Coral berry is an evergreen glabrous shrub with many branches, growing to a height of 1.5 meters. Leaves are alternate, simple, dark green, leathery, elliptic lanceolate or oblanceolate with crenate or undulate margins. Flowers are small, white or pink. Fruit is a drupe, coral red and single-seeded.
- Cultivated in gardens for its decorative red fruits.
- A popular pot plant.
- In some countries, considered an invasive weed.
- Study yielded nine compounds: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furalclehyde(1), ethyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside(2), syringic acid(3), n-butyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside(4), n-butyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside(5), methyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside(6), (+)-bergenin(7), ardisiacrispins B(8), asperuloside acid(9). (see study below) (8)
Leaves yielded a novel cyclic depsipeptide, designated FR900359, with the molecule containing two cis peptide bonds. (9)
- Roots yielded four components: bergenin, friedlin, ß-sitosterol and rapanone. (15)
- Study of roots yielded two new triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrenoside K (1) and ardisicrenoside L (2). (see study below) (16)
- Study of roots isolated a bergenin derivative
determined to be 11-o-syringylbergenin, along with spinasterol, fatty acid series, ß-sitosterol-ß-D-glucoside, norbergenine, and sucrose. (20)
- Study isolated three new triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrenoside I (1), ardisicrenoside J (2), and ardisicrenoside M (3), along with eight known compounds, from the roots of Ardisia crenata Sims. (24)
- Studies suggest anodyne, depurative, febrifugal, antidotal, anti-tumor, vasorelaxant, diuretic, anti-thrombin, anti-asthmatic, cytotoxic, melanogenesis properties.
Roots, leaves, juice.
• No folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• Elsewhere, root is considered anodyne, depurative, febrifuge; used to stimulate blood circulation.
• In traditional Chinese medicine, roots used for treatment of tonsillitis, toothaches, arthralgia, respiratory infections, and menstrual disorders.
• In Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia, juice from crushed whole plant used to treat fever and earaches. (22)
• Provides a dense canopy.
• Triterpenoid Saponins / Ardisiacrenoside / Cytotoxicity:
Study isolated two novel triterpenoid saponins – ardisicrenoside A and adrisicrenoside B – and two known triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrispins A and B. (1)
• Potential Source of Therapeutic Agents:
There are more than 500 species of Ardisia throughout the tropical and subtropical regions, several used as ornamentals, food and medicines. Species of Ardisia are rich in novel and biologically potent phytochemical compounds such as bergenin and ardisin. The report presents the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents. (2)
• Bergenin / Pharmacologic Activities / Roots:
Study isolated a new bergenin derivative from the root of A crenata – 11-o-syringylbergenin. Other compounds identified were spinasterol, fatty acids, beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside, norgergenin and sucrose. (3) Study isolated four components from the roots of A. crenata: bergenin, friedelin, β-sitosterol and rapanone. Friedelin was isolated for the first time. (12) Studies have shown bergenin to possess a wide range of biological activities: antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, among others. (•) Study reports on the optimization of extraction process of bergenin from roots of A. crenata by response surface methodology. (23)
• Ardisiacrispin A and B / Pro-Apoptotic / Anticancer:
Study investigating the anticancer activity of ardisiacrispin A+B on several human cancer lines showed it could inhibit the proliferation of Bel-7402 cells by inducing apoptosis and dissembling microtubule. (4)
• Anti-Thrombin Activity:
In a study of 30 plants from central Florida for its antithrombin activity, Ardisia crenata was one of seven that demonstrated activity of 80% or higher in a chromogenic bioassay system. (6)
• Ardisiacrenoside / Cytotoxic Triterpenoid: Ardisiacrenoside, a new triterpenoid pentasaccharide was isolated from A crenata with five closely related triterpenoid saponins. Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated against human tumor cell lines. (7)
• Anti-Tumor Metastasis:
Study evaluated the anti-tumor metastatic constituents from Ardisia crenata. Study yielded nine compounds: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furalclehyde(1), ethyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside(2), syringic acid(3), n-butyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside(4), n-butyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside(5), methyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside(6), (+)-bergenin(7), ardisiacrispins B(8), asperuloside acid(9). The isolated compounds (1-9) showed positive anti-tumor metastatic activities, and compounds 1, 5, and 8 showed significant anti-tumor metastatic activities. (8)
• Depsipeptide FR900359 / Leaves:
FR900359, isolated from leaves, was found to inhibited platelet aggregation in rabbits, decrease blood pressure and induce hypotension in anesthetized, normotensive rats. (11)
An ethanol extract of A. crenata exhibited significant antibacterial activity against α-streptococcus hemolyticus, ß-streptococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. (11)
• Stimulation of Melanogenesis in Melanoma Cells:
Study evaluated the effect of a methanol extract of Ardisia crenata on melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Treatment of cultured B16F10 cells with extract showed concentration dependent increase in melanin levels, without cytotoxicity. There was also increase in protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. AC stimulated melanogenesis by increasing tyrosinase expression via inhibition of ERK and Akt. Results suggest a potential in the treatment of hypopigmentation diseases and skin tanning cosmetic products. (14)
• Triterpenoid Saponins / Weak Antifungal / Roots: Study of roots yielded two new triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrenoside K (1) and ardisicrenoside L (2). In vitro study showed the compounds to have weak antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus Pyricularia oryzae. (16)
• Ardicrenin: Study reports on the new, effective, and economical method of extraction of ardicrenin from Ardisia crenata. Ardicrenin is considered a potential pharmaceutical. The research puts emphasis on the large scale isolation of one single saponin adicrenin of high purity fit for industrial production. (17)
• In the News: Asthma
Treatment: Researchers at the University of Bonn have extracted a pharmaceutical compound from the leaves of Ardisia crenata that offers new hope for asthmatics. FR900359. isolated from the leaves of coral berry. was found to inhibit critical signaling Gq protein molecules. The compound almost completely inhibits the charateristic contraction of airways in a mice model of asthma. (18)
• Airway Relaxation in Asthma / Targeted Inhibition of Gq Signaling: A hallmark feature of obstructive lung disease is aberrant activation of Gq protein-dependent signaling cascades. Study hypothesized that pharmacological Gq inhibition could be a central mechanism to achieve efficient therapeutic bronchorelaxation. (19)
• Vasorelaxant Effect / Cyclic Depsipeptide: A cyclic depsipeptide, FR900359, isolated from A. crenata was evaluated for vasorelaxant effect on rat aortic arteries. The compound caused concentration-dependent relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted endothelium-intact aortic rings, which was inhibited by addition of L-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor. Results suggest the vasorelaxant effect is mediated through the increase release of NO from endothelial cells, and can be attributed to inhibitory effects on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel and receptor-operated Ca(2+) channel-dependent Ca(2+) influx at high concentrations. (21)
- Roots, seeds, and herbal supplements in the cybermarket.