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Family Asteraceae
Coatbuttons
Tridax procumbens L.
TRIDAX DAISY
Niu xi ju

Scientific names Common names
Amellus pedunculatus Ortega ex Willd. [Illegitimate] Coatbuttons (Engl.)
Balbisia canescens Rich. Tridax daisy (Engl.)
Balbisia canescens Rich. ex Pers. Wild daisy (Engl.)
Balbisia divaricata Cass.  
Balbisia elongata Willd.  
Balbisia pedunculata Ortega ex O.Hoffm.  
Chrysanthemum procumbens (L.) Sesse & Moc. [Illegitimate]  
Tridax procumbens L.  
Tridax procumbens (L.) L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Tridhara.
FRENCH: Herbe calille.
HINDI: Ghamra.
JAPANESE: Kotobukigiku.
KANNADA: Jayanthi.
MALAYALAM: Chiravanak.
MARATHI: Kambarmodi.
ORIYA: Bishalya karani.
SANSKRIT: Jayanti veda.
SPANISH: Cadillo chisaca.
TAMIL: Vettukaaya, Poondu.
TELUGU: Gaddi chemanthi.
THAI: Tin tukkae.

Botany
Tridax procumbens is a leafy, upright annual. Leaves are arrow-shaped, coarsely and irregularly toothed, yellowish-greenish, pointed, opposite, with hairs on the leaf margins and stems. Flowers are white with three-toothed ray florets. Fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs, with a feathery, plume-like white pappus at one end.

Distribution
- Introduced.
- A widespread weed and pest plant.

- In fields, meadows, lawns, roadsides.
- Found in may tropical and subtropical climates.
- Found in profusion in the Tiaong, Quezon area.

Constituents
- Proximate composition (% DW) of stem (S) and leaves (L) showed total ash 4.27±0.09 S, 2.01±0.20 L; crude protein 37.44±0.26 S, 34.57±0.00 L; crude lipid 0.10±0.01 S, 6.03±0.20 L; total carbohydrate 41.03±0.09 S, 51.26±0.20 L; crude fiber 1.92±0.03 S, 6.13±0.40 L; and total metabolizable energy (kcal/100g) 321.54±5.21 S, 397.59±2.61 L. (7)
- Various leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, and purines. (see study below) (9)
- Study yielded glucoside, amino acids, flavanol, synergic acid, tannin, steroids, polysaccharides, pectin, hemicellusose, phenols, alkaloids, fats and volatile oil, plus elements sulphur, iron, sodium, and chlorine. (10)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts yielded two compounds: β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3′,5-dihydroxy-4′,3,6-trimethoxyflavone- 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). (see study below) (15)
- Study of leaves for bioactive molecules yielded high flavonoids, alkaloids, hydroxycinnamates, tannins and phytosterols, moderate benzoic acid derivatives ad lignans, and low carotenoid contents. Also detected were 39 known alkaloids (mainly akuammidine, 68.756%), twenty three known flavonoids (mainly kaempferol 17.593% and (-)-epicatechin 12.538%), five known caroteoids (mainly lutein, 62.608%), four known benzoic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic acid, 46.091%), two phytosterols (mainly stigmasterol, 80.853%), and six known lignans (mainly galgravin, 77.326%). (see study below) (19)
- Chloroform extract of leaves showed the presence of steroid, saponin, coumarins, alkaloids, amino acids, diterpenes, phenol and flavonoids. (20)

Properties
- Invasive; plant produces so many achenes, up to 1500 per plant; each achene easily caught by the wind and carried some distance.
- Astringent.

- Considered anti-inflammatory and vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, hypotensive, bradycardic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, vasorelaxant, CNS depressant properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stems, flowers.

Uses

Folkloric
- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Indian traditional medicine, used as antifungal, anticoagulant, repellent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric.
- In India, leaf juice use on fresh wounds, to stop bleeding, and as hair tonic.

- In Nigeria, local Yoruba population use the leaves for treatment to reduce blood pressure.

Studies
Antibacterial / Flowers and Aerial Parts:
n-Hexane extract of flowers showed activity against E. coli. Extract of aerial parts showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis, E. coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. Ethyl acetate extract of flowers showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus. None of the extract showed activity against fungi. (3)
Antibacterial / Nosocomial Pathogens: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. procumbens against various bacterial pathogens including community acquired and nosocomial infections. The alcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with greater activity against nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas compared to augmentin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The aqueous extract showed no antibacterial activity. (4)
Hypotensive / Bradycardic Effect / Leaves: Study investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure in dose related manner. At higher doses, significant reduction in heart rate was noted. Results showed hypotensive effect probably through activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (5)
Comparative Antimicrobial Effect / Waterborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the bactericidal effect of T. procumbens against water borne bacterial pathogens i.e., E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumonia which are causative in serious diarrheic diseases. Results suggest bactericidal effect. The acetone extract was found effective against E. coli and V. cholerae; a 50% ethanolic extract was effective against K. pneumonia; and a methanolic extract was found effective only against V. cholerae. (6)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated a 50% methanolic extract for acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect were compared to reference drug Glibenclamide. There were no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicting a high margin of safety. (8) Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats showed significant blood glucose reduction. (11)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of various extracts of leaves showed antibacterial activity. The chloroform extract showed more effective antibacterial activity comparable to standard drug ampicillin. (see constituents above) (9)
Glucose Lowering / AMPK Activation / Suppression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis: Study showed T. procumbens extract exhibits strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Activation of AMPK and suppression of hepatic glucose production may be one mechanism that contributes to the glucose lowering property of T. procumbens. (12)
Microbial Symbionts / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated crude ethyl acetate extract for antimicrobial activity against a panel of test pathogens. Results add knowledge to the growing research towards development of new antimicrobial agents to combat drug resistant microorganisms. Study also contributes to the isolation of potent endophytes from T. procumbens with its scanty reports on microbial symbionts. Results showed significant activity against Shigella flexneri and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus suggesting the fraction is more potent as bactericidal agent than as antifungal. (13)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicity of ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens. Results showed moderate toxicity at 2100 mg/kg body weight. In sub-chronic study, all animals gained body weight and organ/body weight ration, with significant decreases in glucose levels and significant increases in ALT, AST. Histopathological exam showed endothelial toxicity at high dose level with hemorrhage indicated by hemosiderin deposition throughout the kidney and liver parenchyma. (14)
Anticancer on A549 ad HepG2 Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of various extracts of leaves of T. procumbens against A549 (human lung cancer cell line) and HepG2 (human liver carcinoma) cell line. Potent anticancer activity was shown by acetone and ethanol leaf extracts on A549 and Hep Ge cell lines. An aqueous leaf extract showed no anticancer activity. (15)
Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the bioactivities of extracts and compounds from aerial parts of Tridax procumbens. An ethyl acetate extract showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The EA extract showed antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.52 mg/mL and significant anti-inflammatory activity on mice paw edema. (see constituents above) (15)
Vasorelaxant: Previous studies have shown T. procumbens is capable of lowering blood pressure of rats through endothelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms in aortic rings isolated from rats. This study in investigated T. procumbens-induced relaxation in rat isolated mesenteric artery. Results showed T. procumbens causes vasodilatory effects by blocking calcium channels, stimulation of prostacyclin production and activation of both voltage- (KV) and apamin-sensitive (KAS) potassium channels. (16)
Blood Glucose Lowering Effect in Patients with T2DM / Asava Supplement: Study evaluated the blood glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the extract/supplement (asava) prepared following Ayurveda guidelines showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids. Extract showed strong antioxidant capacity, Fe+++reducing potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Results showed a significant glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in T2DM. (17)
Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study describes the ecofriendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of T. procumbens. (18)
Potential as Functional Food / Leaves: A great number of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make T. procumbens a perfect candidate for the production of health-promoting food and food supplements. (see constituents above) (19)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of T. procumbens in vitro, using four methods: DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and TRP assays at the same time. Results showed T. procumbens extracts showed strong scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals and strong reducing power on Fe. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from different parts showed: flower > stem > whole grass > leaf. T. procumbens can be utilized as a safe and effective antioxidant source. (21)
Anti-Osteoporotic / Anti-Bone Resorptive: Study evaluated flavonoids isolated from T. procumbens on its effect on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activities using primary osteoclastic cells. Results indicated that TPF inhibit osteoclastogenesis and pits formation activities. TPF has potential as bone resorptive gent to treat patients with bone-loss associated diseases such as osteoporosis. (22)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated dried powders of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves for anthemintic activity against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity on the earthworms. (23)
CNS Depressant / Decreased Locomotor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of TP on locomotor activity in mice and rat. Results showed TP extract dose dependently depressed the central nervous system evidenced by TP induced decrease in locomotor activity. (24)
Antifungal / Leaves: Study of methanolic extracts of leaves of Tridax procumbens showed effective activity against fungal strains Aspergillus niger and A. ocraceous. (25)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

September 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Tridax procumbens / Wikipedia

(2)
Tridax procumbens / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens. / Taddei A, Rosas-Romero AJ. / Phytomedicine. 2000 Jun;7(3):235-8.
(4)
Antibacterial Activity of Tridax procumbens with Special Reference to Nosocomial Pathogens / Chitra Pai*, Ujjwala Kulkarni, Manjusha Borde, Sowmya Murali, P. Mrudula and Yashwant Deshmukh / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 1(4): 164-173, 2011
(5)
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN RATS. / SALAHDEEN H.M, YEMITAN O.K AND ALADA A.R.A. / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 7 (2004); 27 - 29
(6)
A Comparative antimicrobial analysis of Tridax procumbens L. various extracts on waterborne bacterial pathogens / Madhu Pandey, Anand Pandey, Rajesh Kumar, Ashutosh Pathak and *Anupam Dikshit / International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, February 2016, 5(3): 22-26
(7)
TRIDAX PROCUMBENS (L.): A WEED WITH IMMENSE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE: A REVIEW
/ JAIN ANKITA AND AMITA JAIN* / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 1, Jan – Mar 2012
(8)
Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) / Hemant Pareek, Sameer Sharma, Balvant S Khajja, Kusum Jain and GC Jain / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2009) 9;48 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-48
(9)
Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of leaves of Tridax procumbens L. / Sunil Christudas, TM Kulathivel, P Agastian / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 2, Issue 1, Supplement, January 2012, Pages S159-S161
(10)
Phytochemical Analysis of Tridax Procumbens L. / Prof. Vaishali. N.Agme & Prof. Rupali N. Agme / American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences (AIJRFANS) 14-248 (2014)
(11)
Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens / Durgacharan A. Bhagwat, Suresh G. Killedar, Rahul S. Adnaik / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, April-June 2008
(12)
Blood glucose lowering effect of Tridax procumbens in type 2 diabetes may be attributed to AMPK activation and suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis (259.8) / Gauri Desai, Shirish Desai, Rajendra Gavaskar and Suresh Mathews / The FASEB Journal, April 2014, Vol 28, No 1, Supplement 259.8
(13)
Bacterial Endo-Symbiont Inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. and Their Antimicrobial Potential / Syed Baker, Kumara Shanthamma Kavitha, Huvinakola Chinnappa Yashavantha Rao, Devaraju Rakshith, Ballagere Puttaraju Harini, Komal Kumar, and Sreedharamurthy Satish / Chinese Journal of Biology, Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/309267
(14)
Acute And Sub Chronic Toxicity Of Tridax Procumbens In Experimental Animals / Abubakar A., Ogbadoyi E. O., Okogun J. I., Gbodi T. I., Tifin U. F. / IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Volume 1, Issue 6 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), PP 19-27
(15)
EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LEAF EXTRACTS ON A549 AND Hep G2 CELL LINES / VISHNU PRIYA P*, SRINIVASA RAO A / Asiasn Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 8, Issue 3 (2015)
(16)
Potassium channels contribute to vasorelaxant activities induced by Tridax procumbens aqueous leave extract in rat mesenteric artery / H. M. Salahdeen, A. A. Alada, B. A. Murtala, A. O. Adebari / Physiology 2014 (London, UK) (2014) Proc Physiol Soc 31, PCB190
(17)
Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of T. procumbens L.: A Pilot Clinical Study in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes / Gauri S. Desai, Shirish V. Desai, Rajendra S. Gavaskar, Vanisree Mulabagal, Yonnie Wu, Suresh T. Mathews / Phytotherapy Research / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5394
(18)
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Tridax Procumbens.
/ Vastrad J. V, Goudar G. / Orient J Chem 2016;32(3).
(19)
Phytochemical Composition of Tridax procumbens Linn Leaves: Potential as a Functional Food / Catherine C. Ikewuchi, Jude C. Ikewuchi, Mercy O. Ifeanacho / Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 992-1004. / doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.611103.
(20)
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN. / Rajaram S. Sawant and Ashvin G. Godghate* / International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, No 3, 2013, 388 –394
(21)
Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Tridax procumbens
/ JING ZHANG, KE YUAN*, WEN-LONG ZHOU, JIAN ZHOU and PING YANG / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 24, No. 1 (2012), 58-62
(22)
Flavonoids isolated from Tridax procumbens (TPF) inhibit osteoclasts differentiation and bone resorption
/ Md. Abdullah Al MamunI; Kamrul IslamI; Md. Jahangir AlamI; Amina KhatunII; M. Masihul AlamIII; Md. Abdul Alim Al-BariIV; Md. Jahangir AlamI / Biological Research: Biol. Res. vol.48 Santiago 2015 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S40659-015-0043-6
(23)
INVESTIGATION OF IN-VITRO ANTHELMENTIC ACTIVITY OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS / R. R. Dhangar, S. M. Nikumbha*, M. M. Mane, H. P. Suryawanshi, S. P. Pawar / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 4, Issue 06, 816-822.
(24)
Locomotor Activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. in Mice and Rat / *Shetkar M. A., More R. R., Burande M. D., Kumbhar S. P. / International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research 2014; 6(4): 140-143
(25)
Anti-fungal potential of tridhara (Tridax procumbens) leaves
/ Md. Faruk Miya, Zakirul Islam, Sayeed Shahriyar*, Md. Riad Hossain Khan and Md. Salim Reza / Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2015, 1 (3), 686-689 / doi: 10.3329/ajmbr.v1i3.26497

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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