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Family Anonaceae
Dalairo
Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray.
Meng hao zi

Scientific names Common names
Anaxagorea fruticosa (T. & Binn. Ex Miq) Scheff. Bagang-aso (Bik.)
Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray. Bobonoyang (C. Bis.)
Anaxagorea zeylanica Hook. f. & Thomson Dalairo (Tag.)
Rhopalocarpus fruticosa Teijsm. & Binn. Ex. Miq. Kahoi-dalaga (Tag.)
  Koles-talano (Tag.)
  Pauli (P. Bis.)
  Sagaak (Tag.)
  Talaylo (Tag.)
  Chang bing deng tai shu (Chin.)
Kahoi-dalaga is a local name shared by (1) Mussaenda philippica, galas-virgen, and (2) Anaxagorea luzonensis, dalairo.
Anaxagorea luzonensis A.Gray is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Meng hao zi
THAI: Kamlang wua taloeng.

Botany
Dalairo is a low undershrub. Leaves are oblong, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, smooth, and obtuse at the ends. Flower is solitary, leaf-opposed, and about 2 centimeters in diameter. Sepals are ovate, and the petals ovate or oblong. Fruit is clavate, and 3 to 4 centimeters long. Seeds are shining, black, and obovoid.

Distribution
- In forests chiefly at medium altitudes, locally abundant in Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro; Biliran; Leyte; Negros; and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Sri Lanka, Burma, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Indo-China, and Java.

Constituents
- Study yielded prenylflavonoids.

- Study of bark yielded five new xanthones, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-4-prenylxanthone (1), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-prenylxanthone (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl) xanthone (3), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-4-prenylxanthone (4), 3,6-dihydroxy-1,5-dimethoxyxanthone (5) and one new flavonoid, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-2'-methoxyflavone (6) along with seven known xanthones and seven known flavonoids. (See study below) (2)
- Yields phytoestrogen 8-Isopentenylnaringenin (prenylflavonoid).
- Study of bark yielded five new xanthones, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-4-prenylxanthone (1), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-prenylxanthone (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl) xanthone (3), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-4-prenylxanthone (4), 3,6-dihydroxy-1,5-dimethoxyxanthone (5) and one new flavonoid, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-2'-methoxyflavone (6) along with seven known xanthones and seven known flavonoids. (see study below) (11)

Properties
Considered tonic, stomachic, antipyretic.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- Fresh leaves used as topical for articular rheumatism.
- In Thailand, used as a traditional medicine as a blood tonic, stomachic, antipyretic and treatment of muscular pain.
Others
Erectile dysfunction: Marketed as: (1) blood tonic and muscle strengthening properties. (2) as herbal supplement for erectile dysfunction or impotence problems.


Studies
Constituents / Antioxidant:
Study of the bark of A. luzonensis yielded five new xanthones and one new flavonoid, along with seven known xanthones and seven known flavonoids. Almost all the flavonoids and one xanthone showed antioxidant activity. Compound 6, new flavonoid (3,5,7,49-tetrahydroxy-29-methoxyflavone), scavenged the DPPH radical to the same degree as a-tocopherol.
Constituents / Antioxidant: A new flavonoid, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-2'-methoxyflavone, isolated on autoxidation of epinephrine Hcl exhibited an effective antioxidant potency. (1)
Vasorelaxant / Antioxidant: Study of dichloromethane extract of Anaxagorea luzonensis showed concentration-dependent vasorelaxation. Results in the rat isolated aorta showed vasorelaxant responses, in part, mediated via the endothelium and NO-dependent pathways. Results provide evidence to support it use as a vasodilator agent. (3)
Tyrosinase Inhibition / Antioxidant: Study showed anti-tyrosinase activity and scavenging activity toward DPPH assay. Results demonstrate potential pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. (4)
Prenylflavonoids / Estrogen Agonist Activity: Study isolated 8-isopentenylnaringenin that exhibited an estrogen agonist activity at an order greater than genistein. (5)
Xanthones / Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity: Heartwood yielded five xanthones. Xanthone 3, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-prenylxanthone, exhibited the highest in vitro activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrlcholinesterase (BChE). Through enhancement of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, cholinesterase inhibitory activity may have an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (7)
Antimicrobial Activity / Essential Oils: Study evaluated the essential oils from underground parts (roots and rhizomes) and aerial parts (stems, leaves, and flowers). Main constituents of aerial part oil were toluene, tetradecanoic acid, linalool, and caryophyllene oxide; underground parts were caryophyllene oxide, ß-damascenone, and ß-ionone. Essential oils from the root exhibited high antimicrobial activity against human pathogen K. pneumoniae. Essential oil of aerial parts displayed varying activity against all tested strains. (8)
Acute Oral Toxicity Testing: Study evaluated the safety of 95% ethanolic extract of Anaxagorea luzonensis and Ziziphus attopensis in rats. Results showed the extracts are safe to use as a material source for herbal drug development. (9)
Flavonoids and Xanthones / Antioxidants: Study of bark of Anaxagorea luzonensis yielded five new xanthones and one new flavonoid, along with seven known xanthones and seven known flavonoids. Almost all flavonoids and one xanthone showed antioxidant activity. (see constituents above) (11)
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitory Activity: Study isolated five flavonoids, one isoflavone and five xanthones. Of the eleven isolated compounds, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-prenylxanthone (3) showed to be a relatively potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), with an IC50 value of 3.0 µM. The presence of the C-4 prenyl residue attached to the xanthone core is correlated with the significant PDE5 inhibitory activity. (12)
Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Xanthones/ Heartwood: Study isolated five xanthones from the heartwood of A. luzonensis. Xanthone 3 (1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-prenylxanthone) showed highest in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Capsules in the cybermarket; marketed for erectile dysfunction.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update December 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / A. luzoniensis Flower / Copyright © 2009 by P.B. Pelser (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL14447] / / click on image to go to source page / PhytoImages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / A. luzoniensis FLOWERING PLANT / Copyright © 2009 by P.B. Pelser (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL14447] / / click on image to go to source page / PhytoImages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant Effect of New Flavonoid Isolated from Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray on Autoxidation of Epinephrine Hydrochloride / Takeda T, Yokoyama S / Material Techonology, Vol 18, No. 6, Pp 238-241
(2)
Studies on the Constituents of Anaxagorea luzonensis A. GRAY
/ Ryoko Gonda, Tadahiro Takeda and T Akiyama / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48(8) 1219—1222 (2000)
(3)
The Vasorelaxant Effects of Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Grey in the Rat Aorta / P. Tep-Areenan and P. Sawasdee / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol 7, No 1, Pp 119-124/ DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.119.124
(4)
PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTI-TYROSINASE ACTIVITY OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A GRAY / Wiyada Nooring / MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMME IN PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY(INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME)
(5)
Prenylflavonoids: a new class of non-steroidal phytoestrogen . Isolation OF 8-isopentenylnaringenin and an initial study on its structure-activity relationship / Planta Med. 1998 Aug;64(6):511-5
(6)
Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray (accepted name)
/ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(7)
Cholinesterase inhibitory activities of xanthones from Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray / Chalisa Sabphon, Thiendanai Sermboonpaisarn and Pattara Sawasdee* / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(21), pp. 3781-3785, 9 June, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.346
(8)
Studies on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils and alcoholic extracts of Gentiana asclepiadea L. / Vladimir Mihailović*, Nenad Vuković, Neda Nićiforović, Slavica Solujić, Milan Mladenović, Pavle Mašković and Milan S. Stanković / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(7), pp. 1164-1174, 4 April, 2011
(9)
ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY TEST OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A. GREY AND ZIZIPHUS ATTOPENSIS PIERRE. EXTRACT IN RATS / Kunhachan, Phanukit; Sematong, Tuanta; Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Poonsiri, Chantara; Khayungarnnawee, Amonrat; Laovitihayanggoon, Sarunya; Reungpathanapong, Sareeya; Nakakaew, Sawai; Kaeynok, Vicheon; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana / Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences;SUP2012, Vol. 36, p51
(10)
Anaxagorea luzonensis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Studies on the constituents of Anaxagorea luzonensis A. GRAY.
/ Gonda R, Takeda T, Akiyama T. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Aug;48(8):1219-22.
(12)
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Flavonoids and Xanthones from Anaxagorea luzonensis / Chalisa Sabphon, Prapapan Temkitthawon, Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Pattara Sawasdee / Natural product communications, 02/2015; 10(2):301-3.
(13)
Cholinesterase inhibitory activities of xanthones from Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray
/ Chalisa Sabphon, Thiendanai Sermboonpaisarn and Pattara Sawasdee* / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(21), pp. 3781-3785, 9 June, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.346

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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