- "Coriander" is consequential to the Greek word for "bed-bug", as smell of new foliage is said to resemble that of bug plague-ridden bed line. The Egyptians called the herb "spice of happiness", thinking it was an aphrodisiac. The Romans and Greeks used coriander to flavor wine and also as medication. (33)
Cilantro and coriander come from the same plant species, Coriandrum sativum. However, there are confusing usage of the names. In North America, cilantro refers to leaves and stalks of the plants. The dried seeds are referred to as coriander. However, internationally, coriander refers to the leaves and stalks, while dried seeds are called coriander seeds. (59)
Uan-suy is an annual, branched, smooth herb,
growing up to 30 centimeters in height. Leaves are pinnately or ternately
decompound; the ultimate segment of the lower leaves is ovate or lanceolate and deeply cut;
the upper leaves are more finely dissected into narrow linear segments.
Flowers are white, formed in umbels. Fruit is somewhat rounded and ribbed.
Seeds are convex-concave, about thrice as broad as they are thick.
- Cultivated in the lowlands,
popular among Chinese gardeners.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.
- Apparently indigenous in the Mediterranean region and the Caucasus.
- Fresh plant contains volatile
- Coriander oil contain: coriandrol, d-ilinalool, licareol,
d-d-pinene, p-cymol, terpinene, dipentene, geraniol, l-borneol, B-phellandrene, terpinolene, n-decylaldehyde, acetic acid, decyl acid.
- Linalool is the main volatile compound in coriander seeds, typically constituting more than 50% of the total essential oil.
(Gil et al., 2002) (33)
The fruit has a volatile oil, 0.25%; pentosan, 10.6%; furfurol, 6%; pectin, 1.1 to 1.7%; vitamin C; fat 19%; protein
11%, starch 10.5%, and potassium maleate 1.8%, fat 0.3%, and vitamin C3.
- Ethanol extract of fresh roots yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, carbohydrates, saponins, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (36)
- Study of seeds for fatty acids yielded main components of petroselinic acid (68%), linoleic acid 16.6%, oleic acid 7.5%, and palmitic acid 3.8%. Minor components were stearic acid, vaccenic acid, and myristic acid. (41)
Study of essential oil in coriander seeds yielded linalool 67.75%, alpha-pinene 10.5%, gamma-terpinene 9.0%, geranyl acetate 4.0%, camphor 3.0%, and geraniol 1.9%.
- Nutrient analysis of raw cilantro leaves per 100 g yielded: (Proximates) water 92.21 g, energy 23 kcal, protein 2.13 g, total lipid 0.52 g, carbohydrate by difference 3.67 g, total dietary fiber 2.8 g, total sugars 0.87 g; (Minerals) calcium 67 mg, iron 1.77 mg, magnesium 26 mg, phosphorus 48 mg, sodium 46 mg, potassium 521 mg, zinc 0.50 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 27.0 mg, thiamin 0.067 mg, riboflavin 0.162 mg, niacin 1.114 mg, vitamin B6 0.149 mg, folate 62 µg, vitamin B12 0, vitamin A 6748 IU, vitamin E 3.50 mg, vitamin D 0, vitamin K 310 µg; (Lipids) total saturated FA 0.014 g, total monosaturated FA 0.275 g, total polyunsaturated FA 0.050 g, trans FA 0, cholesterol 0. (42)
- Phytochemical screening of hot water extract of seeds yielded flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Total phenol content in 5µg/µl hot water extract was 36 µg/µl expressed as catechol equivalent. (see study below) (53)
- GC-MS analysis of crude methanolic extract of flowers yielded 30 bioactive constituents. Major constituents were benzofuran,2,3-dihydro (15.4%) hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.32 %) 2,4a-epioxy-3,4,5,6,7,8,-hexahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-2h-1-benzofuran (9.35%), 2- methyoxy-4-vinylphenol (8.8%)2,3,5,6-tetrafluroanisole (8.62%) 2,6-dimethyl-3- aminobenzoquinone (6.81%) dodecanoic acid (5.00%). (66)
- Considered aromatic, antihalitosis,
carminative, corrective, narcotic, stimulant; stomachic.
- Taste, odor, and medicinal qualities depend on the volatile oil.
- Studies have suggested anti-diabetic, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant, antilithogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic properties.
Oil, seeds, leaves, fruit.
- Seeds and leaves are edible.
- Used as seasoning.
- A component of curry powder.
- Seeds used in confectionery and flavoring of gin and other spirits.
- Leaves are eaten raw with native dishes: kilauin, lumpia, pansit, paksiw
- Infusion of the fruit is used for dyspepsia.
- Pounded seeds inhaled for its odor to counter dizziness.
- Oil useful for flatulence, colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.
- Plant used for ptomaine poisoning.
- Seeds chewed for halitosis.
- Paste of seeds applied for headaches.
- Seeds used in lotions or bruised for poultice in rheumatic pains.
- Juice of fresh plant applied for erythema.
- Decoction of plant in milk (with sugar added to taste) used for bleeding
Cold infusion of seeds or powder made of dried seeds with a little sugar useful for colic in children. Also relieves internal heat and thirst.
- In Iranian folk medicine,
recommended for anxiety and insomnia. - In Morocco, used as a diuretic plant.
- Perfumery: Used as fragrance component for soaps and cosmetics and flavoring in
- Repellent: Fungicidal and bactericidal. Growing plant repels aphids. A boiled mixture of one part coriander leaves and one part anise seeds
is effective against red spider mites and aphids.
• Anticonvulsant / Seeds: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of aqueous and ethanolic coriandrum seed extracts on MES (maximal electric seizures) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) tests in male and female albino mice. LD50 values of decoction and maceration extracts were 078 g/kg and 8.11 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous extract was more toxic than the ethanol extract; reasons for the higher toxicity was not clear and further investigation was suggested. Results of study in mice suggest
extracts of CS seeds may have a beneficial anticonvulsant effect in petit mal and grand
mal seizures. The mechanism for the anticonvulsant effect was not clear. (2)
• Anxiolytic / Sedative / Muscle Relaxant: In an evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, results suggest that the AE of CS has anxiolytic effect and a potential
for sedative and muscle relaxant effects.
• Anti-Diabetes / Insulin Release / Seed: Study evaluated the effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on
insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats. Extract exhibited a significant decrease in glucose and
an increase in beta cell activity. (4)
• Anti-Diabetes / Insulin Releasing and Insulin-Like Activity: Study incorporated the aqueous
extract of coriander into the diet and drinking water showed reduced
hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Results showed the presence
of hyperglycemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in Coriandrum
• Hypolipidemic / Fruit Powder: Study evaluated the
effect of feeding Coriandrum sativum fruits powder on the plasma lipids
profile in cholesterol fed rats. Results showed a significant decrease
in lipid profile in when given an 8% fruit powder mixed diet for one
• Hypolipidemic / Seed Oil: Study showed Coriander seed oil have hypocholesterolemic properties in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.
• Hypocholesterolemic: Study on CS hypocholeterolemic effects suggests it may be due to the increased activity of plasma LCAT and enhanced degradation of cholesterol to bile acids and neutral sterols.
• Endocrine and Reproductive Organ
Effect / No Negative Effects: Study did not show negative effects on testosterone
or cholesterol levels, nor on reproductive and endocrine functions. (7)
• Anxiolytic: Study
of the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum showed anxiolytic effects
and may have a potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects. (8)
• Essential Oil Collection / Diurnal Changes: Study
showed the collection of essential oil and other volatile compounds,
harvesting must be accomplished at a special hour of the day. (12)
• No Effect in Lead Elimination: Study
results suggest C sativum is NOT effective in lead elimination. The increase lead elimination in the studied groups of children may be due to other factors, ie., nutrition, education. (3)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of ethanolic extracts of three plants traditionally used in treatment of inflammation – C sativum, D stramonium and A indica, showed all exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats.
• Essential Oil: Study
of the essential oil composition of Coriandrum sativum identified 41 compounds. Essential oil yields showed marked increase during the maturation process. At the final stage of fruit maturity, the main oils were linalool (87.54%) and cis-dihydrocarvone (2.63%).
• Essential Oil: Study showed that for obtaining higher essential oil yields, harvesting of plants must be accomplished at a special hour of the day.
• Antioxidant / Flavonoids: Comparative study on the free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of several plants showed C. sativum to have an IC50 of 58.36. (14)
• Antioxidant / Fresh Juice: Study demonstrated the potential antioxidant activity of the fresh juice of Coriandrum sativum. The presence of flavonoids confirms it antioxidant activity. (15)
• Learning Benefits: Study evaluated the effect of C. sativum seed extract on second-generation mice. Results showed coriander does not improve learning within a short period of time after training; however, learning after coriander administration can be improved in the long term. (17)
• Essential Oil / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of coriander essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results showed the oil has an effective antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested, except for B. cereus and E. faecalis. (18)
• Reversal of Memory Deficits: Study evaluated the effects of fresh C. sativum leaves on cognitive functions, total cholesterol and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. CSL produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores in young and aged mice, with interesting reductions in total cholesterol and brain cholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease. (19)
• Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic potency of an ethanolic extract and carbon tetrachloride extract using Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed anthelmintic activity by measures of paralysis and time of death. Piperazine citrate was used as standard. (20)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study of subchronic administration of CS-extract in rats normalized glycemia and decreased the elevated levels of insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Because of its effects on components of the metabolic syndrome, it is postulated the extract has cardiovascular protective effect. (21)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic: Study of evaluated the antiarthritic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum in adult Wistar rats in experimental models, viz. formaldehyde and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. Results showed a dose-dependent inhibition of joint swelling in both models. The antiarthritic activity might be attributed to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovium. Results suggest a potential for a disease modifying agent in the treatment of RA. (23)
• Antidepressant / Seed: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of seed for antidepressant-like mechanism in mice. Results showed an anti-depressant like effect, possibly related to the increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. (24)
• Dual Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol and water extracts of freeze-dried and irradiated parsley and cilantro leaves and stems. Methanol leaf extracts exhibited significantly greater radical scavenging activity, attributed to total phenolic content. Ferrous ion-chelating activity was significant greater in the methanol extracts. There was also greater inhibition of B. subtilis and E. coli, corresponding to ferrous sequestering activity of the methanol-derived stem extracts. (25)
• Appetite Stimulation: Study evaluated the effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract on food intake in male Wistar rats. Results showed coriander had positive effects on appetite in rats.(26)
• Antifungal / Essential Oil / Leaves: Essential oil from leaves inhibited Candida biofilm adherence and decreased the proteolytic activity C. albicans at MIC. (27)
• Neuroprotective Against Neurodegenerative Disorders and Induced Alzheimers: Coriander seed aqueous extract showed protection and improvement on cerebral cortex pyramidal cells against neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's disease induced by aluminum chloride treatment. (28)
• Neuroprotective / Glucose Deprivation Induced Neuronal Death: Study investigated the neuronal protective effect of C. sativum against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed C. sativum bearing water-soluble compounds possess neuroprotective activity. (29)
• Anti-Stress / Anti-Amnesic: Study evaluated the anti-stress and anti-amnesic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. The attenuation of memory deficits induced by scopolamine could be due to its radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity provides mechanistic basis in relieving stress by way of combating oxidative damage. (30)
• Analgesic / Thermal Pain Stimulus / Seeds: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. sativum seeds by thermal pain stimuli in wistar albino rats. Both extracts exhibited and dose-dependent analgesic activity. (31)
• Anti-Anxiety / Effect on Exploratory Behavior and Locomotor Activity: Study evaluated extract of C. sativum on exploratory behavior pattern and locomotor activity in mice. Results showed the leaf extract exhibited anti-anxiety effect on mice in the elevated plus maze and open field test. (32)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic effect of C. sativum in experimental animals. Results showed anti-ulcer activity against stress and aspirin-induced ulcer, the effect probably mediated through an anti-stress mechanism, and as effective as the standard ranitidine. (34)
• Health Benefits of Dietary Supplementation: Study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with coriander seeds on growth performance, hepatic and visceral adipose tissue storage and circulating metabolic substrates in healthy growing rats. While there was no effect on liver lipid content, there was a significant increase in the amount of monosaturated and polysaturated fatty acids in visceral adipose tissue with decreased saturated fatty acid content. There was also increased omega3:omega6 ratio in visceral adipose tissue. (35)
• Antimicrobial / Roots: Study of ethanol extract of fresh roots exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and Candida. (see constituents above) (36)
• Assisted Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study reports on the biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extracts. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis. (37)
• Mitigation of Lipotoxicity and Experimental Atherosclerosis: Study evaluated the efficacy of C. sativum in preventing in vitro LDL oxidation mediated macrophage modification and alleviation of pathophysiologic alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. There was lowered lipid profile following CS treatment. Results showed the CS extract has potential of mitigating in vivo induction of experimental atherosclerosis. (38)
• Immunostimulant Activity/ Fish Cultures: Study showed Coriandrum sativum exhibited potent immunostimulation with induction of the blood parameters in the experimental fish catla. It suggests a potential as a dietary additive or as an adjuvant to heighten the immune response in fish cultures. (39)
• Neuroprotective / Neuronal Damage in PTZ Model of Seizure: Study evaluated the preventive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on neuronal damages in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. All extract doses reduced duration, frequency, and amplitude of burst discharges and prolonged the latency of seizure attacks (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively). There was also reduction in production of dark neurons and apoptotic cells. Neuroprotective activity was attributed to antioxidant properties. (43)
• Decreased Migraine Attacks / Fruits: Study of C. sativum syrup decreased the duration, severity, and frequency of migraine in 74 migraineurs selected through the international headache society diagnostic criteria. The mean migraine duration, severity and frequency in the intervention group were 6.2 hours, 3.82 units, and about 50% less than the control group, respectively. (44)
• Antioxidant / Protection Against UVB-Induced Photoaging of Skin: Ultraviolet radiation (UV) causes photodamage to the skin leading to depletion of dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Study evaluated CS ethanol extract (CSE) for protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and in skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of the CSE was linolenic acid. Results showed CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collage fibers and lower MMOP-1 levels and higher procollagen type 1 levels than untreated mice. Results suggest potential of C. sativum to prevent skin photoaging. (46)
• Antioxidant / Antifungal / Essential Oil: GC-MS study of essential oil yielded main components of camphor (44.99%), cyclohexanol acetate (cis-2-tert-butyl-) (14.45%), limonene (7.17%), and α-pinene (6.37%). Antifungal and antioxidant activities of CEO were evaluated in cake. Secondary oxidation products formation in cake and effects were equal to BHA. The antioxidant effects may be due to terpene and terpenoid components. The CEO at 0.15% could inhibit fungal growth in the cake. Results suggest the EO can be used as natural antioxidant and antifungal in foodstuffs especially those that are lipid containing. (47)
• Antidiabetic Effect / Review: Study reviewed the published research on the use of coriander in the treatment of DM in animal models using a database. It concludes suggesting that the use of coriander could be decreased plasma glucose levels of diabetic animals. It also cautions on the limited number of publications in PubMed evaluating the antidiabetic effect of coriander. (48)
• Variation of Essential Oil Composition According to Harvest/Development Stage: Study showed high variability of C. sativum herb as to contents and chemical composition of its essential oil caused by the timing of harvest. The EO is marked by significant percentage of aliphatic aldehydes, among which decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenal predominate. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent herb harvest. Important components of the EO include linalool, oleic acid, and phytol. These components varies with plant development: herb collected at initial stage of flowering had higher concentrations of oleic acid and phytol than those harvested from regrowing shoots. (49)
• Antimicrobial: Various solvent plant extracts were tested against bacteria such as E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. aerogenes, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, S. typhi A and B and fungus A. niger and Rhizopus. A methanol extract showed to be more effected compared to other solvents like acetone and benzene. Preliminary screening yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponin, terpenoids, carbohydrates, and sterols. Results suggest potential as natural antimicrobial in industrial food and drugs. (50) Freeze-dried coriander was extracted by petroleum ether, 95% ethanol, and water. Only the water extract showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC below 10% of the original extract. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was stable under heating and showed best antibacterial effects at pH 6 with 2.0% NaCl concentration. (65)
• Analgesic / Fruit: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of a 75% methanol fruit extract of C. sativum using Eddy's hot plate method and tail flick method. Hot plate study showed 100 mg/kg was very effective compared to 200 and 400 mg/kg extract. Tail flick method showed a better effect with 400 mg/kg compared to 100 and 200 mg/kg extract. (51)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. sativum seeds in Wistar and Swiss albino rat models. Both extracts of seeds showed significant analgesic activity in acetic-acid induced writhing and significant anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan-induced paw edema while only high dose aqueous group exhibited significant results with cotton-pellet granuloma model. (52)
• Anthelmintic / Antioxidant / Phytochemicals / Seeds: Study evaluated the phytochemical profile, phenol content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activity of hot water extract of seeds of C. sativum. Radical scavenging potential showed dose dependent increase on increasing concentration of coriander seed extract 1-5 µg. IC50 of CS seeds was 3.78 µg/m. Anthelmintic activity as dose dependent; at highest concentration of 74 mg/mg, it was almost comparable to Albendazole. (see constituents above) (53)
• Antibacterial Efficacy / Cluster Analysis of Genotypic Extracts / Leaves and Seeds: Study screened methanolic extracts of leaves and seeds genotypes against four human pathogenic bacterial strains i.e., E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi. All ME of leaves and seeds showed inhibitory effect against tested bacteria E. coli, S. typhi and B. subtilis, with no activity against P. aeruginosa. The study provides information and platform for the development of effective natural medicines by developing clusters of Coriander genotypes which can serve as a potential natural antibacterial plant for human pathogenic bacterial strains. (54)
• Effects on Migraine / Fruit / Clinical Trial: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity, and frequency of migraine in 68 migraineurs. Results showed C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree. (55)
Effect in Experimental Iron-Overload: Study evaluated the in-vivo ameliorating effect of an ethanolic extract of C. sativum on hepatic damage in rats with experimental iron overload. Results showed significantly increased serum iron and ferritin concentration in iron overload group. Treatment with CS extract significant decreased iron and ferritin concentration (p<0.05). Histopathological evaluation showed CS extract treatment significant decreased biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and CPK), improved tissue damage, and decrease iron accumulation in the liver compared to the iron overload group (p<0.05). Results showed the hydroalcoholic extract of CS has iron-chelating and liver protective effects similar to deferoxamine against experimental iron overload condition in rats. (56)
• Antilipidemic Effect
/ Fresh Leaves: Study evaluated the antilipidemic effect of fresh leaves of C. sativum against salbutamol induced cardiac injury in rabbits. Salbutamol-treated rabbits (50mg/kg) showed elevated lipids (LDL, triglycerides) and decreased HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT). Treatment showed a significant antilipidemic effect against salbutamol-induced myocardial infarction as evidenced by lowering of LDL, triglycerides, peroxidase and increased level of HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes. (57)
• Effect of CS Extract in Isoproterenol Induced Heart Failure: Study investigated the cardioprotective effect of C. sativum in a rat model of isoproterenol induced heart failure. Treatment of heart failure rats with C. sativum improved the altered hemodynamics, restored cardiac antioxidant enzymes armory, attenuated oxidative stress, improved lipid profile, lowered atherogenic indices, decreased levels of ETa and ETb receptor mRNA and protein, and restored cardiac morphology. Results suggest CS is cardioprotedtive in heart failure, possibly via alleviation of oxidative stress, improvement of lipid profile, and endothelial dysfunction. (58)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated coriander leaves as antidiabetic agent in in-vivo and in-vitro methods. Results suggest coriander leaves ethanolic extract has antidiabetic activity at dose of 400 mg/kg by improving and regenerating the pancreatic ß-cell in pancrease and inhibiting a-glucosidase enzyme activity in small intestine. (60)
• Effect on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis / Fruits and Essential Oil: Study evaluated the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Evaluation included histopathological examination and measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity. Results showed alleviation of colitis with treatment of oral extract and essential oil. Effect could be due to both absorption of active ingredients and/or effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. (61)
Linalool / In Silico Antidiabetic Activity / Fruit: Study evaluated the molecular interaction of linalool in C. sativum and targeted protein related to T2DM. Docking studies of linalool with target protein showed it is a promising candidate which docks well with the target related to diabetes mellitus. Results suggest linalool has potential for development into a potent antidiabetic drug. (62)
• Antioxidant / Polyphenols / Seeds: A methanolic extract of C. sativum seeds was evaluated for the presence of antioxidants and in vitro antioxidant potential. HPLC analysis of the polyphenolic-rich extract (18.696 ± 0.12 mg/g dry seeds) identified gallic acid (173.656 µg), caffeic acid (80.185 µg), ellagic acid (162.861 µg), quercetin (608.903 µg) and kaempferol (233.70 µg)/g seeds. Coriander showed excellent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.5 mg dry seed weight. Metal ion chelating assay showed comparatively higher IC 50 (7.2-8.0 mg dry seed weight). The polyphenols including gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol are the principle components responsible for the high antioxidant activity of the seeds. (63)
• Antiarthritic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antiarthritic activities of coriander leaves in osteoarthritic patients. Coriander leaves significantly influenced almost all the parameters in arthritic patients without any detrimental effects. The antioxidant and antiarthritic effects exhibited by the leaves were attributed to the synergistic action of bioactive compounds in the leaves. (64)
• Antidepressant / Anxiolytic / Seeds: Study evaluated the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of seeds of C. sativum ethanolic extract in mice%). Results showed antidepressant activity in forced swim test by significant decrease in immobility time (70.96%) and anxiolytic activity using locomotor activity by significant decrease in locomotion (59.64%). Results support the traditional use of seeds as antidepressant and anxiolytic medicinal plant. (67)
• Antidiabetic / Rejuvenating Capacity of Tissues / Histopathological Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and rejuvenating capability of tissues on alloxan induced diabetic rats under the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of C. sativum. In acute toxicity study, ethanolic leaf extract was non toxic at 2,000 mg/kg in rats. Results showed C. sativum possessed significant antidiabetic and rejuvenating capacity of tissues as evidenced by increase in insulin level, albumin, protein level, decreased blood glucose and other biochemical parameters level. (68)
• Inhibitory Effect on Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Milk of Cows with Clinical Mastitis: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential of ethanolic extract of three local medicinal plants, Coriandrum sativum, Vitis vinifera and Zingiber officinale against the growth of pathogenic S. sureus isolated from milk of cows infested with clinical mastitis. The ethanolic extract of C. sativum exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect. (69)
• Synergism with Cefoxitin Against Important Nosocomial Pathogens: Study evaluated the possible synergistic interactions of C. sativum seed extracts and cefoxitin against three important nosocomial pathogens i.e., methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli and K. pneumonia. Result showed strong synergistic antibacterial activity of Coriander extracts and cefoxitin combination
against ESBL producing K. pneumonia. (70)
• In Silico Studies on Dengue and Measles Viral Proteins / Leaves: Study evaluated the binding efficacy of four compounds present in C. sativum with two structural Dengue virus proteins and four structural measles virus proteins through Insilico methods. Results showed the compounds squalene and 9,12 octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z),2-hydroxy,1(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, 2,3-hydroxy propyl ester have highest binding affinity with the chosen viral proteins. (71)
• Effect of Storage on Antioxidant Status: Study evaluated the effect of storage temperature and duration on antioxidant status of C. sativum. Results showed the overall antioxidant status of the plant decreases considerably during storage condition. Study suggests that as storage period increases the level of enzymatic antioxidants increase with increase in the degree of damage whereas the non-enzymatic antioxidants decrease and concludes that overall antioxidant status of the plant decreases considerably during storage conditions. (72)
- GRAS (Generally Recognized
As Safe) status.
- Probably safe in amount used with foods.
- Probably safe orally in small amounts for medicinal use.
- Probably effective for dyspeptic complaints and increasing appetite.
- No known interactions with drugs and other herbs.
- Cooking spice.
- Essential oils, seed powder, extracts, tinctures, supplements in the cybermarket.