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Family Araceae
Corazon de Maria
Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent.
HEART OF JESUS
Wu cai yu

Scientific names Common names
Caladium bicolor name Linn. Linsang pula (Bik.)
Caladium regale Lem Corazon de Maria (Span.)
Caladium surinamense Miq. Angel wings (Engl.)
Caladium x hortulanum Birdsey ? Common caladium (Engl.)
Arum bicolor Ait. Fancy-leaf caladium (Engl.)
  Fancy-leaved elephant's ear (Engl.)
  Heart of Jesus (Engl.)
  Mother-in-law plant (Engl.)
  Wu cai yu (Chin.)
 

Other vernacular names
CHAMORRO: Corazon de Santa Maria.
CHINESE: Hua ye yu, Cai ye yu (as C. hortulanum)
FRENCH: caladium du Brésil, palette de peintre.
INDONESIA: Keladi berwama, Keladi hias.
MALAY: Keladi.
HAWAIIAN: Kalo kalakoa.
NIUEAN: Talotalo.
SAMOAN: Lau talotalo, Talo, Talo teu fale.
SPANISH: Corazon de Jesus.
TAHITIAN: Taro purepure.

Botany
Corazon de Maria is a long-lived perennial herb arising from a fleshy, roundish, underground stem (corm). Leaves have an elongated stalk and a heart-shaped blade, 10 to 40 centimeters long, 6 to 30 centimeters wide, variously colored on the upper surface, green or blotched with red and white in various patch designs. Blade is mostly green, with scattered white spots and reddish veins. Fleshy flower cluster (spadix) is erect, shorter than the enclosing bract (spathe), about 10 centimeters long, tubular, constricted at the middle, green on the outer surface, white on the inner. Flowers are of one sex, without stalk and floral envelope (perianth); males are crowded on the upper part of the cluster, the females on the lower. Fruit is a berry, many seeded.

Distribution
- Introduced.
- Ornamental cultivation in Philippine gardens for its various colors and leaf shapes.
- Occasional use as hedge plant.
- Native to Trinidad, Guiana, and Brazil.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of saponins, flavonoids, limonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, carotenoids, lactones, xanthophs, oxalate, cyanide, and terpenes.

Properties
- Considered antiseptic, anti-tumor, emetic, laxative, insecticide.

Parts used
Leaves and tubers.

Uses

Edibility
- All parts of the plant, but especially the leaves and bulb, when raw, contain irritant crystals of calcium oxalate. When cooked, both leaves and bulbs have been eaten as vegetables in tropical America and the West Indies.
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used for sore throats, constipation, catarrh, wounds.
- Used for sores and toothache.
- For facial paralysis, crushed bulbs applied to the face.
- In Brazil, heated bulbs are covered with olive oil and applied to tumors.
Also, decoction of leaves used as vermifuge and purgative; externally used for furunculosis.
- In Cameroon, decoction of tubers and leaves used for vaginal inflammation.
Others
- Insecticide: In the Philippines, powdered leaves are used as insecticide.
- Veterinary: In India, decoction of leaves used for external cattle festers caused by worms.

Caution
All parts of the plant, especially the leaves and bulb, when raw, contain raphides of water-insoluble calcium oxalate and other proteinaceous toxins.
Excessive dosing can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, swelling and redness of the eyes, and swelling of the mouth and tongue.
Although attractive, avoid planting within easy reach of children.

Studies
Phytochemicals / Polyphenols:
Study of the polyphenol content of stem, leaf, bulbs, and roots of three caladium sp. showed significant differences. All three yielded polyphenols, saponins, carotenoids, alkaloids, limonoids,and flavonoids.. The polyphenol content of C bicolor was significantly higher than that of C. ornamental and C. variegatum. The leaves of the three plants were significantly higher in polyphenols than the stem, bulb, and roots. Saponins were also extensively found. Cyanide content was highest in C. bicolor, with the roots yielding more cyanide than the bulb, stem and leaves. The presence of the biochemical components suggest a potential for use in cancer.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

March 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Common name: caladium - Scientific name: Caladium bicolor / Leaves with red and pink at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui / Forest & Kim Starr / 24 October 2007 / Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license/ Click on image to go to source page. / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(2)
Sorting Caladium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(3)
Caladium bicolor / Vernacular names and synonyms / GLOBinMED
(4)
Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil / Maria de Fátima Agra,* Kiriaki Nurit Silva, Ionaldo José Lima Diniz Basílio, Patrícia, França de Freitas, José Maria Barbosa-Filho / Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 18(3): 472-508, Jul./Set. 2008
(5)
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS WITH TOXIC AND/OR IRRITANT PROPERTIES. II.
/ Julia F. Morton, Director, Morton. Collectanea / FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1962
(6)
Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants of two ethnoecological regions of Cameroon
/ T. Jiofack*, C. Fokunang, N. Guedje, V. Kemeuze, E. Fongnzossie, B. A. Nkongmeneck, P. M. Mapongmetsem and N. Tsabang / International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 2(3), pp. 60-79, March 2010
(7)
Ethno-Veterinary Practices of India with Particular Reference to Use of Plant Bio Resources in Animal Health Care / C Varshneya
(8)
Caladium bicolor / Common names / PIER
(9)
Hytochemical Composition of Caladium Species / Ekanem B.E., Osuagwu A.N., P. Aikpopodion, Ekpo I.A., Agbor R.B. and Ibiang, Y.B. / Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 1(1): 132-135, 2013


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