Tridax procumbens is a leafy, upright annual. Leaves are arrow-shaped, coarsely and irregularly toothed, yellowish-greenish, pointed, opposite, with hairs on the leaf margins and stems. Flowers are white with three-toothed ray florets. Fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs, with a feathery, plume-like white pappus at one end.
- A widespread weed and pest plant.
- In fields, meadows, lawns, roadsides.
- Found in may tropical and subtropical climates.
- Found in profusion in the Tiaong, Quezon area.
- Proximate composition (% DW) of stem (S) and leaves (L) showed total ash 4.27±0.09 S, 2.01±0.20 L; crude protein 37.44±0.26 S, 34.57±0.00 L; crude lipid 0.10±0.01 S, 6.03±0.20 L; total carbohydrate 41.03±0.09 S, 51.26±0.20 L; crude fiber 1.92±0.03 S, 6.13±0.40 L; and total metabolizable energy (kcal/100g) 321.54±5.21 S, 397.59±2.61 L. (7)
- Various leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, and purines. (see study below) (9)
Study yielded glucoside, amino acids, flavanol, synergic acid, tannin, steroids, polysaccharides, pectin, hemicellusose, phenols, alkaloids, fats and volatile oil, plus elements sulphur, iron, sodium, and chlorine. (10)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts yielded two compounds: β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3′,5-dihydroxy-4′,3,6-trimethoxyflavone- 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). (see study below) (39)
- Study of leaves for bioactive molecules yielded high flavonoids, alkaloids, hydroxycinnamates, tannins and phytosterols, moderate benzoic acid derivatives ad lignans, and low carotenoid contents.
Also detected were 39 known alkaloids (mainly akuammidine, 68.756%), twenty three known flavonoids (mainly kaempferol 17.593% and (-)-epicatechin 12.538%), five known caroteoids (mainly lutein, 62.608%), four known benzoic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic acid, 46.091%), two phytosterols (mainly stigmasterol, 80.853%), and six known lignans (mainly galgravin, 77.326%). (see study below) (19)
- Chloroform extract of leaves showed the presence of steroid, saponin, coumarins, alkaloids, amino acids, diterpenes, phenol and flavonoids.
- An ethanol extract of leaves yielded flavonoids, glycosides, proteins and tannins. Total flavonoid content was 146.6 ± 6.38 (100gm). (see study below) (26)
- Study of leaf essential oil by GC-MS analysus yielded major bioactive compounds of a- and ß-pinenes, sabinene, and l-phellandrene. (see study below) (30)
- Invasive; plant produces so many achenes, up to 1500 per plant; each achene easily caught by the wind and carried some distance.
- Considered anti-inflammatory and vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, hypotensive, bradycardic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, , CNS depressant properties.
Leaves, stems, flowers.
- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
In Indian traditional medicine, used as , anticoagulant, repellent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric.
- In India, leaf juice use on fresh wounds, to stop bleeding, and as hair tonic.
- In Ayurveda, used for liver disorders, arthritis, heartburn. Also used for hair growth.
- In Nigeria, local Yoruba population use the leaves for treatment to reduce blood pressure.
- In Guatemala, leaf juice use for colds, inflammation, vaginitis, stomach pains, diarrhea. Whole plant used for protozoal infections, treatment of chronic ulcers caused by . (32)
- In Africa, dried whole plant use for fever, cough, back ache, diarrhea, epilepsy. Dried leaves used for malaria, gastrointestinal mycosis, and for dressing wounds. (32)
- Livestock: In Africa, plant used for treating mastitis in livestock. (32)
• Antibacterial / Flowers and Aerial Parts: n-Hexane extract of flowers showed activity against E. coli. Extract of aerial parts showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis, E. coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. Ethyl acetate extract of flowers showed activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus. None of the extract showed activity against fungi. (3)
• Antibacterial / Nosocomial Pathogens: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. procumbens against various bacterial pathogens including community acquired and nosocomial infections. The alcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with greater activity against nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas compared to augmentin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The aqueous extract showed no antibacterial activity. (4)
• Hypotensive / Bradycardic Effect / Leaves: Study investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure in dose related manner. At higher doses, significant reduction in heart rate was noted. Results showed hypotensive effect probably through activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (5)
• Comparative Antimicrobial Effect / Waterborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the bactericidal effect of T. procumbens against water borne bacterial pathogens i.e., E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumonia which are causative in serious diarrheic diseases. Results suggest bactericidal effect. The acetone extract was found effective against E. coli and V. cholerae; a 50% ethanolic extract was effective against K. pneumonia; and a methanolic extract was found effective only against V. cholerae. (6)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated a 50% methanolic extract for acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect were compared to reference drug Glibenclamide. There were no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicting a high margin of safety. (8) Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats showed significant blood glucose reduction. (11) A methanol extract of T. procumbens showed potential to reduce postprandial glucose levels via a-amylase inhibitory action. The activity may be due to the presence of quercetin in the fraction. (32)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of various extracts of leaves showed antibacterial activity. The chloroform extract showed more effective antibacterial activity comparable to standard drug ampicillin. (see constituents above) (9)
• Glucose Lowering / AMPK Activation / Suppression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis: Study showed T. procumbens extract exhibits strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Activation of AMPK and suppression of hepatic glucose production may be one mechanism that contributes to the glucose lowering property of T. procumbens. (12)
• Microbial Symbionts / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated crude ethyl acetate extract for antimicrobial activity against a panel of test pathogens. Results add knowledge to the growing research towards development of new antimicrobial agents to combat drug resistant microorganisms. Study also contributes to the isolation of potent endophytes from T. procumbens with its scanty reports on microbial symbionts. Results showed significant activity against Shigella flexneri and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus suggesting the fraction is more potent as bactericidal agent than as . (13)
• Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the toxicity of ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens. Results showed moderate toxicity at 2100 mg/kg body weight. In sub-chronic study, all animals gained body weight and organ/body weight ration, with significant decreases in glucose levels and significant increases in ALT, AST. Histopathological exam showed endothelial toxicity at high dose level with hemorrhage indicated by hemosiderin deposition throughout the kidney and liver parenchyma. (14)
• Anticancer on A549 ad HepG2 Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of various extracts of leaves of T. procumbens against A549 (human lung cancer cell line) and HepG2 (human liver carcinoma) cell line. Potent anticancer activity was shown by acetone and ethanol leaf extracts on A549 and Hep Ge cell lines. An aqueous leaf extract showed no anticancer activity. (15)
• Vasorelaxant / Leaves: Previous studies have shown T. procumbens is capable of lowering blood pressure of rats through endothelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms in aortic rings isolated from rats. This study in investigated T. procumbens-induced relaxation using isolated rat mesenteric artery, and assessing its interaction with nitric oxide (NO) synthase and K+ channels inhibitors. Results showed T. procumbens causes vasodilatory effects by blocking calcium channels, stimulation of prostacyclin production and activation of both voltage- (KV) and apamin-sensitive (KAS) potassium channels. (16)
• Blood Glucose Lowering Effect in Patients with T2DM / Asava Supplement / Clinical Study: Study evaluated the blood glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of the extract/supplement (asava) prepared following Ayurveda guidelines showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids. Extract showed strong antioxidant capacity, Fe+++reducing potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Results showed a significant glucose lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in T2DM. (17)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study describes the ecofriendly approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of T. procumbens. (18)
• Potential as Functional Food / Leaves: A great number of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make T. procumbens a perfect candidate for the production of health-promoting food and food supplements. (see constituents above) (19)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of T. procumbens in vitro, using four methods: DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and TRP assays at the same time. Results showed T. procumbens extracts showed strong scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals and strong reducing power on Fe. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from different parts showed: flower > stem > whole grass > leaf. T. procumbens can be utilized as a safe and effective antioxidant source. (21) Study evaluated the anti-DPPH activity of purified isolated compounds from n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble part of methanol extract of T. procumbens. Isolated compounds showed significant anti-DPPH activity with lowest IC50 of 67.25 and 80.90 µg/ml for EA and n-butanol extracts, respectively. (28) Study evaluated T. procumbens for reducing power ability as antioxidant using DPPH and total phenolics. Results showed percentage antioxidant activity of 96.70%, higher than that of gallic acid (92.92%) and ascorbic acid (94.81%). Total phenolic content was 12 mg/g GAE. (43)
• Anti-Osteoporotic / Anti-Bone Resorptive: Study evaluated flavonoids isolated from T. procumbens on its effect on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activities using primary osteoclastic cells. Results indicated that TPF inhibit osteoclastogenesis and pits formation activities. TPF has potential as bone resorptive gent to treat patients with bone-loss associated diseases such as osteoporosis. (22)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated dried powders of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves for anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity on the earthworms. (23)
• CNS Depressant / Decreased Locomotor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of TP on locomotor activity in mice and rat. Results showed TP extract dose dependently depressed the central nervous system evidenced by TP induced decrease in locomotor activity. (24)
• Antifungal / Leaves / Roots: Study of methanolic extracts of leaves of Tridax procumbens showed effective activity against fungal strains Aspergillus niger and A. ocraceous. (25) Study evaluated various extracts of T. procumbens for antifungal activity. A methanolic extract of roots was most potent against Candida species, with the highest inhibition zone of 16 mm measured against Candida glabrata MTCC 2019. (44)
• Gastroprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of T. procumbens leaves for gastroprotective activity in rats with gastric ulcers induced by alcohol and indomethacin. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of ulcer lesion index, changes in gastric volume and pH in ethanol induced ulcer. (see constituents above) (26)
• Haemostatic Property / Effect on Human Clotting
Time / Leaves: Study evaluated the possible effects of various extracts of leaves of Tridax procumbens on blood coagulation in human volunteers by Lee-White method. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.05) of blood clotting time by ethanolic extract and pet-ether extracts of leaves. (27)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of T. procumbens aqueous extract of leaves and juice of fresh leaves in albino Wistar rats. Results showed increased rate of healing and breaking strength. (29)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaf / Essential Oil: A methanolic extract of leaves showed good activity. Extract also showed significant reduction of inflammation in mice induced by carrageenan, egg-albumin, formalin and xylene. (see constituents above) (30)
• Antibacterial /
Stems and Whole Plant: Study evaluated various extracts of T. procumbens for activity against activity against gram-positive B. cereus, S. aureus and gram-negative E. coli, P. mirabilis, and K. pneumonia. Stem and whole plant extracts showed higher inhibitory activity against the tested human pathogens. Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids. (31)
• Antioxidant / Effect on Lipid Peroxidative Stress in Chloroquine-Induced Hepatotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous leaf extract of T. procumbens leaves against free radical hepatocellular damage. Extract showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxide production in the plasma and liver of rats with chloroquine-induced hepatotoxicity. Results suggest considerable antioxidant properties and the free radical scavenging of the plant extract may be responsible for the therapeutic effects against tissue damage. (33)
• Topical Leaf Juice Formulation for Wound Healing: Study evaluated the effect of topical ointment formulation of leaf juice sof T. procumbens using excision wound model in mice measuring parameters or re-epithelization, vasculatarity, fibroblast number, collagen content. Results suggest TP possesses dose dependent pro-healing potential and inflammatory reaction on high doses, (34)
• Antileishmanial / Mixture of T. procumbens and Allium sativum: Study evaluated a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum for direct action against Leishmania mexicana infected mice. Results showed the mixture was better at controlling L. mexicana, with no toxicity on acute oral toxicity assay in mice. The mixture showed a tendency to increase the Th1-type immune response as evidenced by an increase in the ratio of IgG2/IgG1. The mixture suggests potential for a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. (35)
• Anti-Arthritic Effect: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Tridax procumbens in female Sprague Dawley rats using Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. At 250 and 500 mg/kg extract dose, T. procumbens significantly inhibited FCA-induced arthritis in rats as evidenced by decrease in paw volume. There was a dose-dependent decrease in body weight and arthritis, along with significant alteration of biochemical and hematological changes induced by FCA (p<0.05). The effect was comparable to indomethacin. (36)
• Anti-Thrombolytic / Potent Pro-Anticoagulant
Effect: Study evaluated the response of platelets to pure extracts of Tridax procumbens and Cosmos caudatus on the basis of human blood coagulation. Results showed untreated blood has significantly longer coagulation time compared to blood treated with asteraceous plant extracts. The plant extracts promoted formation of fibrin strands faster than untreated blood strengthening the platelet plug during blood clotting. (37)
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of leaves of T. procumbens in experimental animal models. Maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The essential oil showed more or less equal inflammatory activity with standard drug Diclofenac Sodium using carrageenan and egg albumin models. Major bioactive compounds in the EO by GC-MS analysis include alpha- and beta-pinene, L-phellandrene and sabinene. (38)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the bioactivity of extracts and compounds from aerial parts of Tridax procumbens. An ethyl acetate extract showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The EA extract showed antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.52 mg/mL and significant anti-inflammatory activity on mice paw edema. (see constituents above) (39)
• Antibacterial Against Common Skin Infections: Study evaluated a methanolic leaf extract against common skin infection causing bacteria viz., multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Results showed dose dependent decrease in colony formation in the MTP extract treated bacteria. MTP showed more bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa than S. aureus. (40)
• Promising Hair Growth Promoter: Study evaluated the efficacy of Trida procumbens for hair growth promoting activity in albino Wistar rats using Minoxidil as standard. Methanolic and chloroform extracts were dispersed in coconut oil base and prepared in a cream base. The methanolic extract in oil showed the best activity with comparatively shorter hair growth initiation time and completion time. (41)
• Antiurolithiatic Activity: Study evaluated the in vitro antiurolithiatic activity. Methanolic and aqueous extracts showed maximum efficiencies in the dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals. Aqueous extract showed higher efficiency. Cystone was used as standard drug. (42)