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Family Bignoniaceae
Cujete
Crescentia cujete Linn.
CALABASH TREE

Hu lu shu

Scientific names Common names
Crescentia acuminata Kunth Kalabas (Tag.)
Crescentia arborea Raf. Kalbas (Tag.)
Crescentia cuneifolia Gardn. Cujete (Tag.)
Crescentia cujete Linn. Ayale (Engl.)
Crescentia fasciculataa Miers. Ayale (Engl.)
Crescentia plectantha Miers. Calabash tree (Engl.)
Crescentia pumila Raf. Gourd tree (Engl.)
Crescentia spathulata Miers. Kalebas (Engl.)
  Miracle fruit (Engl.)
Crescentia cujete is one of the Philippine plants refered to as "miracle fruit." Another is Synsepalum dulcificumcujete L. Katakataka (Bryophyllum pinnatum) is referred to as "miralce plant," among other names.
Crescentia cujete L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hu lu shu.
COLUMBIAN: Toyumo.
CUBAN: Güira.
DUTCH: Kalebasboom.
ECUADOR: Mate.
FRENCH: Calebassier.
GERMAN: Kalebassenbaum.
ITALIAN: Calebassa Guiana, Icara.
MEXICO: Jicaro.
NIGARAGUAN: Saabang.
PANAMANIAN: Totumo.
PERU: Pate.
PORTUGUESE: Coité, Cuieira, Cuité, Cujeté.
SPANISH: Calabacero, Crescencia, Guacal, Guiro, Jicara, Morro, Cujete.

Botany
Cujete is a smooth, much-branched tree growing to a height of 4 to 5 meters. Branches are arching with close-set clusters of leaves. Leaves are alternate, often fascicled at the nodes, oblanceolate, 5 to 17 centimeters long, glossy at the upper surface, blunt at the tip and narrowed at the base. Flowers develop from the buds that grow from the main trunk, yellowish and sometimes veined with purple, with a slightly foetid odor, occurring singly or in pairs at the leaf axils, stalked and about 6 centimeters long, and opens in the evening. Calyx is about 2 centimeters long, and split into two lobes. Fruit is short-stemmed, rounded, oval or oblong, green or purplish, 15 to 20 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes.
- Recently introduced from tropical America.

Constituents
• Phytochemical studies of the fresh fruit pulp report the presence of crescentic acid, tartaric acid, citric, and tannic acids, two resins and a coloring matter than resembles indigo.
• Studies yielded tartaric acid, cianhidric acid, citric acid, crescentic acid, tannins, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, alpha and beta amyrins, estearic acid, palmitic acid.
• Study yielded flavonoids quercetin, apigenin with anti-inflammatory, antihemorrhagic and anti-platelet aggregation activities.
• Leaves have yielded naphthoquinone, iridoid glycosides, aucubin, plumieride, and asperuloside.
• Phytochemical study of the fruit yielded eight new compounds, along with four known compounds, acanthoside D, ß-D-glucopransoyl benzoate, (R)-1-0-ß-glucopyranosyl-1,3-octanediol
.
• Fruit yielded four new 11-nor-iridoids: 6-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-10-deoxyeucommiol, 6-O-benzoyl-10-deoxyeucommiol, 6-O-benzoyl-dihydrocatalpolgenine (a mixture of 3 and 4) with two known iridoids, ningpogenin and 6-O-p-hydroxybenzoylaucubin. (14)
• Study analyzed nutritive and anti-nutritive compositions of fruit pulp in both wet and dry samples: ash 3.74% (dry), ether extract, 4.38% (wet); crude protein 7.67% W, 10.01% D; crude fiber 4.88% D; carbohydrate 15.65% W, 68.13% D. Sodium (Na) showed high value of 3.20% W and o.32% D. (see study below) (3)
• Phytochemical study on the fruit yielded saponins, flavonoid, cardenolides, tannins, and phenol, as well as the presence of hydrogen cyanide. Results also showed relatively low mean concentrations for heavy metals, but high mean concentrations for manganese, iron, zinc, and copper. Values for fat, protein, nitrogen, crude fibre, moisture content, sucrose, fructose, galactose and energy content are quite high viz; 1.13, 8.35, 1.34, 4.28, 84.92, 59.86, 25.09, 18.24 and 88.69%, respectively. (16)
• Constituent analysis of sarcocarp yielded 18 compounds, viz., ningpogenin (1), 6-O-p-hydroxylbenzoyl-aucubin (2), 3,3′-bisdemethylpinoresinol (3), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (4), ergosta-4,6,8 (4), 22-dien-3-one (5), cerevisterol (6), 5α,8α-epidiory-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (7), β-sitosterol (8), daucosterol (9), 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (10), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (11), sesquiterpene (12), 4-hydroxybenzonicacid (13), benzoic acid (14), p-hydroxybenzylethanol (15), p-hydroxybenzylalcohol (16), D-allitol (17), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde (18). (27)
• Study of C. cujete seed and oil showed saturated acid content of mixed fatty acids: saturated acids 19.7%, oleic acid 59.4%, linoleic acid 19.3%, and linolenic acid 1.6%. In comparison of seed oil with peanut and olive oil, except for the presence of small amount of linolenic acid in peanut the oils are similar. (28)
• Study of essential oil by hydrodistillation of leaf by GC-MS analysis yielded 12 compounds accounting for 98.2% of total oil contents. Major constituents were kaur-16-ene (33.6%) and phytol (29.9%), along with trans-pinane (8.3%) and hexadecanal (4.6%), (Z)-9, 17-occtadecadienal (3.4%), neophytadiene (2.3%), selina-4(15), 6-diene (1.2%), and allo-aromadendrene (1.0%). (29)
• Phytochemical screening of fruits yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, phytosterols, and terpenoids in the fresh cujete fruit. (see study below) (33)
• Proximate composition analysis of leaves yielded carbohydrate (40.46%), crude protein (16.51%). crude fiber (19.71%), crude fat (2.91%), ash (9.77%), and moisture (11.03%), while screening confirmed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. Mineral analysis (mg/g) yielded in decreasing order: Ca (6.0) > K (5.0) > Mg (2.2) > P (1.5) > Na (0.2) Fe=Zn (0.6) . Cu=Mn (0.03). (37)
• Study of stem bark yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, resins, carbohydrates, proteins and fatty oils. (see study below) (38)
- Bioassay-directed fractionations of MeCOEt extract C. cujete isolated (25-3S)-3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-α-lapachone (1), (2R)-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-α-lapachone (2), (2R)-5- methoxydehydroiso-α-lapachone (3), 2-((1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho(2,3,-b)furan-4,9-dione (4), 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)nahtho(2,3-b)furan-4,9-dione (5), 2-isopropenylnapththo92,3-b)furan-4,9-dione (6), and 5-hydroxydehydroiso-α-lapachone (7). (see study below) (4)

Properties
• Fruit considered aperient, laxative, expectorant.
• Considered anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, laxative.

• Studies have suggested antibacterial, antidiabetic, snake venom neutralizing, anti-angiogenic, CNS depressant, antimycobacterial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, wound healing, anti-platelet aggregation, anthelmintic properties.

Parts used
Fruit, bark, leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
• In India, used as a pectoral, the poultice of pulp is applied to the chest.
• In the West Indies, syrup prepared from the pulp used for dysentery and skin diseases; also used as pectoral.
• In Rio de Janeiro, the alcoholic extract of the not-quite ripe fruit used to relieve constipation
• For erysipelas, the fresh pulp is boiled in water to form a black paste, mixed and boiled with vinegar, spread on linen for dermatologic application.
• The bark is used for mucoid diarrhea.
• Fruit pulp used as laxative and expectorant.
• In the Antilles and Western Africa, fruit pulp macerated in water is considered depurative, cooling and febrifuge, and applied to burns and headaches.
• In West Africa, fruit roasted in ashes is purgative and diuretic.
• In Sumatra, bark decoction used to clean wounds and pounded leaves used as poultice for headaches.
• Internally, leaves used as diuretic.
• Throughout the Caribbean, used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory
• In the Antilles, fresh tops and leaves are ground and used as topical for wounds and as cicatrizant.
• In Venezuela, decoction of bark used for diarrhea. Also, used to treat hematomas and tumors.
• In Costa Rica, used as purgative.
• In Cote-d'Ivoire, used for hypertension because of its diuretic effect.
• In Columbia, used for respiratory afflictions.
• In Vietnam, used as expectorant, antitussive, laxative and stomachic.
Fruit decoction used to treat diarrhea, stomachaches, cold, bronchitis, cough, asthma, and urethritis.
• In Haiti, the fruit of Crescentia cujete is part of the herbal mixtures reported in its traditional medicine.
In the province of Camaguey in Cuba, is considered a panacea.
• In Panama, where it is called totumo, the fruit is used for diarrhea and stomachaches. Also for respiratory ailments, bronchitis, cough, colds, toothaches. headaches, menstrual irregularities; as laxative, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge. The leaves are used for hypertension.
• Leaves used to lower blood pressure. Bark decoction used to clean wounds, treat hematomoas and tumors. Pulp syrup used to treat dysentery and stomachache. (37)
Others
• Crafts / Household wares: In some countries, the dried shell of the fruit is used to make bowls for drinking water, wine, tea or holding fruit or food. Shells used in craft, decorated with paintings or carvings. Also used in bags or other containers.
• Musical tool: Used in making maracas or musical rattle.
• Cigarette paper: In Brazil, the fibrous lining of the fruit is sometimes used as a substitute for cigarette paper.
• Orchid perch: A favorite perch for orchids.

Studies
Phytochemicals / Fruits:
Previous studies have yielded naphthoquinones and iridoid glucosides. The fruits yielded 15 new compounds, 3 iridoid glucosides, five iridoids, 3 2,4-pentanediol glycosides, along with known compounds.
Iridoids and Iridoid Glucosides / Fruits: Study fruit constituents yielded 16 iridoids and iridoid glucosides. Eight compounds were new, named crescentins I-V and crescentosides A, B, and C. Another eight known compounds were identified as ajugol, 6-O-p-hydroxybenzoylajugol, aucubin, 6-O-p- hydroxybenzoyl-6-epiaucubin, agnuside, ningpogenin, 5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside and a degradation product of glutinoside. (11)
Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Composition of Calabash Fruit: Pulp was found to have high mineral concentrations; sodium, highest; calcium, lowest, with high values of thiamine and found to be free from HCN toxicity and suggests useful contributions to human health and nutrition. (see constituents above)  (3)
Bioactive Furanonaphthoquinones: Study isolated new and known bioactive compounds showing selective activity toward DNA-repair-deficient yeast mutants. (see constituents above) (4)

Antibacterial: In a study of extracts against E. coli and S. aureus, Crescentia cujete showed activity against S. aureus.
Antibacterial: Among several solvents used, only the ethanol extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus. (15)
Snake Venom Neutralizing Effect: In a study of t5 plant extracts used by traditional healers in Colombia for snakebites, 31 had moderate to high neutralizing ability against the hemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom. C cujete (unripe fruits) was one of 19 that showed moderate neutralization. (10)
Antidiabetic: In a non experimental validation for antidiabetic activity, study yields cyanhidric acid believed to stimulate insulin release. (13)
Crude Oil from Calabash Seed: Crude seed oil was found to have the following composition: saturated acids 19.7%, oleic acid 59.4%, linoleic acid 19.3%, linolenic acid 1.6%. Calabash oil is similar to peanut and olive oils except for its content of linolenic acid, which is an unusual constituent for an oil of low iodine number. (17)
Antioxidant / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study evaluated leaves and bark crude ethanol extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH, FRP, and TAC assays. Phytochemical screening yielded steroids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. The leaves showed significant free radical scavenging properties compared to the stem bark. There was a clear correlation between antioxidant activity and phenolic content. (18)
Antivenom Activity / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antivenom activity of ethanolic extracts of Crescentia cujete fruit in experimental animals. Results showed significant neutralizing capacity of snake Vipera russelli venom which may be beneficial in the treatment of snake bites. (19)
Anti-Angionesis Effect: Study of Calabash fruit epicarp showed dose-dependent (100% concentration) antiangiogenic effect on chick embryo. Results suggest a potential for halting tumor revascularization. (20)
CNS Depressant Effect: Study evaluated the CNS depressant properties of a crude extract of pulp of fruit of C. cujete. There was significant dose dependent reduction in rearing, grooming, locomotor activity and head dips in mice with an anxiogenic effect on the elevated plus maze test.. Results showed the fruit possess central depressant properties. (21)
Fetal Gestational Effect: Study evaluated an ethanolic fruit extract on Sprague Dawley rats days 6-19 of gestation, the organogenetic period. Findings suggests continuous consumption of higher concentration of the extract during gestation can cause alteration in growth and development of the fetus and changes in maternal organs and blood count. Caution is advised against using the extract during pregnancy. (23)
Pericarp / Metabolites / Toxicity Study: Study of ethanol extract of pericarp yielded three groups of secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoids, steroids, and triterpenes. Biological study did not show acute toxicity in either tested biological systems or concentrations tested. (24 )
Anti-Mycobacterial / Metabolites / Toxicity Study: Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem bark and leaves of C. cujete showed inhibitory effect on all of the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis used in the study. (25)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial potential of C. cujete leaves and stem bark. Results showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the HRBC membrane stabilization test and potent antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method. (26)
• Cytotoxicity / Mutagenicity / Antimutagenicity / Leaves: Study evaluated air-dried leaves of C. cujete. Phytochemical screening yielded secondary metabolites like flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugar, and steroids. All plants extracts (HE, AE and CEE) showed comparable mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, and protective potential towards MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) probably due to the presence of phytochemicals that could trap the CH3 carbocation released by MMS. (30)
• Hypoglycemic / Toxicity Study / Fruit: Study evaluated the acute toxicity dose and glucose lowering effect of Calabash fruit in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Toxicity study of the fruit decoction was nontoxic by OECD guideline. Post Hoc Pair-wise Test showed Calabash and Metformin had comparable effects. Results suggest calabash fruit decoction is non-toxic and is effective in lowering blood glucose of alloxan-indced hyperglycemic rabbits at dose of 10 mg/kg. s(31) Study evaluated fruit juice of C. cujete for potential hypoglycemic effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. No toxicity was noted at 2000 mg/kg oral dose in rats using OECD guidelines. C. cujete caused an initial increase in glucose level followed by significant reduction at 4h and 6h (P<0.05). Effect was not significantly different from metformin. (39)
• Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity /Flavonoid / Fruit: Study investigated C. cujete fruit for flavonoid content and platelet aggregation activity. Results showed potent antiplatelet aggregation activity which was attributed to flavonoid content. Acute oral toxicity categorized it as non-toxic based on OECD guidelines-423. (32)
• Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant / Anthelmintic / Fruit: Fresh cujete fruit. Brine shrimp lethality assay showed the EA extract to be most toxic and exhibits highest bioactivity with LC50 of 1.50ppm during first 6 hours of treatment. Anthelmintic assay showed the EA extract at 20,000 ppm showed the least time to paralyze and kill test organisms Eudrilus eugenia. Thin layer chromatography showed phenolic antioxidants in the fruit crude ethanolic extract. (see constituents above) (33)
• Acaricidal / Fruit Pulp: Cattle tick is an important constraint in livestock production. Ethanol extract and fraction of fruit pulp of C. cujete was evaluated for acaricide effect against Rhipicephalus microplus. Study yielded cinnamic acid and benzoic acid. The ethyl acetate fraction 10% solution showed 100% mortality with LC50 of 5.9%. Cinnamic acid showed 63% mortality with LC50 of 6.6%. Results showed the fruit pulp as a potential alternative for R. microplus control. (34)
• Wound Healing / Leaf Ointment: Study evaluated the potential wound healing property of calabash tree leaf ointment on an incision wound model in mice. (35)
• Antimicrobiall / Stem Bark: Study evaluated methanolic crude stem bark for antimicrobial potential against clinical isolates of B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. typhi, Candida albicans, and A. niger. Results showed concentration dependent antimicrobial activity in the order of EF > MF > HF > MCE. (see constituents above) (38)
• Nanoparticles / Bactericidal / Leaves: Study reports on an easy, economical, and eco-friendly method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using an aqueous dry leaf extract of C. cujete. The silver nanoparticles showed better antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial than the plant extract alone. (40)
• Cianhidric Acid: Studies have reported the presence of cianhidric acid in C. cujete. This review article mentions cianhidric acid as "one of the most toxic compounds in plants" and is found in Crescentia cujete fruits, Phaseolus lunatus whole plant, and Prunus serotina leaves and seeds. The same review mentions an LD50 >2000 mg/kg p.o. in rats for ethanol extract of C. cujete fruits. (41) Note: I have not been able to locate any study on Crescentia cujete that pertains to cianhidric acid toxicity. (G. Stuart)
• Removal of Heavy Metal from Waste Water: Granite industrial wastewater effluent is one of the industries responsible for polluting the surronding aquatic environment. Study showed activated carbon form from calabash seed is an inexpensive and reliable material for the removal of toxic metals from the waste water. (42)

Availability
- Wildcrafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated August 2018 / October 2017 / October 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Raw image of Cujete fruit (insert) provided by Arleen Baterbonia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Crescentia cujete / Herbal Index / Lana Dvorkin PharmD, Julia Whelan MS
(2)
Crescentia cujete / Iridoids and Other Glycosides from Vietnamese Crescentia cujete
/ Bartholomew I.C. Brai, A.A. Odetola, P.U. Agomo
Journal of Medicinal Food. June 1, 2007, 10(2): 356-360. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.291.
(3)
Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Compositions of Calabash Fruit Pulp / Marc Nwosu Ogbuagu / Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7 (9):1069-1072, 2008.
(4)
Bioactive furanonaphthoquinones from Crescentia cujete
/ Carl E. Heltzel, A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka, Thomas E. Glass, David G. I. Kingston, Glenn Hoffmann, Randall K. Johnson / J. Nat. Prod., 1993, 56 (9), pp 1500–1505 / DOI: 10.1021/np50099a008
(5)
Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba./ J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009 May 18;5:16
(6)
Common Medicinal Plants of Panama / Karen Dertien
(7)
n-Alkyl glycosides and p-hydroxybenzoyloxy glucose from fruits of Crescentia cujete / Phytochemistry Vol 47, Issue 2, January 1998, Pages 259-263 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00409-3
(8)
Antibacterial properties of tropical plants from Puerto Rico./ Melendez, P et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 272-276
(9)
The Calabash (Crescentia cujete) in Folk Medicine / Julia F Morton / © 1968 New York Botanical Garden Press.
(10)
Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: Neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom / Otero, R.; Nunez, V et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73 (2000) 233-241.
(11)
Iridoids and iridoid glucosides from fruits of Crescentia cujete / Tetsuo Kaneko, Kazuhiro Ohtani et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 46, Issue 5, November 1997, Pages 907-910 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00375-0 |
(12)
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Arterial Hypertension, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi, Tiebre Marie-Solange et al / European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol.35 No.1 (2009), pp 85-98
(13)
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Diabetes in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi et al / American Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-223X, Issue 4 (2009), pp 45-58
(14)
New Iridoids from the fruits of Crescentia cujete / Gang Wang, Wei Yin, Zhong-Yu Zhou et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 12:9,770-775.
(15)
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY of Crescentia cujete and Moringa oleifera / Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Md. Mojibul Hoq, Monzur Morshed Ahmed, Animesh Sarker / BANGLADESH RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS JOURNAL ISSN: 1998-2003, Volume: 5, Issue: 4, Page: 337-343, July -August, 2011
(16)
The chemical constituents of calabash (Crescentia cujete) / Ejelonu BC*, Lasisi AA,Olaremu AG and Ejelonu OC / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(84), pp. 19631-19636, 26 December, 2011 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1518
(17)
Oil from calabash seed, Crescentia cujete L / Natural Sciences Repository
(18)
Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds / Nandita Das, Md Ekramul Islam, Nusrat Jahan, Mohammad Saiful Islam, Alam Khan, Md Rafikul Islam and Mst Shahnaj Parvin* / Das et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:45/ http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/14/45
(19)
Antivenom activity of ethanolic extract of Crescentia cujete fruit
/ Shastry, C. S.; Bhalodia Maulik, M.; Aswathanarayana, B. J. / International Journal of Phytomedicine; January 2012, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p108
(20)
Anti-angiogenesis Effect of Calabash Fruit (Crescentia cujete Linn.) Pericarp Fruit via Choriollantoic Membrane Assay: A Potential Agent against Tumour Vascularisation / R. J. I. Tambole, M. J. K. Peteros, J. J. / Alegado Bayugan National Comprehensive High School
(21)
CNS depressant properties of the crude extract of Crescentia cujete in mice
/ AO Aderibigbe, T Olufunmilayo, OI Agboola / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PE4 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1352023
(22)
Crescentia cujete L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(23)
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF CALABASH (CRESCENTIA CUJETE) ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT TO GESTATING SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS / Florence Jhun F. Almadin, Joycelyn C. Jumawan / International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, Special Issue 19 (June, 2015), PP. 01-04
(24)
Chemistry and biology of ethanol extract from the epicarp of Crescentia cujete L. (totumo) / Espitia-Baena JE, Duran-Sandoval HR, Fandiño-Franky J, Díaz-Castillo F, Gómez-Estrada HA / Rev Cubana Plant Med 2011; 16 (4)
(25)
Anti-Mycobaterial Potential of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae) / Manisha Agarwal* & Seema Chauhan** / International Journal of Advanced Research in Botany (IJARB), Volume 1, Issue 1, Jul-Sep 2015, PP 1-9
(26)
Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory and antibacterial potential of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. / Parvin MS, Das N, Jahan N, Akhter MA, Nahar L, Islam ME / BMC Res Notes. 2015 Sep 4;8(1):412. / doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1384-5.
(27)
Chemical constituents of sarcocarp of Crescentia cujete / YIN Wei, WU Pei-yun, LIANG Yi-min, LIU Jin-song, WANG Gang / Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, 2012-08
(28)
Oil from calabash seed, Crescentia cujete L. / B A Smith, F G Dollear / Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 24(2):52-54 · February 1947 / DOI: 10.1007/BF02642127
(29)
Volatile constituents of Crescentia cujete L / Olateju A Dawodu, Oladipupo A Lawal, Isiaka A Ogunwande and Abdulateef A Giwa / American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 2016; 4(4): 01-03
(30)
Phytochemical screening,, cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity,, and protective potentials of the different solvent extracts from the air - dried leaves of Crescentia cujete Linn. / Merell P.. Billacura, Kelvin Kiram J.. Pangcoga / International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 4(4) 2017, pp 118-126.
(31)
Acute toxicity dose and approximate effective dose of calabash (Crescentia cujete) decoction as a hypoglycemic agent in alloxan-induced rabbits. / John Edward C. Padisio, Eva C. San Juan, Razul Abdullah, Rechie  Abear, Sittie Jebrailyn Amilhasan, Chris Dy et al / Philippine Council for Health Research and Development
(32)
Flavonoid Screening and Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity of Miracle Fruit (Crescentia cujete) / Vivien Leigh L. Pascicolan; Ma. Eva C. San Juan; Emelie E. Cachero et al / University of Immaculate Conception
(33)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, CYTOTOXICITY ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF THE VARIOUS EXTRACTS FROM Crescentia cujete L inn. FRUIT V . / Merell P. Billa cura, Glenn Caezar RLaciapag / Sci.Int (Lahore), 29(2), 21-25 (2017)
(34)
In vitro acaricidal activity of Crescentia cujete L. fruit pulp against Rhipicephalus microplus 
/ Sinval Garcia Pereira, Sandra Alves de Araújo, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon, Lourivaldo Silva Santos, Livio Martins Costa Junior  / Parasitology Research, Volume 116 , Issue 5, pp 1487-1493, May 2017 / doi:10.1007/s00436-017-5425-y
(35)
The Wound Healing Effect of Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete) Leaf Ointment on ICR Mice. / Ma. Christille Aton, Sherrie Mae Aytona, Charie Mae Flores, Kaila Mari Gonzales, Cleve Frederick Ughoc / Thesis/Dissertation: Arpil 2017 / University of the Visayas, Gullas College of Medicine
(36)
Calabash contains active ingredients potential for cancer treatment / Edmon Agron / Philippine Council for Health Research and Development
(37)
Proximate, phytochemical screening and mineral analysis of Crescentia cujete L. leaves / Musbau B. Olaniyi. Ibraheem O. Lawal, Aishat A. Olaniyi / Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, 2(1), a28 / http://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v2i1.28
(38)
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRESCENTIA CUJETE LINNAEUS STEM BARK (BIGNONIACEAE) / Ugwoke Christopher Emeka Chukwunonye, Diovu Edith Obioma, Anze Sunday Patrick Gaza and Chukwube Vincent Obisike / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2017; 4(02): pp 484-490
(39)
Hypoglycemic Effect Of Crescentia Cujete Linn. (Bignoniaceae) Fruit Juice In Normal Sprague-Dawley Rats / C Alay-ay, A Hermoso, R Li, M Quinto, P Santos, I Tan, M Villa, R Cadiang, M Corpuz / Planta Med 2016; 82 - PB2 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1578650
(40)
GLIB GREEN ROUTE SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING LEAF EXTRACTS OF CRESCENTIA CUJETE L. AND ITS BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY / Necklin A. Pithawala, Bhanukumar K. Jain and Dharmesh Varade / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, 2017; Vol 6, Issue 11: pp 474-483
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Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin / Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Fabiola Dominguez, Alan Joel Ruiz-Padilla et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2017, Article ID 9439868 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9439868
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Adsorption Study of Utilizing Calabash (crescentia cujete) Seed in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater / Amigun A.T., Jamiu, W., Adebayo, GB., Jimoh AA. / J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., Feb 2018; Vol. 22 (2) pp 218 – 223 / DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v22i2.11

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