine by the Naga tribes of India. Both plants showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and PGE2-induced intrafluid accumulation. Both showed significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility with no signs of toxicity. Results help explain it traditional use as an antidiarrheal agent. (3)
Antibacterial: (1) A study of the methanol extract of UL showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. (2) Comparative study of methanolic extract of UL root and a standard herbal formulation showed UL has antibacterial activity.
Immunomodulatory: A study of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata showed phagocytosis and intracellular killing potency of human neutrophils. Study concludes that U lobata possesses immunomodulatory property.
(6)
Furocoumarin / Imperatorin: Studies have previously yielded mangiferin and quercetin from the aerial parts of the plant. This study isolated imperatorin, a furocoumarin, from the roots. (7)
Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study of aqueous extracts of Urena lobata (roots and leaves) in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed recognizable hypoglycemic/anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. (9)
Hypoglycemic / Long-Term Effects of Root Extract: Study in rabbits showed U. lobata aqueous extract of roots significant reduced body weight and fasting glucose. It exerted an initial toxic effect on hepatocytes and also caused bile obstruction. However, the effects were not severe and not sustained. A reduction in dose, frequency, and duration of administration may reduced the side effects observed in the study. (11)
Antioxidant / Roots: Study evaluated the methanolic extract of roots of S. retusa, T. rhomboidea, and Urena lobata for antioxidant activity. The extracts were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. Results showed all three possessed significant antioxidant activity. (14)
Antifertility / Spermatogenesis Effect: Study evaluated E. axillare leaves and Urena lobata roots for antifertility activity in adult male Wistar albino rats. Results showed E. axillare and Urena lobata reversibly inhibited spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis indicating reversible antifertility activity. (15)

Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. Extract showed potent antioxidant activity with effective scavenging of free radicals and potent cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay. (16)
Liver Effect / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of root on liver of adult Wistar rats. Results show that biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can be significantly altered with continued and increased use of the extract. (17)
Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of leaves showed antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive effects. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins present in the methanolic extract may be responsible for the antinociceptive effect. (18)
Sperm Abnormality Effects: In a pilot toxicity study in albino rats, Urena lobata caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in headless tail sperm cell abnormality, a primary sperm abnormality caused by a disruption in the course of spermatogenesis. (19)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated a methanolic extract for wound healing activity in albino rats. Results showed significant would healing activity in excision, incision, burn, and dead space wound models, comparable to the Povidone-Iodine formulation. (20)
Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal effects of L. dealbata seed extract and U. lobata leaf extract in castor oil induced diarrhea and PGE2-induced intrafluid accumulation in murine models. Both extracts showed significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Acute toxicity tests showed no sign of toxicity in the animals. (21)
Antiproliferative / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extracts of Urena lobata and Viscum album showed significant antiproliferative and antioxidant properties on MB-MDA435 breast cancer cell line. (22)
Analytical Potential of Flower Dye Extract: Study showed the flower extract of U. lobata can be used as acid-base indicator in all types of titration, with potential preference over synthetic indicators because of easy availability, inertness, ease of preparation and cost effectiveness. (23)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Urena lobata var sinuata W IMG 1353.jpg / J M Garg / 30-08-09 / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Effects of Irvingia grandifolia, Urena lobata and Carica papaya on the Oxidative Status of Normal Rabbits / Akhere A. Omonkhua / The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008 Vol 6 Number 2
(2)
Studies on antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Urena lobata Leave extract
/ Adeloye, o. Adewale / Jour of Physical and Natural Sciences / Vol 1, Issue 2, 2007 /
(3)
Antidiarrheal Activity of Lithocarpus dealbata and Urena lobata Extracts: Therapeutic Implications / Yadav, Arun K.; Tangpu, Vareishang / Pharmaceutical Biology / Volume 45, Number 3, March 2007 , pp. 223-229
(4)
Urena lobata L. Caesar weed / MALVACEAE / John K. Francis, Research Forester, U.S. Department of Agriculture
(5)
Antibacterial activity of Urena lobata root / U K Mazumder, M Gupta et al /Fitoterapia. 01/01/2002; 72(8):927-9
(6)
Immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata Linn. / Mathappan Rinku et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology™ ISSN: 1531-2976
(7)
A furocoumarin, Imperatorin isolated from Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae) / Keshab Ghosh / Molbank 2004, M382
(8)
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND THE TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE BUSHI AREA, KIVU PROVINCE, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO / Kusumba Chifundera / African Study Monographs, 19(1): 13-33, May 1998
(9)
A Study of the Anti-Diabetic Effects of Urena lobata and Sphenostylis stenocarpa in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Onoagbe, I O, Negbenebor E O et al / European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.43 No.1 (2010), pp.6-14
(10)
Evaluation of the long-term effects of Urena lobata root extracts on blood glucose and hepatic function of normal rabbits / Akhere A. OMONKHUA and Iyere O. ONOAGBE / Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences Vol. 3(8) pp. 204-213, August 2011
(11)
Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata root and a standard marketed herbal formulation / Rinku Mathappan, Prasanth V.V et al / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 5 (2010)
(12)
Sorting Urena names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher
(13)
Urena lobata L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, Chiina
(14)
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea / K.P. Lissy,* Thara K. Simon,a and M.S. Lathabb / Anc Sci Life. 2006 Jan-Jun; 25(3-4): 10–15.
(15)
Preliminary study on antifertility activity of Enicostemma axillare leaves and Urena lobata root used in Indian traditional folk medicine / Ramaiyan Dhanapala, J.Vijaya Ratnab, Malaya Guptac, I. Sarathchandrand / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 8, August 2012, Pages 616–622
(16)
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extract of Urena lobata (L) Leaves / Md. Sekendar Ali*, Kazi Omar Faruq, Md. Aziz Abdur Rahman, Md. Aslam Hossain / THE PHARMA INNOVATION - JOURNAL, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013
(17)
Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn) on the Liver of Albino Rat / I.Y. Mshelia, B.M. Dalori, L.L. Hamman and S.H. Garba / Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 5(1): 01-06, 2013
(18)
Preliminary antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity studies on leaves of Urena lobata L. / Md. Hasibul Islam, K. M. Hasanur Rahman, Shahnaz Rahman and Mohammed Rahmatullah / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):559-563
(19)
HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SPERM COUNT CHANGES FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS, CLEOME VISCOSA AND URENA LOBATA IN RATS. / OLADELE,* G. M, and ABATAN, M.O. / Nigerian Veterinary Journal 2010 31(2):170-176
(20)
Wound Healing Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Urena lobata Linn / Rinku Mathappan*, Sanjay P Umachigi and VV. Prasanth / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol. 2 (2) Apr-Jun 2013
(21)
Antidiarrheal Activity of Lithocarpus dealbata. and Urena lobata. Extracts: Therapeutic Implications / Arun K. Yadava & Vareishang Tangpua /
Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 45, Issue 3, 2007 / DOI:10.1080/13880200701213153
(22)
In vitro antiproliferative and anti-oxidant activities of methanol extracts of Urena lobata and Viscum album against breast cancer cell lines / Constant Anatole Pieme, Jeanne Ngogang, Marietta Costache / Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry , 2012 / DOI: 10.1080/02772248.2012.674135
(23)
Analytical Potentials of Dye Extracts from Urena Lobata (Mgbo) Flowers / Sunday O. Eze, Rose A. Ogbuefi / Communications in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1
(24)
Study on Chemical Constituents of Urena lobata L.I.Flavonoid Constituents / JIA Lu, JING Lin-lin, ZHOU Sheng-an, A You-mei, KONG De-yun* / Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals, 2009-09

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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