Dalanghita is a small tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong to broadly lanceolate, 4 to
10 centimeters long, with narrowly winged short petioles of about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are white,
short-pedicelled and mostly solitary.. Fruits are hesperidums, with a loose
skin and leathery pericarp, with a sweet pulp that is only fairly juicy.
Green fruit turns to yellow, greenish yellow or orange. Of many varieties, the large ones attain a size of about 10 centimeters in diameter and about 9 centimeters thick. Pulp is sweet and only fairly juicy.
- Widely scattered in cultivation
in the Philippines.
- Large scale cultivation in the Batangas Province in Luzon.
- Probably a native of southern China.
- Now found in all warm countries.
- Rind: Volatile
oil, 14-19.33%-limonene, 92% and methylanthranillic acid, methyl
- Juice: Citric acid, 0.35% - 1.2%; vitamins A, B, and C; hesperidin.
- Volatile oil of fruit peels yielded mainly monoterpenes (99.1%) constituting l-limonene (92.4%), g-terpene (2.6%), and ß-phellandrene (1.8%).
- Peel extracts yielded reducing sugars, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins. (12)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of C. reticulata peel yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, and phenolic derivatives. (see study below ) (16)
- Study of leaf and fruit peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Santra for essential oils
by GLC and GLC/MS analysis yielded 131 components. Leaf oil yielded 109 compounds with sabinene (23.10%) and linalool (21.20%) as major components. Fruit peel yielded 64 components with limonene (79.64%) as most abundant. (see study below) (17)
- Ethanolic peel extract yielded maltol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro- 4h-pyran-4-one, glycerol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 2-methoxy-4vinylphenol, 3-[n'-(3h-indol-3-ylmethylene)- hydrazino]-5-methyl-[1,2,4]triazol-4- ylamine, nitroisobutylglycerol, 1,6-anhydro-.beta.-d-glucopyranose, 3,3',4',5,5',7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, butylphosphonic acid, pentyl 4-(2- phenylprop-2-yl)phenyl ester, 4h-1-benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4- dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trimethoxy. (18)
- Rind preparation
tastes bitter, with mild nature.
The fibers of the rind tastes bitter-sweet,
used and preparation
rind and seeds.
· Rind preparation: gather the rind of any ripe citrus
fruit and sun-dry, either whole or cut into thin slices.
· Seed preparation: place the seed in a container, add
an amount of water equal to one fiftieth of the total weight
of the seeds, store for a short time and put into a dry kettle.
Heat with a weak fire until the materials turn light yellow and
smell fragrant. Sun-dry the material. Crush before using.
· Fruit is edible; a good source
of vitamin C.
· Rind used for flavoring.
- The seed preparation has pain relieving effect.
In Malaya, a decoction
of the roots is used in dysentery.
Powdered leaves with leaves of Areca
catechu may be drunk for stomach ache.
An infusion of the fresh juice
is used as a cleanser or stimulant of wound surfaces.
A lotion of the
boiled leaves is used hot on painful places and swelling in Malaya.
Seed preparation tastes bitter with pain relieving effect.
· For nausea and fainting, rind squeezed near nostril for irritant
· Decoction of roots used for cough and fever.
· For coughs, boil a concentrated decoction of the rind and drink.
· For anorexia and vomiting: add fresh rhizome of ginger to a
concentrated decoction of the rind and drink.
· Decoction of dried flowers used for diarrhea.
· Decoction of rind or peel used to regulate menses.
· Leg bath of boiled leaves used for rheumatism, and painful
and swollen legs.
· Oil from rind used for stomach problems; and as liniment for
gout, rheumatism and other painful swellings.
· In traditional Chinese medicine. pericarp used for regulating Qi and expelling phlegm; also used for treatment of lung diseases. (26) Dried fruit peels used to alleviate cough and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract/ (39)
Note: The folkloric applications are similar for
all Citrus species.
· Phytochemical: The volatile compounds in three selected Asian
citrus fruits (C. nobilis, C. sinensis, C reticulata) were characterized.
A total of 51 compounds were detected in C. nobilis, 41 in Dalandan:
terpenes, carbonyls, alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons, with limonene
as the main compound.
/ Naringin Citrus Flavonone: Naringin, a prominent
bioflavonoids in grapefruit and other citrus fruits, is present in C.
nobilis. Study on the free radical scavenging of naringin revealed a
dose-dependent scavenging and demonstrates it can protect mouse bone
marrow cells against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. (2)
· Nobiletin / Sebum Reduction / Acne: Nobiletin, a flavonoid present in the peel of many citrus fruits, especially prevalent in C nobilis, in a mixture with ethanol and glycerol, applied to the ears of hamsters, once daily for 14 days, showed a decrease in the amount of triacylglycerol on the skin surface, reduced the size of and amount of oil produced by the sebaceous glands. Triacylglycerol is the main constituent of mammalian fat and a major component of sebum. Results suggest a potential in the treatment of acne. (3)
· Essential Oil / Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Essential oil of C. reticulata was investigated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic male wistar rats. Results showed the essential oil exhibited significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect in hyperglycemic rats. (6)
· Volatile Oil / Antibacterial: Volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic microbial strains: E. coli. S. aureus, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. (7)
· Lipid and Bone Density Benefits: An alternative therapy to estrogen deficiency is the use of phytoestrogen. C. reticulata's peel contain flavanone and polimethoxyflavone believed to provide an estrogenic effect. Study of CR peel extract showed beneficial modulation of bone density and blood cholesterol profile in ovariectomized rats in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (8)
· Antioxidant: Mandarin peel, a waste product of juice production yielded flavonoids, of which hesperidin was the most dominant. Extract study showed prominent free radical scavenging towards DPPH. Results suggest mandarin peel powers can be used as substitute for synthetic antioxidants, providing health benefits and increasing food shelf-life. (9)
· Fumigant / Essential Oils: Study showed a potential for C. reticulata oil as a control agent against stored-product insect pest, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. (10)
· Mosquito Repellency / Essential Oil / Rinds / Aedes aegypti: Results suggest essential oil from Citrus nobilis rinds could be a component of mosquito repellent products, and present an alternative to DEET and Picaridin. (11) Study evaluated the mosquito repellent activity of phytochemical extracts from peels of five citrus species, including C. reticulata. Results suggest active ingredients confused the olfactory receptors of the mosquito. Study showed good promise for topical repellence against mosquitoes. (22)
· Essential Oil Gel from Rind: Study evaluated the essential oil from rind for effectiveness as antibacterial to E. coli and S. aureus. Results showed the effective inhibitory concentration of essential oil was 0.5% for E. coli, and 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% for S. aureus. (13)
· Volatile Components of Flower, Leaf and Peel: Study evaluated the volatile flavor components of flower, leaf, and peel of C. nobilis Lour. var deliciosa. Flower yielded 39 components; leaf, 39, and peel, 25, including aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The major flavor components were linalool, limonene, sabinene, α-pinene, ß-myrcene, terpinene-4-OI, (E)-ß-ocimene and y-terpinene. Aldehyde content is one of the most important indicators of quality, and was found highest in the flower oil. (14)
• Anti-Aging / Antioxidant / Anti-Collagenase and Anti-Elastase / Peel: Study evaluated the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in the hot alcoholic extract (AC).than the cold alcoholic extract (CAE). Likewise, HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than the CAE. Results suggest the peel can be utilized as anti-wrinkle agent in skin care formulations. (see constituents above) (16)
• Leaf and Peel Essential Oil: Study of leaf and fruit peel of C. reticulta cv Santra yielded 131 components. Study evaluated the reuse and recycling of Egyptian santra mandarin leaves and fruit peel as common waste products. Results suggest suggest the use of the the waste products for the production of more valuable pure compounds such as limonene, sabinene, and linalool. (17)
• Inhibitory Effect on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis / Amines: Study evaluated the amines from the pericarp of C. reticulata using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs). Of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) showed the most potent inhibitory effect. In vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis showed oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydoxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Results showed a therapeutic potential in the treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. (19)
· Anthelmintic / Anti-Schistosoma / Root: Study investigated the effect of S. mansoni infection of mice livers after treatment with ethanolic extract of C. reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), an anti-schistosomal drug. Results showed treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all previous enzyme activities together with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. (20)
• Antibacterial / Increased Shelf-Life / Seeds: Study evaluated the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms to seed extracts of C. reticulata and Citrillus vulgaris. The seed extracts of CR and CV exhibited bactericidal and fungicidal activity against all tested microorganisms. B. subtilis showed highest sensitivity. Results showed the ethanol extracts of C. reticulata and Citrillus vulgaris have potential application for shelf life extension and as a pharmaceutical preparation. (21)
/ Neuroprotective / Peel: Study of nobiletin-rich C. reticulata peel showed prevention of progression of cognitive impairment in donepazil-preadministered Alzheimer's disease patients. In this study, Citrus unshiu immature peel extract and nobiletin showed neuroprotective activity via inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HT22 cells through MSPK activity, and the Bax and Bcl-2 pathway. (23)
• Antiviral /
Polymethoxylated Flavones / Pericarps: Study found the supercrtical fluid extract of "Guangchenpi" possessed in-vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncitial virus (RSV). Bioassay-guided isolation yielded five active polymethoxylated flavones (1-5). Tangeretin (2) and nobiletin (3) showed better anti-RSV effect compared to positive control ribavirin. Tageretin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation on HEp-2 cells. The flavone mainly affected intracellular replication of RSV, and could also inhibit RSV entry into the HEp-2 cells. Results suggest potential application of the supercrtical fluid extract and tangeretin in the treatment and prevention of RSV infection. (24)
• Citrus reticulata Semen: Citrus reticulata semen, a traditional Chinese medicinal material, possess desirable medicinal and dietary properties. Study reports on a method combining ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry for validation and analysis of chemical components of C. reticula semen. Analysis identified 35 constituents, including 21 flavonoids and 14 other compounds. Contents of limonin, hesperidin, nobiletin, synephrine and tangeretin in the semen was 11.1666, 0.0404, 0.0092, 0.0255, 0.0087 mg/g, respectively. (25)
• Mechanism of Inhibitory Effect on Pulmonary Fibrosis: Study evaluated the inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis of alkaline extract from ethanol extract of C. reticulata. Results showed the extract possessed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of MRC-5 and a preventive effect on BLM-inducued pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanisms of effects may be through upregulation of MMP-9 expression and inhibition of expressions of TNF-α and TIMP-1. (26)
• Suppression of LPS-Stimulated NO Production: Study evaluated evaluated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.8 macrophage cells. Results showed C. reticulate may suppress LPS-stimulated NO production by inhibition of NF-kB. (27)
• Suppression of LPS-Stimulated NO Production: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neuro-degenerative disease associated with reduced cellular level of choliinesterase, as well as formation and deposition of amyloid plaques (Aß) considered to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AD. Study evaluated the BACE1 and ChE inhibitory properties of compounds from Cajanus cajan and Citrus reticulata, traditionally used in the management of neurodegenerative disease and their protective effects of chemical-induced cognitive impairment. Using in-silico methods, 119 compounds from C. cajan and C. reticulata were docked with AChE, BChE, and BACE1. Of the compounds screened, three showed remarkable binding affinity for the three protein targets. Compound 94, naphthalen-2-yl-acetic acid, 6-hydroxy-6-meth7yyl-cyclodecyl ester, from C. reticulata possibly contributed, at least in part to the neurotherapeutic potentials of the plant. (28)
• Wound Healing / Antioxidant / Peel Essential Oil: Study evaluated citrus peel derived essential oil for antibacterial and wound healing activity. Peels biomass of citrus fruits is usually considered garbage. Essential oil was recovered by hydrodistillation of freshly collected peels. GC-MS analysis showed various components dominated by D-limonene at 89.31%. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 14.63 ± 0.95 mg CE/g and 17.03% ± 3.24 mg GAE/g respectively. DPPH activity was 73.32% Antibacterial activity was higher against E. coli. In vivo studies showed significant reduction in wound diameter in EO treatment groups. The EO was non-irritant in draize scoring. (29)
• Anti-Leukemia Compounds / Pericarpium: Study evaluated the in vitro effects of extracts from the pericarpium of Citrus reticulata (cv Jiao Gam) on the growth and differentiation of murine myeloid leukemic cell clone WEHI 3B. The extracts not only inhibited the proliferation of JCS cells in a dose dependent manner, but also induced differential of JCS cells into macrophages and granulocytes. In vitro clonogenicity and in vivo growth of PCJR treated cells leukemic cells in BALB/c mice were significantly decreased. Survival rate of mice receiving PCRJ treated JCS tumor cells was increased. H-NMR, C-NMR, and GC-MS isolated two active components identified as nobiletin and tangeretin. (30)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the antihhyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of C. reticulata fruit peel hydroalcoholic extract and two flavonoids, hesperidin and quercetin in nicotinamide-STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. GC-MS analysis yielded multiple flavonoids including hesperidin, quercetin, naringin, and polymethoxylated flavones (nobiletin and tangeretin). Results showed the fruit peel extract, hesperidin, and quercetin have potent antidiabetic effects, which may be mediated through insulinotropic effects and insulin-sensitizing actions. Also, the alleviation of the antioxidant defense system by the extract, hesperidin and naringin may enhance the antidiabetic actions and improve liver and kidney functions in NA/STZ-induced diabetic rats. (31)
• Facilitation of cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB Signaling / /Nobiletin-Rich Peel Extract: cAMP/PKA/ERK/ CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated trascription is crucial for learning and memory. Previous study found the natural compound nobiletin stimulates intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Results suggest the four compounds (sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin) and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocammpal neurons. (32)
• Antiasthmatic / Alkaloid Compounds from Pericarpium: Stud evaluated the in vivo antiasthmatic activity of 'Chachi' using a histamine-induced experimental asthma model in Guinea pigs. Two alkaloid-type compounds were identified the alkaloid fraction: synephrine and stachydrine. The alkaloid fraction and synephrine showed dose dependent effect against histamine-induced experimental asthma. (33)
• Anticancer / Effect pm Sarcoma-180 Cells Cycle: Study evaluated the in vivo anticancer activity of C. reticulata extract in a tumor model of Sarcoma-180 cells, Heps cells, EAC cells implanted in mice.. The extract showed marked anticancer activity on Sarcoma-180 cells and Heps cells and no marked activity on EAC cells. There was induced apoptosis on Sarcoma-180 cells. (34)
• Protection of Uroepithelium Against UTI / Seeds: Study evaluated the protective effect of Citrus reticulata seed extract on the uroepithelium against urinary tract infection. Human bladder cell lines T24 and 5637 were used in a cell culture infection model. Results showed C. reticulata treatment decreased ß1 integrin expression. Citrus reticulata exhibited a protective effect on the uroepithelium as evidenced by reduced bacterial invasion of uroepithelial cells. Study suggest a therapeutic potential in preventing UTI. (35)
• Induced Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells / Immature Peel: Study evaluated the antiproliferative effects of extract of immature tangerine peel on human gastric cancer cell line SNU-668.. At 50 µg/ml, the CR increased the apoptosis of human gastric cells with typical apoptotic characteristics,, including morphological changes of chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation. There was reduced expression of BAX and CASP-3 protein expression. Results suggest induction of apoptosis through the caspase-3 pathway in human gastric cancer cell. (36)
• Serum Pharmacochemistry / Peel: Study evaluated the serum pharmacochemistry of extract from Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' peel using HPLC fingerprinting. Seventeen compounds absorbed into blood were found in medicated serum,. five of which were original constituents of the peel whiles might be metabolites. Polymethoxylated flavones, nobiletin and hesperetin could be bioactive components of the C. reticulata peel. (37)
· Antifungal / Polymethoxylated Flavones / Peel: Study of peels isolated polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), identified and quantitated as tangeretin (33.87%), nobiletin (20.98%), 5-demethylnobiletin (3.52%), tetramethyl-o-scutellarein (1.61%),tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein (1.23%), pentamethoxyflavone (1.08%), and sinensetn (0.35%). The PMFs showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The antfungal activity may be due to the permeability change of cytomembrane and the fragility of cell walls caused by chitin inhibition. (38)
· Effect of Heat Treatment on Anti-Inflammatory Effect / Peel: Respiratory tract infections are usually associated with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO). The enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant effect of fruit peels has also been documented. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts. Results showed significantly elevated anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel after 100°C heat treatment in a time-dependent manner. The major NO-suppressing mechanism of the peel extract was inhibition of iNOS gene expression. (39)
· Cardiovascular Benefits Through Enzyme Inhibition / Peel: Study investigated the effect of methanolic extracts from citrus peels (Citrus limon/lime, C. reticulata/tangerine, Ci maxima/shaddock) on enzymes relevant to management of cardiovascular diseases (monoamine oxidase/MAO,, phosphodiesterase-5/PDE-5, and angiotensin-1converting enzyme/ACE). Results showed inhibition of MAO, PDE-5, and ACE and pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in rat heart homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner. (40)
· Chemopreventive / Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration / Fruit Flavonoids: Among different fruit parts viz. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs, flavedo showed significant inhibitory effect on three cancer cell lines (HepG2, HL-60, and MDA-MB-231). From the Ougan flavedo three flavanone glycosides, naringin, hesperidin neohesperidin, along with four polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin and 5-methoxynobiletin were purified from the flavedo. Cytotoxicity assay showed two flavanone aglycones and four PMFs exhibited significant antiproliferative activity on three cancer cells. Wound healing assay showed nobiletin and tangeretin exerted inhibitory effects on SKOV3 cell migration as well. Results showed the flavonoids may have preventive or therapeutic potential for inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. (41)
· Antiobesity Therapy for Adolescents / Peel / Clinical Trial: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the potential benefits of water extract of C. reticulata peel on obesity and fat reduction in 40 adolescents from both sexes, aged 12-18. Group A received 800 mg of dry extract daily while group B received placebo, with both groups receiving three meals daily (2000 kcal/day). Results showed reduction in BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference along with reductions of total cholesterol and triglycerides in group A. The effects were attributed to the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in the extract. Citrus peel extract is a cheap source of neutraceuticals and safe dietary means for management of obesity. (42)
• Anti-Hyperalgesic / Peels: Study evaluated the influence of ethanolic crude extract from peels of C. reticulata and possible mechanisms of action in different animal models of pain. The extract reduced hyperalgesic in the second phase of formalin test. the carrageenan model, and in Complete Freund's Adjuvant model. The possible contribution of opioidergic and adenosinergic systems in the anti-hyperalgesic effect was noted after treatment, with non-selective antagonists for both systems, which produced reversal effects. (43)
Also see: Dalandan
- Widely cultivated for commercial fruiting.
- Essential oils in the cybermarket.